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Harvard College 












oi — d'Ajuda. Chaoara da Fioresta — 61 




•i^'^ f H/^ 











61 — Rua d'Ajuda, Chaoata da Floresta — 61 








H. K. li Gasion d'Orleans, Cuunl dlu 


11 li, llie Viscount of Jaguai^y 

H. E. the Viscounl of Bom Re tiro 

H. E. -:ie Viscount of Sousa Franco (died on May 5) 

Coinmendador Joaauim Antonio d'A-evedo 

Written, at the invitation of the Illustrioiis High Commission 
of the National Exhibition of 1876, for the purpose of appearing 
in the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, this work is the 
property of the said Commission and to its hnmble author belongs 
alone the responsibility of the errors and imperfbotions, which 
without doubt blemish it. 

Rio de Janeiro, on the ISth of April 1876. 

■Bli WH l » 

I OF J-AuasTXT^Ii-^ 



On the 1st of January, 1688, Salvador CorrSa do S& e 
Benevides died in Lisbon, aged ninety^four; he was the 
first grand alcaide of Rio de Janeiro, a nobleman of the 
Royal Household, a knight commander of S. Salvador de 
Alagdas, and of S. John de Cassia of the order of Christ. 

He was a son of Martin de S&, and of Donna Victoria da 
Costa, and a grand-son of Salvador GorrSa de S&, first ca- 
pitao m6r (governor) of the city of Rio de Janeiro, of which 
he was one of the founders. He was bom in that same city 
and baptized in that parish of S. Sebastifto in 1594. 

He spent his life serving his country. 

He first distinguished himself in 1513, when he safely /(^, 
conveyed to Portugal thirty vessels in spite of the Dutch 

In 1625 he raised three hundred men in the captaincy of 

VOL. I 1 

S. Vicente, and embarked with them for Bahia to assist in 
the expulsion of the Dutch, who had taken the city of 
S. Salvador ; he landed at Espirito-Santo and had an im- 
mediate opportunity of repulsing the Dutch, who had come 
in six vessels to sack the town; after this exploit he went 
on to Bahia where he arrived in April, in time to contribute 
to the expulsion of the invaders. 

Having been appointed admiral of the South sea in 1634, 
he received orders to attack the rebels who were menacing 
Paraguay ; he routed the Gakqui Indians, and took their 
terrible chief, D. Pedro Ghamuiry, prisoner, returning as 
conqueror ; he, however, received twelve wounds from 

In 1637 he received the appointment of capitSo-m6r and 
governor of Rio de Janeiro ; he had the good fortune to 
proclaim, in this captaincy, the restored king Don John IV of 
Portugal, evincing much prudence and energy; by conci- 
liatory means he quelled the tumults of the colonists of 
Rio de Janeiro, who rose against the Jesuits, who had liber- 
ated the Indians, and dispelled the agitation of the Paulistas 
caused by the same motives ; with these he was longer in 
obtaining the same results, but at last peace was restored. 

In 1644 he was appointed general of the fleet whose 
duty it was to escort Brazilian merchant vessels; he was 
also commissioned to control the exploration of the mines, 
receiving at the same time the nomination of deputy of the 
ultramarine council. He delegated the other powers, in or- 
der to devote himself entirely to the first and most diffi- 
cult of his functions : he made three voyages to Portugal, 
in that of 1645 he appeared with thirty-six sail before Re- 
cife, then occupied by the Dutch, and landed a detachment 
of troops at TamandarS to assist the Pemambucanos, who 
had taken up arms against the Dutch supremacy. 

— 3 — 

Being for the second time named governor of the three 
captaincies of the South of Brazil, (Espirito Santo, Rio de 
Janeiro, and S. Vicente), and receiving orders to relieve An- 
gola, he armed and manned ten ships at the people's ex- 
pense, four at his own, and with five government galleons, 
set sail for Africa. Arriving at Quicombo he routed the Dutch 
who occupied the place, and forced them to capitulate ; 
he afterwards attacked the river Congo, and every where 
re-established the dominion of Portugal, receiving as a re- 
compense for the expulsion of the Dutch from all the 
coast oi Angola,, the permission to carry two Africans as 
supporters of his coat of arms. 

In 1658 he was again appointed to the government of 
the south of Brazil, independent in every respect of that 
of Bahia. In this, his third administration, he found the 
inspection of the mines a moat difficult and ungrateful 
task, being moreover harassed by a revolt which broke 
out in Rio de Janeiro during his absence. His energy and 
prestige conquered and overcame these difficulties, and in 
1661 he made over to his successor in the government, all 
the captaincies perfectly quiet, and the administration 
regularly established. 

On his arrival in Lisbon, he met with ingratitude in lieu 
of recompense. In 1666 some consolation was afforded him 
by the grant of the title of Viscount of Asseca to his son 
Martin Corrfia de S4 ; he himself received nothing, or rather 
^as the subject only of intrigues and oppression at 

When Affonso VI sent for him to ask his advice before 
his deposition on the 23d of September, 1667, SAeBenevides, 
then seventy three years of age, proposed energetic and 
coerci ve measures, and offered his services to carry them 
out. In consequence of this advice, and owing to the favor 

— 4 — 

which he enjoyed at the Court of the unfortunate King, 
his son, the Viscount, was arrested and impeached. 

On the death of his son, leaving his grand-children 
orphans^ S& e Benevides was restored to liberty, and rein- 
stated in the war and ultramarine council» in which he 
had a seat. 

Oblivious of ingratitude and injustice, Sk e Benevides^ 
when near ninety years of age, started, on hearing the news 
of the revolt of the petty king of Pata, on the east coast of 
Africa, against the power of Portugal, and offered his serv- 
ices to suppress the rebellion. 

His friends reminded him of his advanced age. 

« I should die content » he replied « if I fell on the bat- 
tlefield, hearing the roll of musketry! » 

Whilst yet strong, haughty^ and of unflinching spirit, 
Salvador GorrSa de S& e Benevides expired calm and full of 

His name brings to mind one of the first and most distin- 
guished heroes of Brazil. 

His mortal remains were inhumed in the sachristy of 
the monastery (since extinct) of the bare-foot Carmelites, 
where also the bones of the celebrated Brazilian, Alexander 
de GusmSo, a worthy and brotherly neighbor, were depos- 
ited somewhat later. 

n OF jj^j<TTJA.Trsr 


This name was borne by a Hercules. 

Contempt for life in the face of the greatest peril, the 
strength of Alcides, unsurpassed bravery which did not 
stop short of rashness, blindness to the number of the ene- 
my, self-denial, for being a rough and simple seaman, he 
dreamt not of encouraging promotions, a sublime sense of the 
duty of a soldier in battle, breast of rock, arms of iron, 
soul of fire, and the nature of a hero, such were the dis^ 
tinguishing qualities of Marcilio Dias. 

A poor and uncouth sailor, his parentage and birthplace 
are unknown ; with his, probably, troubled infancy and 
youth no one is acquainted, but every one in the Brazilian 
fleet esteemed him for his strength, for his courage, and 
for his good conduct. 

— 6 — 

The date of his birth being unknown, it is but just that 
he should appear, on the 2d of January, 1865, before the 
mournful day of his heroic death, a day for him of dazzling 

It is well known that the Paraguayan war was preceded 
by reprisals, effected by a Brazilian army corps, that ad- 
vanced from the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do 
Sul, and by the small squadron that under the command of 
the Bayard of the Brazilian navy, now Viscount Taman- 
dar6, was stationed in the waters of Montevideo, whose 
government refused, in a provoking manner, to give satis- 
faction for the murders, robberies and savage attacks on 
Brazilian subjects, committed by the military forces of 
that government. 

General Flores, a well-known and most influential man 
of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, was in arms against 
the faction or party in power at Montevideo. The division 
of the Brazilian army under the command of the old and 
brave general, Menna Barreto, supported by the ships of 
the squadron and with the assistance of General Flores, 
laid siege to the fortified town of Paysandu in Decem- 
ber, 1864, and, not obtaining a capitulation, attacked it. 

The commander of Paysandu was Leandro Gomes, the 
most implacable enemy of the Brazilians, whose life, how- 
ever, was saved through the generosity and humanity of 
the Brazilian conqueror. 

For the assault of Paysandu, a portion of the crews of 
the Brazilians ships were landed, and among the attack- 
ing seamen was Marcilio Dias. 

The place was strongly fortified, and caused lamentable 
losses to the batteries raised against it. Amongst others, 
a hero, then called the Invulnerable by the enemy, 

- 7 — 
Mariz e Barros, commanded a battery and directed the at- 
tack. Marcilio Dias was under his orders. 

On the 2nd of January, 1865, Mariz e Barros ordered 
the attack on the enemy's trenches. 

The fight was hot and terrible; in the midst of the smoke, 
of the roar of artillery, of the roll of musketry, and of 
the shouts of the combatants, the imposing figure of Mar- 
cilio Dias was seen advancing in front of the foremost. 

The herculean sailor did not speak, he was a silent, head- 
strong lion ; but he was a war engine carrying all before 
him, sowing destruction in his impetuous passage. 

After many hours of sanguinary and furious combat, 
the cry of — victory!... was heard, when the homeric figure 
of the seaman Marcilio Dias was seen hoisting the Brazi- 
lian flag on the tower of the church of Paysandu. 

With the names of the generals, and of the heroes of that 
glorious day, official dispatches extolled that of the rough 

Marcilio Dias, laureated by the national gratitude, ignor- 
ing the glory in which his name was wrapped, reappeared 
on the 1 1th of June, 1865. 

On the 11th of June he was an imperial sailor on board 
the steamer Pamahyba, the epic hell of blood and fire of 
the battle of Riachuelo. 

On board this ship, attacked by the boarders of four 
Paraguayan steamers, Pedro Afibnso, captain of the 1st 
battalion of infantry, Greenhalgh, and other officers had 
fallen, when the second in command, first lieutenant Fe- 
lippe Firmino Rodrigues Chaves, gave the order to blow 
up the ship. Marcilio Dias, not despairing of victory, still 
fought on deck against numberless enemies, stumbling 
against the dead bodies of his comrades. 

The reckless giant, opening a way through the ranks of 

— 8 — 
the Paraguayan multitude, left on either side enemies 
killed or wounded by his saber. 

At last four of the most courageous Paraguayans stop 
and attack the Hercules, who had then been wounded. 

Marcilio Dias fights against these odds and kills two, 
but terribly wounded, falls like some giant tree, or rather 
like an immense monument. 

Dying, however, he yet hailed the Amazonas who ran 
down the enemy's vessels that had grappled the Par- 

Brazil had gained the victory, Marcilio Dias, cut to 
pieces by the Paraguayan swords and axes, in the dying 
agonies heard the sound of the Brazilian hymns of 

He died on the 12th of June, calm and uncomplaining, 
without evincing any consolation from the renown he left. 
He expired as a modest, quiet, simple man who never feared 
death, and with the conviction that he had well done 
his duty. 

Marcilio Dias, a simple seaman, was twice a giant to 
have thus gained a place in his country's history in the 
midst of so many heroes of a higher social position. 

In the Brazilian navy there is a ship of war which bears 
and perpetuates the name of Marcilio Dias. 

HI OF J-A-N-U^-A-It-Y 


ManoelJ^Antonio GalvSo, son of Jeronymo Josd GalvSo 
and Donna Anna Maria Rosa, was born on the 3rd of 
January, 1791, in the city of S. Salvador da Bahia, the 
cradle of so many distinguished men. 

It was intended that Manoel Antonio GalvSo, after study- 
ing humanities, should enter into commerce, and having 
practised as a clerk in Lisbon, where he was sent, and 
in Bahia, to where he had returned, he went, to London 
and there remained three years in the counting-house of 
a merchant called Wilson. Having, however, changed his 
plans, he went to Goimbra in 1813, and took his degree 
of Doctor of Laws, at that university in the year 1819. 

Having been appointed juiz de fdra (j^dgej of Goyaz in 

TOb. 1 2 

— 10 — 

1820, he there disagreed with the governor, and sided 
with the constitutional party. 

Having been elected, by the province of Bahia, a deputy 
to the chamber called to revise the constitution, he was 
afterwards appointed ouvidor (superior judge) to Matto 

He rose through every step in the magistrature, and 
served in the casa da SupplicagSo (Supreme court of jus- 
tice of Lisbon), in the court of appeal of Bahia, and was 
superannuated in the Supreme Court of Justice of Brazil. 

He did not distinguish himself less in his parliamentary, 
political, and administrative career. 

Bahia elected him as deputy in 1826, the first legisla- 
ture, and afterwards in 1863, and of the triple list, pre- 
sented by the electors of the same province, he was 
chosen a senator of the Empire by the present Emperor 
Don Pedro II. 

Up to that date he had served as president of the 
following provinces : Of Alagoas in 1828, of Espirito Santo, 
immediately afterwards, and in 1831, of Minas Geraes, 
whence he passed, in the same year, to that of S. Pedro 
do Rio Grande do Sul, over which he presided for the 
second time from 1846 to February 1848. 

In 1835 he was appointed envoy extraordinary and mi- 
nister plenipotentiary of the Empire in England, whence 
he retired in 1839, having refused a diplomatic mission 
in the same character to Russia. 

On the 1st of September, 1839, Manoel Antonio Galv&o, 
who had but lately arrived in Rio de Janeiro, entered 
the cabinet, taking the portfolio of home affairs, in which 
he rendered good service, though the cabinet existed only 
for a few months. 

In 1844 he was again in power, as minister of justice, 

~ 11 - 

and he was one of the chief promoters of the pacification 
of the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, which 
had been in a state of revolt since 1835. Whilst in this 
ministry he had the honor of representing Louis Phillip, 
king of France, at the baptism of the Prince Don Affonso. 

In 1845, having been appointed plenipotentiary of Brazil, 
to negotiate, in Rio de Janeiro, with the Bristish minister, 
a treaty of commerce, he made a declaration to the English 
diplomate, that, to enter into negotiations, it was indis- 
pensable that the bill Aberdeen should first be revoked, 
as it was offensive to the dignity of the Empire. 

Manoel Antonio GalvSLo was appointed a councilor of 
State in 1848, and, two years later, on the 21st of March, 
1850, he died in Rio de Janeiro, in honorable poverty. 

He left an unsullied and an illustrious name. 

Gifted with admirable talents and a clear intellect, 
though, perhaps, not prossessing vast or profound knowl- 
edge, he was a very sagacious statesman, and being en- 
dowed with quick and brilliant powers, he was ever ready 
for a witty epigram; he was a serious and penetrating 
observer of men ; he studied facts ; his good sense, his love 
of justice, his unblemished probity, and extreme good 
heartedness, were well known. This distinguished Brazilian 
always belonged to the liberal monarchial party. 

During his first ministry the place of public librarian of 
the capital became vacant ; numerous candidates appeared, 
and pressing demands. The minister Galv^o gave the same 
answer to every one : « This place will be given to a man 
who never flattered me, and who does not ask for it.» Canon 
Januario da Cunha Barboza, in every respect worthy of 
the place, was appointed. 

Though a liberal, Galvao, as a deputy in the first legis- 
lature, avoided party discussions. Some time later, being 

- 12 - 
asked the reason of his f orbearanoe, he replied : « I took my 
log out of the fire then, that Imight not repent when 
the flamebroke out. » 

Manoel Antonio Galv&o, a man of sound conscience^ and 
incapable of misrepresenting the truth, furnished impor- 
tant information, which threw great light on the history 
of the events of March and April of the year 1831. 

He used to say that on his way to take charge of the pres- 
idency of Minas-Geraes, he met on the road the Emperor 
Don Pedro I, who was returning from that province dis- 
pleased and in a meditative mood, and that the Emperor 
told him, confidentially, that he had resolved on abdicating 
the crown of the Empire of Brazil. 

ITT OF jrj^lSTXJJ^'R'^ 

The history of Brazilian literature is enriched vith the 
names of some young poets prematurely dead, prodigious 
expectations nipped in the bud, brilliant stars extinguished 
and buried in the black clouds of death. 

One of these was unquestionably Gasemiro Joz6 Marques 
de AbreUy or, simply, Gasemiro de Abreu, born on the 4th 
of January y 1837, in the municipal district ofBarrade 
S. JoSo, province of Rio de Janeiro. 

The smiling days of infancy he passed in solicitude at 
his mother's side. Donna Luiza Joaquina das Neves, and he 
early began to shew his taste for poetry. This taste was a 
rising inspiration, a flame which could not be extinguished* 

He had merely finished his primary education, when his 
father, Josd Joaquim Marques de Abreu, a Portuguese mer- 

— 14 — 
chant, went for him and took him to the boarding school of 
that excellent old Englishman, John Henry Freeze, in Nova 
Friburgo, requesting that he should be educated and prepared 
for a commercial career. 

At that school, and at the age of fifteen, Gasemiro de 
Abreu wrote his first poem — Ave Maria — a boy poet's song, 
full of gentleness. 

At the age of fifteen a beautiful girl enraptured him, and 
during this almost childish love, but for that very reason 
pure, angelic, during that sweet first love, whose perfume 
remains in the heart for ever, Gasemiro de Abreu made 
verses, and (the words are his), some one then called him 

The course of secondary instruction of the talented and 
diligent student, was almost immediately interrupted by 
the father, who took him from Freeze's school, and despite 
his prayers and the protests of his aversion to-a commercial 
life, obliged the boy to follow him to the city of Rio de 
Janeiro, and there installed him in his counting house. 

From that day forward, a distressing and lamentable 
difference of opinion arose between father and son. The 
father, well intentioned, but extremely severe, endeavored 
to crush his son's love of poetry, and to open for him the 
road to wealth through commerce. The son, deprived of 
books, and though spied that he might not write poetry, 
eluded the father, and, at night, when every one else 
slept, he watched and read works on poetry and literary 
critique, which he afterwards hid, and revenged himself 
on the Debit and Credit, writing verses for hours together. 

The father discovered the innocent subterfuges of the 
poet son, and, irritated, expelled him from the office, and 
sent him to Portugal in November, 1853. 

Another error committed !.... to kill the poetic genius of 


Gasemiro de Abreu the rough merchant lighted in the poet 
son*s soul a longing for his country. 

In Portugal, Gasemiro de Abreu wrote the Cangdes do 
exUio, (Songs in exile) perhaps the most happily inspired of 
his writings. 

Nostalgy attacked the young Brazilian , shortly after 
the first symptoms of tuberculoses became manifest. On 
hearing the news the father's severity relaxed and Gasemiro 
de Abreu was allowed to return to his beloved and longed 
for country, whose gentle breezes, at first, appeared to 
restore his health. Illusion!.... 

Gasemiro de Abreu went to his father's fazenda (estate,) 
on the banks of the Indaiassu stream, a subsidiary of the 
river S. Joao, a cherished and romantic fazenda, where 
in his school days, he was wont to spend the vacation ; the 
place of his predilection, and that which had witnessed the 
charm of his first love. Illusion!.... 

The beautiful girl of the boy poet's love, slept, a pure 
maiden, in a funeral couch, under the shade of a cypress in 
the cemitery. 

A month later, Gasemiro de Abreu returned, an obedient 
martyr, to the business life which an obstinate father's 
will inflicted upon him. 

The poet was nearly twenty years of age, and during 
two more years, respectful and submissive he yielded ; but 
at night, taking advantage of the liberty allowed him, he 
joined a set of talented young poets, who still, fortunately, 
flourish, and in the improvised, and friendly Arcadia his 
heart and soul expanded in beautiful and tender songs. 

On the 13th of June, 1858, Gasemiro de Abreu was, at 
last, able to leave his father's counting house, and in Sep- 
tember of the following year, his poetical compositions 

— 16 — 
with the title Primaveras (Spring) were published, and 
applauded by the press and by the public. 

Josd Joaquim Marques de Abreu, against his will, but 
frightened at the progress of the pulmonary disease 
which was menacing his son, liberated or rather eman* 
cipated him from commercial slavery; he rejoiced, however, 
on hearing the praise which the Primaveras excited, 
and, rough as he was, sick and on his deathbed, he 
desired that the poetry of his son Gasemiro should be 
read to him. He heard them, shedding tears in his fazenda 
on the Indaiassu, sent an express messenger for the poet 
whose presence he called for, and who arrived in time 
to be seen, to be clasped in the arms of, and be blessed by 
him. The father died in his son's arms, consoled in death 
by the glory of the poet. 
A poet with no future, yet another illusion !..• 
Casemiro de Abreu returned to the city of Rio de Janeiro ; 
the implacable tuberculoses however progressed, devouring 
the lungs. The poet, sorrowful and dejected, still continued 
his songs, when becoming worse, he was sent by his medical 
attendants to ask a miracle from the climate of Nova- 

There, having at least the consolation of his mother's 
presence, the poet still lived three months, till the 18th of 
October, 1850, when he expired so quietly that he appeared 
to have fallen into a sweet slumber. 

He was then twenty-three years old, and left to his 
country's literature, his book of poetic canticles with the 
title of Primaveras. 

The poetry of Casimiro de Abreu is full of sentiment, 
sweetness and melancholy, and undoubtedly gave promise, 
or assurance, of a great lyric poet. 

— 17 — 

A just critic will bear in mind, that the inspired youth 
was less than twenty years old, when he wrote the most 
beautiful and the sweetest of his verses, and among others 
the following, which, though perhaps not the best, can be 
transcribed here : 

Berf o e tnmnlo 


Trago-te fldres no meu canto amigo ; 

— Pobre grinalda com prazer tecida — 
E— todo araores—deposito urn beijo 

Na fronte pura em que desponta a vida. 

£' cede ainda !— quando moga fores, 
£ percorreres deste liyro os cantos 
Talvez que eu durma solitario e mudo 

— Lyrio pendido a que ninguom deu prantos 1 — 

Entao, men anjo, compassiva e meiga 
Depoe-me urn goiyo sobre a cruz singella, 
E nesse ramo que o sepulchro implora 
Paga-me as rosas d'esta infancia bella. 

»a( ^ < 

▼oi.. 1 

T7" OF j'JLinjjiLJEirz' 


Manoel Botelho de Oliveira, born in Bahia in 1836, 
capitdo-'mdr, a nobleman of the royal household, and 
graduated in jurisprudence in the University of Coimbra, 
died on this day of the year 1711. 

Haying returned to the city of S. Salvador, after taking 
his degree, he exercised the profession of a lawyer, earning 
general esteem and consideration, being for some time a 
member of the municipal council. 

Being well informed, and a lover and connoiseur of the 
Latin, Italian and Spanish poets, besides the Portuguese, 
he also cultivated poetry ; but he allowed the best years 
of his life to pass by without thinking of publishing his 
writings, and only in his old age, when nearly seventy 
years old, did he have them published. 

— 20 — 

In 1705, a volume in 4^ of three hundred and forty 
pages, was published in Lisbon, containing the poetical 
works of Botelho de Oliveira, with the following very long 
title : Musica do ParnasOy dividido em quatro cdros de 
rimas portuguezas, castelhanas, itcUianas e latinos, com 
seu descante comico reduzido em dims comedias ( Music 
of Parnassus, divided into four choruses of Portuguese, 
Castilian, Italian and Latin rhymes, with its comic song 
reduced to two comedies). 

Mr. Vamhagen, now Viscount Porto Seguro, writing the 
biography of this Brazilian, laments that he should have 
left for so late a date the publication and, naturally, the 
wish to correct his poetry, it being impossible that they 
should not suflfer theeflfects of an abatement of the intellect, 
under the weight of so many years. 

The Musica do Parnazo is a rare work, and but little 
sought after; but if it have no great poetical merit, it 
has that of being recommended by the Academy of Lisbon 
which declared the language of the part written in Portu- 
guese to be classical. 

Manoel Botelho de Oliveira deserves a historical remin- 
iscence, not because he was the first son of Brazil who 
made public the suavity of the metre ; but because he was, 
at least, one of the first and oldest to whom this glory is 

"^TX OF 3-A.liTTJA.Ti-^ 

mmm u seya lisboa 

Balthazar da Silva Lisboa, was bora on the 6th of Jan- 
uary, 1761, in the city of S. Salvador, capital of the prov- 
ince of Bahia. His parents were Henrique da Silva Lisboa 
and Helena de Jesus e Silva. 

This distinguished Brazilian studied humanities, and fol- 
lowed the course and took the degree of Doctor in Giyil 
and Canonical Law, at the University of Goimbra, under 
the protection of the bishop Don Francisco de Lemos Pe- 
reira Coutinho, of Rio de Janeiro, his distinguished country- 

After the examination, with which he was charged, of 
the coal mines of Buarcos and of the lead mines in the 
neighborhood of the town of Gqja, in Portugal, writing a 

favorable report on them, he returned to Brazil, having 
been appointed juiz de fdra of Rio de Janeiro. 

Though commended by the viceroy Luiz de Vascon- 
cellos, he disagreed with his successor, the Count of Re- 
zende, because, there being great dearth of farina in 
the city and a monopoly of the article being tolerated, a 
number of vessels being loaded with it for exportation, Bal- 
thazar da Silva Lisboa, in the exercise of his duties as a magis- 
trate, commenced an inquiry and ordered thecargos of the 
vessels to be examined, some cases of farina being discov- 
ered with the mark of one of the viceroy's aides de camp. 

Having been discharged from the office of Juiz de F6ra, 
he left for Portugal in 1796, and was there absolved, by 
the Court of the Ultramarine Council, of the charge of 
revolutionary and republican, preferred by the enemies he 
had left in Rio de Janeiro. 

Having been appointed ouvidor of the district of HhSos, 
in Brazil, and shortly afterwards judge preserver of the 
forest, he studied the culture and felling of timber, 
and wrote the Physica dos bosgues dos ilhios e a Des- 
cripQ&o da comarca do mesmo noma (Physics of the forests 
of Ilhdos, and Description of the district of the same 
name), which the Royal Academy of Sciences of Lisbon 
had printed in its collection. 

As he was well known to have studied metallurgy, Bal- 
thazar da Silva Lisboa was charged with the examination of 
large quantities of iron found in the streams of Bendig6, at 
the headwaters of the River da Cachoeira, and of the coal 
mines found in 1813 at the river Cotegipe. Having complied 
with the request he presented a scientific report on the 
existence and conditions of the iron and coal in the places 

The Count of Arcos, governor and captain-general of 

-23 — 

Bahia, charged this distinguished Brazilian with the re- 
moval of the Indian village from the parish of Almada 
to the place called Ferradas, and he, overcoming by gentle 
means the opposition of the Indians, gained his end with 
great fatigue and with the sacrifice of his health. 

Being superannuated in the Finance Council, with full 
pay, he retired with his health impaired to the estate 
which he had purchased at the river Gontas, but in 1821 
he was persecuted for being opposed to the constitution of 
the Portuguese Gdrtes, though he had gone to the city of 
S. Salvador to take the oath, declaring, at the same time, 
it is true, that he did not think that it would promote the 
happiness of the nation. 

In 1823 the municipal councils of Cachoeira do Rio das 
Contas and of Yalenga, represented against Balthazar da 
Silva Lisboa, as an enemy to the cause of the independence 
of the country, and the old and illustrious fugitive was able 
at last to embark on board an English brig, which con- 
veyed him to Rio de Janeiro, where at first the Emperor 
Don Pedro I and the minister, Josd Bonifacio de Andrade, 
refused to receive him. 

Balthazar da Silva Lisboa proved his innocence by docu- 
ments ; he, on the contrary, was an enthusiast of the in- 
dependence. Every thing leads to the belief that the rea- 
son for the persecution he suffered, lay in his sentiments 
unfavorable to democratic ideas ; if he was not an abso- 
lutist, he was at least a very backward liberal. An opin- 
ion is not a crime. 

The Emperor and the minister JosS Bonifacio, at last 
did justice to the illustrious old man, to whom, some years 
later, Don Pedro I offered a chair as professor in the faculty 
of law created in S. Paulo, which he refused, alleging his 
old age, he being then nearly seventy years old. 


The distinguished old man, however, still worked assid- 
uously, and in 1834 he published in the city to which he 
had retired, the Annaes do Rio ie Janeiro (Annals of Rio 
de Janeiro), in seven volumes, a work of great merit. 

When, in 1838, the Historical Geographical Institute of 
Brazil was founded, Balthazar da Silva Lisboa welcomed 
it with enthusiasm, and, as honorary member, presented 
it with a valuable manuscript of his own, Bosquejo HisUh- 
rioo de litteratura Portugueza, sermndo de introducgdo 
a um corpo Mographico dos mais distinctos Brazileiros e 
demuitoB vardescelebres por sews servicos ao Brazil (Bio- 
graphical sketch of Portuguese literature, being an intro- 
duction to a biographical body of the most distinguished 
Brazilians, and of many men celebrated for their services 
to Brazil). 

Balthazar da Silva Lisboa died on the 14th of August, 
1840. His name remains engraved amongst those of the 
most illustrious representatives of letters and sciences in 
Brazil during the first half of the 19th century. 

His knowledge in various branches of learning may be 
appreciated in the different tasks which he was commis- 
sioned bygovernment to accomplish. 

As his greatest encomium it is sufficient to say that 
he in no way demerited the glory of being the brother of 
the learned Jos6 da Silva Lisboa, Viscount of Cayrti. 

-Tzn o-p jA.isrcrAii.-Y 


Francisco Jos6 Furtado was born on the 13th of August, 
1818, in the city of Oeiras,the, then, capital of the province 
of Piauhy ; he was the legitimate son of a surgeon of the 
same name and of Donna Rosa da Costa Alvarenga, who 
belonged to one of the most distinguished families of Piauhy. 

When only two years of age he lost his father, and his 
mother marrying a second time, again became a widow, 
her second husband having been atrociously murdered. 

At the age of nine he removed to Caxias, in the province 
of Marauhao, his step father being then still alive, and there, 
in the birth place of Gongalves Bias, he passed his prepara- 
tory studies, and in 1833 went to Olinda, where he imme- 
diately matriculated in the juridical academy. 

In 1837 he received the news of the dreadful murder of 

TOL. I 4 

-26 — 
his excellent step father, and of the impunity of the assas, 
sins, infamous instruments of a potentate of the locality. 

« This melancholy event > (says the learned Dr. Antonio 
Henriques Leal, in the biography of the worthy Furtado- 
published in the Pantheon Maranhense) « contributed not a 
little toFurtado taking, so early, an active part in political 
discussions, and editing, during the fourth year of his stud- 
ies, with other distinguished colleagues, the Argos Olin- 
dense. > 

Several quarrels with his professors resulted from his edit- 
ing this liberal periodical, and to aroid, at the examina- 
tions, the affront which one of his colleagues and co-editor 
had received, (says the same biographer), he went to S. Paulo, 
where he concluded his studies and took his degree of 
Bachelor of Laws in 1838. 

In the following year he returned to the capital of Maran- 
hao. The province was then in open revolt, which ravaged 
more particularly the territory of Gaxias. Furtado's mother, 
however, was in the city of that name, and he did not hesi- 
tate to fly to her side. Gaxias was besieged by the rebels and 
at last surrendered ; the young bachelor and devoted son, 
was taken prisoner with many other inhabitants. 

As the revolt continued, though the city was restored, 
Furtado did good service to the cause of government, and 
was rewarded, in 1840, with the appointment of municipal 
judge of Gaxias, acting as district judge in 1841. 

Being a liberal from his college days, he took his place 
^n the party which, in the province, hoisted his political 
colors. He was elected president of the municipal council 
of Gaxias, and shortly afterwards member of the provincial 
assembly; he also exercised different police functions, 
and in all of them he was always distinguished for his vast 

— 27 — 

and enlightened intellect, for his moderation, and for his 
great virtues. 

He was elected a deputy, in 1847, to the General Assem- 
bly, for the legislature which commenced in 1848. He took 
his seat in May, and in the midst of the most notable parlia- 
mentary men, he, in his speeches, appeared as a sub- 
stantial, grave, and profound orator. The liberal party, 
however, went out of power on the 29th of September, and 
the chamber of deputies, adjourned on the 5th of October, 
was dissolved on the 19th of February, 1849. 

Furtado had been named district judge of Caxias by de- 
cree of the 20th of September, 1848 ; but as the political con- 
servative reaction immediately commenced, he was, on the 
19th of December of the same year, removed to the capital 
of Pari, where he remained until 1856. He there served as 
district judge, as judge of suits of the finance department, 
and as army judge. 

In 1856 the cabinet of the Marquis of Parani inaugur- 
ated the political principle, then called, of conciliation, and 
Dr. Furtado was transferred to the capital of Maranhao as 
special commercial judge ; but in October of the following 
year the model magistrate had to be tried in the adminis- 
tration, as president of the province of Amazonas. 

It had been created only five years ; it had scarcely any 
revenue, it is at a great distance from the capital of the Em- 
pire, and it received no assistance from the central govern- 
ment. The province of Amazonas, therefore, so vast and with 
a population so sparse, could not be a field in which even 
the most consummate administrator could display his Intel « 
ligence, activity, and energy. 

Furtado governed the province unbiased by party spirit ; 
during his administration the municipal elections took place. 
He did not interfere in the contest ; the liberty of the vote 

was perfect ; both winners and losers eulogizing the presi- 

Not commanding the means to do the good that he wished, 
he pointed out to the central government, the great and 
useful measures which it was necessary to take, and with 
respect to these, enlightened the provincial assembly in a 
report elaborated in a most masterly manner. The catechi- 
sation and civilization of the Indians, the creation of nation- 
al colonies on the banks of the Madeira, the fluvial com- 
munication with the province of Matto Grosso and with 
Bolivia, the urgent repairs of ruined forts and the construe" 
tion of others, were subjects which he studied and devel- 
oped with practical appreciation, with attentive care, and 
with the penetration of a statesman. 

In 1859, at his own request, he was exonerated from the 
presidency of the province of Amazonas, blessed by the 
different political parties, and returned to MaranhSCo, 
where he reassumed his charge of commercial judge. 

In 1861 Furtado returned to the chamber, having been 
elected a deputy for the second district of the province of 
Maranhao. He was already known as a talented and power- 
ful orator; in the session of 1861, and in that of the fol- 
lowing year he shone as a severe and eloquent doctrinal 

On the 24th of May, 1862, he was called to the portfolio 
of the affairs of justice, in the ephemeral cabinet which 
the conservatives of the chamber threw out four days 
later, with a small majority. The winners, however, did 
not conquer power, which passed to the Marquis of Olinda, 
who prepared the triumph for the political party, of wMch 
the cabinet of the 24th of May was the prelude. 

Furtado, the ex-minister, in the test exacted by the 
constitution, was unanimously re-elected. In 1863 the 


crown dissolTod the chamber, and he being again returned, 
was elected and served as president of the chamber of depu- 
ties from January to the 24th of July, 1864, when the Em- 
peror chose him senator, from the triple list presented by 
the prorince of Maranhao. 

The liberals and conservatives offered him a sumptuous 
farewell banquet, without the character of a political 
party manifestation ; but evidently indicating his great 
personal merit. 

Furtado, in the presidency of the chamber, had succeeded 
the learned councilor Zacharias de Goes e Vasconcellos, 
who had left it, being called to organize a ministry. On 
the 31st of August of the same year, he succeeded the same 
statesman in the government, organizing on that day the 
cabinet of which he was the head. 

He went into power under very grave circumstances ; he 
had inherited the difSculties of the reprisals provoked by 
the Oriental Republic of Uruguay. At the commencement 
of his ministry a terrible commercial crisis, caused by the 
failures of the principal banking houses, menaced Rio de Ja- 
neiro, and immediately afterwards the savage insults of 
the dictator of Paraguay, Francisco Solano Lopes, and the 
unavoidable war in vindication of the national honor, 
brought to the cabinet of the 31st of August, the Furtado 
cabinet, herculean labors, tortures of a martyr, the im- 
position of patriotic tributes, courageously, energetically 
paid, with the most decided civism, and glory which has 
only been equalled by the glory of the patriarchs of the 
independence of Brazil. 

In the Uruguayan question the Furtado cabinet complete- 
ed the political work commenced by the cabinet of concil- 
or Zacharias, firmly and splendidly establishing the 

— 90 - 

power of the arms of the Empire in the brilliant victory of 

Whilst the banking houses were falling, and daring the 
afilictive writhings of commerce, he, with the vote of the 
council of State, took arbitrary measures, which, at 
all events, tranquilized the people and afforded time for 
the satisfaction of responsibilities, which the abnormal 
and stormy situation of the money market did not then 
permit, engendering despair, menacing imminent and 
immediate disaster to great commercial firms, which, in 
their ruins would have buried many others, though, per- 
haps, of less importance. 

In the war with Paraguay, Furtado was the fortunate 
Pompey, who, striking the earth with his foot, raised the 
army that brought victory to Brazil. 

On the 7th of Jamcary^ 1865, this distinguished states- 
man signed the memorable decree which called to arms 
the Voluntarios da Patria (the country's volunteers), and, 
contrary to the expectations of many, from the provinces 
came numbers of those glorious batallions which became 
immortalized in the war for the vindication of national 

This great measure, which proved immense confidence 
in the patriotism of Brazilians, and which had such an 
extraordinary influence on the war, owing to the en- 
thusiasm with which it was accepted, having been con- 
ceived, proposed, and executed by Furtado, m&rks a 
date, preferable to any other, for the article in which 
his name is registered in this book. 

Whilst, with the Voluntarios da Patria, a numerous 
army was extemporized, the cabinet of the 31st of Au- 
gust, through the energetic action and activity of its 
minister of marine (Councillor Francisco Xavier Pinto 

.-31 - 
Lima), reorganized the navy. Of old and condemned ships 
new ones were made, which took part in the memorable 
battle of Riachuelo and contributed to the victory which 
crashed the naval force of Paraguay ; the ministry determ- 
ined the immediate and rapid construction of the first 
Brazilian iron clads in the naval arsenal of the capital, thus 
raising the navy to the necessary proportions for com- 
mencing the war, and maintaining the superiority of the 
Brazilian forces in the waters of the Parani. 

In politics and in the home administration, Furtado 
worthily developed his liberal programme. He eflSciently 
guaranteed the liberty of free Africans, subject to the 
service of the State or of private individuals ; protected 
the citizen from arbitrary imprisonment, and performed 
many other important services. 

Disagreements among members of the party caused the 
fall of the cabinet of the 31st of August on the first 
day of the session of the chamber in May, 1865, owing 
to the ministerial candidate to the presidency of the 
chamber being defeated by the opposition by one vote. 
If any member of the cabinet tried, very licitly, 
to obtain votes in parliament, Furtado strenuously re- 
fused to do so. 

Having asked for, and obtained their dismissal^ the 
ex-ministers were applauded by the population of the 

Leaving the ministry. Senator Furtado took the place 
due to him as one of the chiefs of the liberal party. 
From 1865 forward he was a moderate but stanch opposer 
of the progressita cabinets, and from 1868 to 1870 took 
and maintained the same position against the conservative 
He had been commercial judge of the capital, and 


as such, in the intervals of the legislative sessions, he 
enhanced his reputation as a most just and profoundly 
learned magistrate. In 1869, however, a house failed in 
Maranhao, which, on the occasion of the sickness and death 
of his first wife, and of his removal with a large family 
to the capital, had lent him money, which amounted to 
a relatively large sum. 

Councilor Senator Furtado, on receiving the news, 
immediately wrote to the administrators of the estate, 
assuring them that he would make every effort to pay 
his debit in the shortest possible time. With this object 
he asked for and obtained, in March, 1870, his superan- 
nuation as commercial judge, with the honors of a des- 
embargador (judge of the court of appeal), and opened 
an office as an advocate. 

His clients were numerous, but grieving and extenuated 
by work, the health of the illustrious councilor Furtado 
commenced to give way. 

In April, 1870, having been invited to take charge of the 
celebrated suit discussed before the court of appeal of 
Rio de Janeiro, he gained it triumphantly, proffering an 
admirable and famous defense ; but whilst yet in court 
he fainted, and being taken home by his friends, became 
worse, and on the 23d of June, 1870 died of angina pec- 

He died poor, leaving eight children (six girls), all from 
his first marriage. Some faithful and devoted friends 
opened a subscription in the capital and in the provinces, 
which produced nearly forty-seven contos de reis, and 
his two sons received a good education, thanks to the 
pure and most praiseworthy friendship, proved beyond the 

As an honorable and learned judge, Councilor Francisco 


Josd Furtado may have had his equals, but he had no 

In private life he was a man of virtue, delicate in 
his manners, generous, he was never exceeded in points of 
honor or probity, and he to a friend never refused a 
personal sacrifice. 

In politics, he was a distinguished orator in parlia- 
ment, and one of the chiefs of the liberal party. 

As a liberal doctrinal orator he always shone more 
from the force of logic, than from explosions of elo- 
quence. He arrested attention and swayed his audience 
by the exhibition of science and by force of reasoning. 

His speech in the senate defending the appeal ^o the 
crown from condemnation by the bishops ex informata 
conscientia, is a monument in the annals of that cham- 

In the last years of his life none of the liberal chiefs 
enjoyed more prestige than he in his political party. 

The constitutional monarchy of Brazil, still more than 
the liberal party, suffered a great loss by the death of 
Francisco Josd Furtado, who was its strongest pillar, 
and the most convinced and devoted supporter of the 
representative system. 

Councilor Francisco Jos6 Furtado died when his great 
political influence shone with the splendors of a midday 


Vm or JA.NTT-AJR-2* 


Born in Pemambuco on the 8th of September, 1796, of 
unknown parentage, Jos^ da Natividade Saldanha, enjoyed 
the careful protection, probably of his father; for the 
means did not fail him for studying preparatories and for 
taking a degree in the University of Coimbra. 

In Pemambuco he left the fame of a brilliant intellect, 
and, in Coimbra, he in a short time gained that of great 
ingenuity and of a fine poetic talent. 

He was yet in the third year of his studies in Coimbra 
when he had the courage to publish a volume of 136 pages 
with the title poesias offerecidas aos amaktes do brazil 
( Pieces of poetry offered to the lovers of Brazil ), con- 
taining sonnets, odes, cantatas, dithyrambs, idyls, etc. 
His patriotism found vent in the book ; in some of his odes 

he exalts celebrated heroes of Pernambuco, who distin- 
guished themselves in the war against the Dutch. 

Like many others, like most of his colleagues of the 
University at that time, he was an ardent republican 
and an enthusiast of the independence of Brazil, against 
which provoking voices had been heard in the Portuguese 
Chamber since 1821. 

The shout of Ypiranga on the 7th of September, 1822, the 
proclamation of the independence and of the Emperor, ar- 
rived in Portugal on the 12th of October following, and 
Jos6 da Natividade Saldanha, then in the third year of his 
studios, impelled by patriotic ardor, committed the, to 
himself, fatal error of deserting from the University. He 
left it, and in a state of great excitement returned to his 
native country. 

He arrived at Pernambuco with republican ideas. It is 
a province of the Brazilian monarchy, an-l he found the 
liberals of the Empire enthusiasts of the Emperor. 

The young republican and poet, burning in the lava of 
two volcanos, had not long to wait before he fell a victim 
to the eruption of one of them. 

In November, 1823, the Emperor Don Pedro 11, injudi- 
ciouly advised, violently dissolved the Brazilian consti- 
tuinte ( the chamber convoked to form the constitution ), 
and through this act opened a deep abyss which separated 
him from the liberals. 

Pernambuco gave the signal for revolutionary resistance 
in the great council of the 13th of December, 1823 ; which 
created an abnormal situation and a provisional government; 
repelling the authority of the president appointed by the 

Josd da Natividade Saldanha was one of the most stren* 
uous partisaxi^ of this revolt, and was, by the Great 


Council, elected secretary of the Council of the temporary 
gorernment, and on the 8th of January, 1824, the result of 
the elections were taken for president, secretary (to which 
post he was elected), and the members of the council of the 
provisional government of the province, named by the 
electoral college of the districts of Olinda and Recife, 
convoked by that of the 13th of December, 1823. 

It was the commencement, then scarcely dissimulated, 
of the republican revolt of Pernambuco in 1824. 

On the 2nd of July, Manoel de Carvalho Paes de An- 
drade proclaimed the Federation of the Equator ^ inviting 
the northern provinces to adhere to it. The support on 
which he depended, however, failed, and he was even 
unable to overcome the reaction of Barra Grande, which 
had already appeared in Pernambuco. 

On the 12th of September General Francisco de Lima e 
Silva entered, with the government troops, one of the 
suburbs of Recife and occupied it, whilst Manoel Carvalho, 
who had gone out to meet the republican forces which 
were retreating from the neighborhood of Barra Orande, 
found himself intercepted, and being unable to return to 
the city, embarked at night in a jangada and sought refuge 
on board the British corvette Tweed. 

The revolution was crushed. 

As soon as General Lima e Silva entered Recife, Josd da 

Natividade Saldanha managed to emigrate to the United 

States, and went to reside in Philadelphia with Colonel 

Jos6 de Barros FalcEo, JosS Tavares Gomes da Fonseca, 

and others involved in the revolution, and did not again 

return to Pernambuco, leaving it as a farewell, an eulogy 
commencing : 

« Segunda yez te deixo> oh patria amada ; 
« Lulando bra^o k bra^o com a desgra^ I . . . 

The military commissioners created in Pernambuco 
condemned him to death, and published notices authoriz- 
ing any person to kill him. 

From the United States, Josd da Natividade Saldanha 
went to Venezuela, where, in order to live, he enlisted 
as a soldier, obtaining the protection of General Abreu 
Lima, who was then serving there in the army and recom- 
mended him to General Escalona. 

His fortunes afterwards improved; he obtained the 
credit of being a man of letters and became a professor of 
humanities in Bogota. 

In 1830, coming home late one stormy and rainy 
night, Jos6 da Natividade Saldanha was carried away by 
the water and fell into the acequia, or ditch, of the street 
along which he was passing and there died. 

In the morning he was found drowned. 

The information respecting the life of this unfortunate 
exile, is taken from brief manuscript notes left by Gen- 
eral Abreu Lima, and agree perfectly with others which 
Councilor F. Lopes Netto, when Brazilian minister pleni- 
potentiary in Bolivia, received in 1868 of the Consul- 
General of Venezuela, who had been a pupil of Jos6 da 
Natividade Saldanha. He spoke of his professor with enthu- 
siasm, and was in Bogota in 1830 when he met with 
his disastrous death. 

It is said that Josd da Natividade Saldanha had a man- 
uscript of two volumes of poetry which were lost. 

I^ OF JA.N-XJ-A.R.'Sr 



Jos6 Joaquim da Rocha was born on the 19th of Octo- 
ber, 1777, in the city of Marianna, province of Minas 
Geraes. He there commenced his studies, and his pro- 
gress in humanities was such, that when only sixteen 
years old he was chosen by his school-master. Father 
Pascoal Bernardino de Mattos, a learned and famous Pro- 
fessor of Latin, to teach the respective class as his sub- 

As he married on the 25th of April, 1798, he did not 
go to Coimbra to obtain a degree, as he intended doing. 
In the captaincy of Minas Geraes he served several charges 
under government and offices of justice, with pru- 
dence and intelligent zeal. He became officer of the mil- 
itia regiment of the city of Marianna, and ordnance cap- 
tain of the next district, and was promoted to the post of 

-40 - 
capitao m6r for his services in settling the quarrels of 
many of the owners of auriferous lands, an object which 
he attained by conciliatory means, without violence or 

In 1808 he removed from Minas Geraes to the city of 
Rio de Janeiro, and opened an office as an advocate, 
though he had taken no degree in laws, and in a short 
time acquired great reputation at the bar, owing to his 
great intellect and probity. 

His gains as a lawyer were considerable, but he always 
served the poor and the unfortunate gratuitously. 

In 1821 he adhered at once to the revolution in Portu- 
gal; became a district and provincial elector, and was 
elected substitute deputy to the cflrtes of Portugal. 

It was, however, well for him that he had not to go to 
Lisbon. Capitao-m6r Jos6 Joaquim da Rocha gained his great- 
est glory in Rio de Janeiro in the years 1821 and 1822. 

The name of the modest, but learned and illustrious pa- 
triot, capitao m6r Jos6 Joaquim da Rocha, is connected with 
the great 9th day of January, 1822. If he was not the 
chief, he was, at least,, one of the most active and decid- 
ed conspirators of the majestic and electrical revolution, 
then embraced by the prince regent, nine months later Don 
Pedro I, Emperor of independent Brazil. 

The shout of Ypiranga on the 7th of September, 1822, 
unduly usurps from Rio de Janeiro, for the province of 
S. Paulo, the incontestable glory, based on positive facts, 
of the dangerous initiative of the independence of Brazil, 
and of the patriotic conspiracy to realize it. 

Jos6 Bonifacio de Andrade e Silva was the minister and 
the great directing head of the events of 1822, from the IBth 
of January forward, for the proclamation of the inde- 
pendence of Brazil; but already in 1821, the initiators 

— 41 — 

of this great event, its champions, its devoted conspira- 
tors in Rio de Janeiro, were Nobrega, Januario, Ledo, 
father Sampaio, and others, but the most influential of 
all and the man who gave it the greatest impulse was 
capitSo m6r Jos6 Joaquim da Rocha. 

Jos6 Joaquim da Rocha was one of the first, in 1821, 
to entertain the idea of the independence of Brazil, and, 
from the first decrees of the Portuguese cdrtes decen- 
tralizing the Brazilian provinces, to conspire to realize 
it, in the oltdf to which also belonged Nobrega, Paulo 
Barboza da Silva, Pedro Dias Paes Leme (afterwards Mar- 
quis of Quixaramobim), and others. 

In another club. Father (afterwards canon) Januario, Ledo, 
Friar Sampaio, and various other patriots, worked for the 
same object. 

They were not foreign to those secret counsels and ano- 
nymous proclamations, which in some days of the month of 
October, 1821, appeared stuck at the corners of the streets of 
Rio de Janeiro, inciting the people to declare for the inde- 
pendence, with the prince Don Pedro as Emperor of Brazil. 

But up to the end of November the prince regent Don 
Pedro, heir presumptive to the crown, was loyal to the king 
Don John VI, his father. The Luzitanian party supported by 
the Portuguese troops of the garrison, and the Brazilians 
themselves, advanced liberals and republicans, who were de- 
voted to the cdrtes that represented the revolution of 1820, 
and with it, liberal principles, were all opposed to the cause 
of the independence. 

The decrees of the cdrtes, dated the 29th of September, 
1821, one extinguishing the courts which the king had cre- 
ated in Rio de Janeiro, and the other ordering the prince 
Don Pedro to leave Brazil and to travel over the United States 
of North America, as well as France and England, appeared 

VOL. 1 6 

— 42- 
in the beginning of Dec ember in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 
irritating all Brazilians and exciting the resentment of the 

Rocha immediately called a meeting of his club, and 
from it Paula Barboza went to Minas, and Pedro DiasPaes 
Leme to S. Paulo, in order to promote representations 
praying the prince Don Pedro to remain in Brazil. 

The provincial junta of S. Paulo was the first to represent 
on the 24th of December. 

The execution of these designs in the city of Rio de Janeiro 
was a much more difficult matter, in consequence of the num- 
erous Portuguese garrison which was in the habit of sedi- 
tiously enforcing its will. 

The representation was drawn out, however, and that as 
many signatures as possible might be obtained, some young 
men, members of the principal families of the capital, and 
among these two sons of capitao m6r Jos6 Joaquim da Rocha, 
undertook to stick at the corners of the streets advertise- 
ments and invitations, naming the houses in which that 
patriotic document could be signed. 

Jorge de Avilez, commander of the Portuguese garrison, 
was on the alert, and numerous patrols watched the streets 
of the city. The soldiers, with the points of their bayonets, 
tore down the invitations ; but it was in vain ! no sooner 
had they turned their backs, than the young patriots put 
up new advertisements. 

This took place on the 2d and 3d of January, and on 
the 7th, more than eight thousand signatures (a very 
large number for that time) had been affixed to the repre- 
sentation, which, on the 9th of January, was solemnly 
tendered by the senate to the prince Don Pedro, who 
answered, declaring that he would remain in Brazil. 
The prince Don Pedro being, in this way, placed at the 

head of the revolution, Josd Joaquim da Rocha falls into 
the shade ; but, though modest, he works so hard and is so 
devoted, that on the 1st of December, 1822, Don Pedro, after 
the ceremony of his coronation as Constitutional Emperor 
of Brazil had been concluded, on entering the palace, seeing 
^n the midst of the crowd one of the sons of the worthy 
Rocha, asked him in a loud voice : 

« Where is your father, I have not seen hiiji today? » 
« He is sick. Sire. » 

« Well, go and tell him, that he has this day been named 
a dignitary of the Order of the Cross. » 

Having been elected by the province of Minas Geraes a 
member of the Brazilian constituinte, Rocha, though a 
moderate liberal, was, on the 12th of November, 1823, after 
the dissolution of that assembly, arrested on coming out of 
it, and exiled with the three Andradas, Montezuma, (after- 
wards Viscount of Jequitinhonha) and two of his sons. 

In 1830 he returned from exile, and again commenced to 
work at the bar. 

On the 12th of April, 1831, the provisional regency 
appointed Jos6 Joaquim da Rosha envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary to the Court of Paris, and so much 
solicitude and delicacy did he display in this important mis- 
sion, that when, in 1834, a question of a certain gravity 
arose in consequence of the nomination of Father Dr. An- 
tonio Maria de Moura as bishop of Rio de Janeiro, between 
the Holy See and the Brazilian Government, capitao-m6r 
Josd Joaquim da Rocha was appointed to the Court of Rome 
in the same character. 

In his new mission he gave proofs of great tact and 
moderation, as well as of firmness, maintaining the ideas 
and the instructions of his government, until, having mo- 

— 44- 

difled their politics, they gave him a successor in thai 
high diplomatic charge. 

In Paris as well as in Rome, capitao mdr Jos6 Joaquim 
da Rocha, was always the protector and careful friend 
of all the Brazilian students and travelers who sought 
the intervention and the assistance of the Brazilian min- 
ister, and his generosity often dissipated apprehensions 
and pecuniary difficulties, which embarassed them. 

On returning to Rio de Janeiro in 1838 he found himself 
poor, rather in debt, old and care-worn; but opening once 
again his office, he worked arduously, he worked too 
much, paid his liabilities, and maintained his family in a 
dignified manner. He, however, lost his health, and felt 
painfully that he was also losing his sight. 

In 1841 the Emperor Don Pedro II, on the day of his 
coronation remembered and distinguished the worthy 
Rocha, by conferring on him the title of councilor. 

Shortly after, however, the patriot and one of the 
patriarchs of the independence, became totally blind. 
Even so he practised, hearing the suits read, and dictating 
to his clerks all that was needed to be said in the some- 
times long and important cases entrusted to his care. 

At last he could no longer work ; besides being com- 
pletely blind, disease prostrated him on his death-bed. 

He was then seventy-one years of age, and extremely 

Though filial love and devotedness watched at his bed- 
side, he was tormented in his blindness, in his old age, 
in his poverty, by the thought of the sufferings of his 

Under these trying circumstances he received the most 
grateful consolation. The Brazilian Historical and Geo- 
graphical Institute presented the government with a brief 

— 45 — 

but eloquent report of the important services rendered by 
the learned and worthy patriarch of the independence, 
and a fevr days later the imperial government published 
a decree granting councelor capitao mdr Jos6 Joaquim da 
Rocha a pension of twelve hundred mil reis a year, 
to pass at his death to his widow and children. . 

The venerable Rocha, worthy blind old man, at death's 
door, shed copious tears when he heard what the Institute 
had done, and what the imperial government had decreed. 

A few days later, on the 16th of July, 1848, councilor 
Jos6 Joaquim da Rocha departed this life. 

When the Emperor received the news of the death of 
the modest and venerable patriarch of the independence, 
he immediately ordered that the funeral expenses should 
be paid out of his private purse. 

A commission of the Historical and Geographical Insti- 
tute of Brazil accompanied the mortal remains of councilor 
Rocha to the tomb which recrived them, and saw a chaplet 
of cizalpind placed in front of the corpse by the respected 
and eloquent orator, who was then the learned M. Manoel 
de Araujo Porto Alegre, now Baron of Santo Angelo, who, 
in the funeral ceremony and the last farewell, closed his 
impressive discourse with the following monumental 
words : 

< When I was in Rome, and received the benefits con- 
ferred by councilor Rocha, I heard him say these memorable 
words to the greatest Brazilian poet: «I shall not grudge the 
sacrifices and the enormous losses which I sustained from 
1822 to 1830, if when I am laid in my grave a voice be 
raised which shall pronounce these words — Independence 
OR death! for these words contain the greatest and the 
happiest days of my life. » And councilor Rocha shed tears. 

« Let, therefore, his request be complied with, and let 

— 46 — 
councilor Rocha receive this wreath of Brazil, in the 
name of his country, in the name of history. It is offered 
by the Institute, the Historial Institute, which will 
always honor the grateful memory of its deceased hon- 
orary member, the worthy Josd Joaquim da Rocha, who 
gave the first impulse to our independence. » 



Joao Fernandes Vieira died on the 10th of January, 
1861, in the city of Olinda. He died as he should 
have died. He sleeps the sleep of death in the capital 
of Pemambuco, where he had risen to the pinnacle of 

He was bom in the island of Madeira, and arrived at 
Pemambuco, a poor but laborious immigrant, shortly be- 
fore the Dutch invasion in 1630. 

His enthusiastic panegyrist, Father Raphael de Jesus, in 
his Castrioto Lusitano, attributes to him acts of phan- 
tastic heroism in fort S. Josd, in the same year 1630, 
immediately after the commencement of the Dutch war. 
Doubts may be entertained of that dawn of heroism, pre- 
cursor of that splendid sun which afterwards shone in 
a cloudless sky. 

- 48 — 

The glory of JoSo Fernandes Vieira requires no im- 
aginary or unfounded tales. 

Vieira is an unknown personage in the first and sec- 
ond periods of the Dutch war. 

In the first, he either did not serve, or passed ignored 
and unknown. 

In the second, during the enlightened and intelligent 
administration of prince Maurice of Nassau, he, like many 
other Portuguese and Brazilians, submitted to the Dutch 
power. He entered into business, was fortunate, and be- 
came rich through his marriage with a distinguished and 
wealthy lady of Pernambuco. In 1644, though he 
had before him a most happy and tranquil future, he 
did not hesitate to risk his all on a very doubtful 

It was in this game that his glory commenced to ra- 
diate : for Vieira patriotically risked all his wealth for 
the love of his country. 

When, in 1644, Andre Vidal de Negreiros was or- 
dered to go to Pernambuco with instructions from the 
governor-general of Brazil, Telles da Silva, to implant the 
gorms of the conspiracy against the Dutch power, he 
found in Joilo Fernandes Vieira the first and most devot- 
ed conspirator. 

Though the object of the suspicions of the Dutch chiefsr 
(having been formally denounced as the chief of an immi- 
nent insurrection), Vieira did not retreat. He hastened the 
patriotic rebellion, uttered the shout of independence on 
the 13th of July, 1845, and on the 3d of Augua* of the 
same year, having collected only about a thousand men, 
undisciplined and badly armed, with Captain Antonio Bias 
Canlozo who had seventy soldiers, awaited on Tabocas Hill, 
Colonel Hans, who, commanding eight hundred men of 

- 49 - 

regular troops was pursuing him, and who Vieira routed 
completely, after a hot fight. 

Immediately after this victory, all Dutch Brazil took up 
arms, and JoSo Femandes Vieira distinguished himself in 
the midst of that brilliant circle of men called Negreiros, 
Henrique Dias, GamarSo, Soares Moreno, Gardozo and 
others : he is not a military man, he does not take the 
command in chief ; but he is an improviso general, and 
equals those commanders in hability and bravery. 

On the 7th of October, 1645, he is proclaimed by the 
people and nobility, by the clergy and the military of Per- 
nambuco— sfOt?ernor of the independence. In July of the 
following year he received three treacherous shots, one of 
the balls wounding him in the shoulder ; as however he had 
reasons to believe that the instigators of the assassins were 
rivals envious of his high position, he was generous enough 
to quash the affair and forget the crime to avoid discord in 
the Brazilian camp. 

The war continued, and Vieira, always active and ener- 
getic, never spared either his person or his money. It would 
be difficult to enumerate all the combats in which he took 
part, always displaying great courage. 

In 1648 and 1649 he distinguished himself remarkably in 
the two battles of the Guararapes, under the command in 
chief of General Barreto de Menezes. 

In these two sanguinary and memorable battles, gained 
by the army of Pernambuco, the Dutch power received its 
deathblow. The Butch army no longer dared to leave the 
city of Recife, where, closely besieged, it continued to 
resist till 1654, when its chief signed, on the 26th of 
January, the capitulation of campina do Taborda, which 
closed the war, with the complete and glorious victory of 
the people of Pernambuco. 

VOL. I 1 

— 50 - 

JoEo Fernandes Vieira entered Recife on the 27th of 
January at the head of the vanguard of the independent 

Don John IV, amongst other recompenses, gave Vieira the 
fdro grande (an honorary distinction to which a pension is 
annexed), named him a commander of the Order of Christ, 
also with a pension, and promoted him to the govemorshid 
of the capitaincy of Parahyba, until that of Angola became 
vacant ; in both of these he gave proofs of great adminis- 
trative capacity. 

Don John IV was well able to appreciate the services rend- 
ered by the heroes of the rebellion of Pernambuco ; be- 
cause they carried on the war, limited, almost exclusively, 
to their own resources, and, in 1646, resisted the orders to 
the contrary, which had been wrested from that king as a 
cruel and imperious political necessity. 

Joao Fernandes Vieira has every right to the title of a 
splendid hero, to whom a place of honor is due in the 
gallery of the most illustrious and worthy men of Brazil. 

^J: of J-A-nSTTJ-A-H^S- 


Though one of the worthies of the independence, and a 
remarkable politician and patriot of 1822, much information 
is wanting respecting the life of the devoted, but retiring 
Brazilian, Luiz Pereira da Nobrega. 

It is known that he was born in Angra dos Reis, province 
of Rio de Janeiro, that he entered the army, and that he 
was a captain of the line in the Moura regiment in the time 
of Don John, the prince regent, who appointed him colonel 
of the militia cavalry regiment of the district of Itapacord. 
He was succeeded in that acting command by Fernando 
Carneiro, afterwards Count of Villa Nova. As, however, the 
privileges of that regiment gave its superior oflScers the 
honors of officers of the line, he entered the general staff 
of the army, with the same rank of colonel, and remained 
under orders at the Palace. 

-52 — 

He was not a well-instructed man ; on the contrary, his 
information was limited ; but he was a man of strong will 
and capable of acts of energy. 

In 1821 he belonged to, and was an assiduous attendant 
at the club of capitao mor Jos6 Joaquim da Rocha. He was an 
ardent and devoted co-operator in the work which prepared 
the events of the 9th of January, 1822, when the revolution 
for the independence broke out with the declaration of the 
prince regent, Don Pedro, that he toould remain in Brazil, 
disobeying the decrees of the Lisbon cfirtes, and of his father 
King John VI. 

Two days later, on the 11th of January, General Avi- 
lez declared himself, and the auxilliary division which 
he commanded, and which was composed of disciplined 
Portuguese troops, against the decision of the prince 
regent, and occupied the Castle Hill, menacing the city. 
Nobrega then lived in Misericordia Street, on the slope 
of the hill. His patriotic ideas were well-known, and so 
much had he done in favor of the representation taken 
before the prince on the 9th of January, that the Portu- 
guese soldiers insulted him, throwing large stones down 
on his house. 

Fearing for his family, he took them to the house of 
his freind, capitSo m6r Jos^ Joaquim da Rocha, and went 
immediately to Santa Anna field where the native sol- 
diers and patriots had met. 

The services which he rendered during all that day 
and the night of the 11th to the 12th of January, 
aiding in preparing the resistance, in arming the people, 
and in performing urgent and most delicate commis- 
sions, place him in the first rank of the worthies of 
that day and night of glorious devotedness to civism. 
In July, 1822, he was named minister of war, ad in- 

— 58 — 

terim, and on the 1st of August he had the honor of 
signing the decree which declared that any troops 
sent from Portugal or any other nation without the 
previous consent of the prince regent, should be con- 
sidered as enemies and treated as such. 

On the 28th of October, 1822, after the proclamation 
of the independence of Brazil and of the prince Don 
Pedro as Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender 
of Brazil, the Andrada ministry, of which Nolrega was 
still minister of war, ad interim, resigned. But the two 
Andradas, Jos6 Bonifacio and Martim Francisco, returned 
to power on the 30th of the same month, and taking 
extraordinary and oppressive measures opened an inquiry 
respecting a conspiracy which was never proved. Never- 
theless Jos6 Clemente, Father Januario da Cunha Barbosa, 
and the ex-minister of war were exiled to France. 

Neither of these patriots of the independence, nor Joa- 
quim Gongalves Ledo, who in November also fled to 
Buenos Ayres, nor Nobrega, were elected deputies to the 
Brazilian constituinte assembly. 

When he returned home in 1824 he did not influence 
political aflfairs ; but in 1826 the province of Rio de Ja- 
neiro elected him a deputy to the general assembly of the 
first ordinary legislature, and as soon as the chamber was 
installed he had the honor of being elected its president. 

Luiz Pereira da Nobrega was no orator, neither could 
he distinguish himself in parliament. In the army he rose 
to the rank of lieutenant-general. He died in Rio de Janeiro. 

Luiz Pereira da Nobrega de Souza Coutinho was one 
of the worthies of the independence of Brazil, and rend- 
ered that cause such relevant services in 1822 as to 
deserve an honorable place in the history of Brazil. 

XH or JJ^l^TTJJ^Tl-^ 


The back-woodsmen of S. Paulo, the discoverers of the 
vast territory which afterwards formed the province of 
Goyaz, one after the other had seen a century pass by, 
and with all their bravery had been unable to conquer 
and tame the savage tribe of the Cayapd Indians, who 
ruled the wild district of Camapuan 

The intrepid and revengeful Cayapds, in their incursions, 
dared to penetrate to the north of the capitania of S. 
Paulo. They fought courageously with the bandeiras 
( companies or bands of S. Paulo back- woodsmen ), and 
pillaged their caravans. 

Luiz da Cunha Menezes, governor and captain-general 
of the capitania of Goyaz from 1778 to 1783, resolved 
on employing gentle, conciliatory, and humane measures 

— 56- 
to civilize that energetic and warlike tribe, and in 1780 
sent an intelligent common soldier, called Louis, at the 
head of fifty men of Goyaz and three Indians, in friendly 
search of the Cayapds. 

After some months the soldier Louis returned with 
his adventurers to Villa Boa ( afterwards city of Goyaz), 
bringing about forty Cayapds with the chief of the tribe, 
an old man still strong, and of an imposing aspect. 

With the women, a daughter of the chief had come, 
leading a boy by the hand, carrying on her back, in a 
kind of net made of llianes, a beautiful little girl only 
a few months old. 

The old man, flattered by the manner in which he was 
received, and by the favors bestowed on him by the great 
coptom (the governor), resolved on remaining with the 
conquerors, and sent back his warriors, ordering them 
to bring the other Cayapds. 

The little girl, grand-daughter of the chief, was baptized 
and received the name of Damiana, and as the governor 
was her god-father he gave her his surname of da 

The Cayapds, whose numbers were increased by new 
arrivals, were settled in the villages of Maria and S. 

Donna Damiana da Cunha grew up and married a 
Brazilian in the village of S. Jos6. Auguste de Saint 
Hilaire, who went to see her when in Goyaz, mentions 
her with interest and praise. She was a handsome 
woman, amiable, quick-twitted, speaking well the Por- 
tuguese language, and, which is more important, enjoying 
great influence with the Cayapds. 

Harmony and peace, however, did not last long : those 
savages again ret^r^ed to a still more terrible war. For 

— 67- 

not a few of those who deserted from the villages, after 
learning how to manage flre-arms, took those powerful 
instruments to their brothers in the woods. 

Then, when the war raged most furiously, when the 
Cayapds attacked and burned dwellings, destroyed plan- 
tations, killed and pillaged the settlers, and were con- 
sequently pursued with equal cruelty, many of them 
dying in revengeful and horrible massacres, the virtuous 
Donna Damiana da Gunha, a poor and weak lady, com- 
menced the task of Nobrega and Anchieta. 

A heroine of fraternal love, an angel of charity, an 
apostle of faith, a tender and powerful element of civil- 
ization. Donna Damiana da Gunha undertook the great 
and glorious task of going into the woods to call the 
Cayapds to social life, to religion, and to the duties 
of labor. 

This admirable and worthy lady, four times astonished 
the people of Goyaz with her triumphs, which cost her 
long and fatiguing journeys, exposing her life to the attacks 
of wild beasts, and to a thousand other dangers, and months 
of wearisome perseverance, which exhausted her strength. 

She neither took soldiers or warriors with her : she 
only took a heart full of love, a soul replete with faith, 
and suspended over her breast the cross of the Redeemer. 

In 1808, after having penetrated to the South, the 
solitudes of the Araguaya, Donna Damiana returned to 
the village of S. Josd with more than seventy Cayapds 
of both sexes, who were baptized. 

A short time before 1820, she was preparing for a second 
journey, when she received the visit of the learned Saint 
Hilaire, who threw out some doubts with regard to the 
result of the undertaking. Donna Damiana answered: 
« The Cayapds respect me too much not to heed what 
voi. I 8 

-58 — 
t say. » And the success of the second journey equalled 
Ihat of the first. 

In 1824 the noble lady-apostle again penetrated into 
the solitudes of Gamapuan, and after seven months of 
toil and of saintly preaching, she conducted to the bap- 
tismal fount and to civilization one hundred and two 
Cayapds of both sexes. 

She had done a great deal; she was wearied^ abated, and 
weakened with ascending mountains, descending immense 
valleys, and facing dangers and death, and with the thous- 
and privations she suffered in the deserts. 

But ^towards the end of 1829 the Cayapds appeared 
in great numbers and very menacing, spreading destruc- 
tion and death along their path. 

The president of Goyaz, a province of Brazil since 1822, 
appealed to Donna Damiana da Gunha. 

The angel dispelled the tempest: at her voice the Caya- 
pds became pacified, and the self-denying heroine, forget- 
ting the deep alteration in her health, received instruc- 
tions from the president of the province, and went again, 
accompanied by her husband, Manoel Pereira da Cruz, 
and two Indians, man and woman, Jos6 and Maria, 
who were her constant attendants, as a herald of peace 
and friendship, to the civilizing conquest of her brother's 
untameable tribe. 

On the 24th of May, 1830, for the fourth and last time, 
did she dive into the deserts, and at the end of eight 
months, returned to her village on the 12th of Jan- 
uary, 1831. 

It is a glorious but a sad date: the heroine of charity, 
of faith and of civilization returned home dying. 

Broken down and sick, it was only through a heroic 
effort that she had resisted during eight months of inces- 

- 59 -^ 

sant work. Under these circumstances she could do but 
little. The Cayapds reclaimed through her influence were 
not numerous ; Damiana, however, had completed the sac- 
rifice of her life. 

The Indians of the villag went out to meet her with 
dances and festive demonstrations; the president was await- 
ing her with all the authorities of the place. 

Vain honors of this world ! Donna Damiana da Cunha 
entered the village supported by the arms of her Indian 
brothers. The light of her eyes had nearly disappeared, 
and like to the seal of death was the marble pallor of her 

The 12th of January, 1831, announced the death pangs of 
the sainted woman. 

The 12th of January, 1831, is the white and glorious 
shroud of Donna Damiana da Cunha. 

She expired a few days later. 

The last resting-place of this angelic missionary is 
now no longer known. 

Let Donna Damiana da Cunha's epitaph in history be 
simply — Woman apostle. 

TTTTT o:p j'A.T>Txyj^:R-^ 


Exactly at thd same time that Glaudio Manoel da Costa, 
Alvarenga Peixoto, and probably Gonzaga (condemned with 
them), commenced to weave the thread of the unfortunate 
conspiracy of Minas Geraes, in 1788, Vicente Coelho de 
Seabra Silva Telles, whilst yet a student at the University 
of Coimbra, finished writing his Elements of Chemistry, in 
two volumes, of which he published the first in that same 
year after taking his scientific degree. 

It was already no small matter that a mere student 
should have had the courage to publish a work ; but more 
to his glory is the fact that it was the first book on the 
subject written in Portuguese after the great progress 
which chemistry owed to the French scholars who raised 
it 80 high in the last half of the eighteenth century. 

— 62 — 

But the student, who was to become a master, did not 
forget "that he was a Brazilian. He dedicated his w^ork to 
the Rio de Janeiro Literary Society, his love of Brazil 
transpiring in the dedication. 

The second volume of the Elements of Chemistry was 
published in 1790. The part which treats of stones and 
mining works, specially of the gold mines of Brazil, with 
their respective nomenclature, deserves special commen- 

In April, 1789, the Academy of Science.^ of Lisbon pro- 
claimed Seabra their corresponding member. 

The illustrious Brazilian had then already published 
two more dissertations, one on J^er/zi^nte^f on ingeneral^ 
and the other on Heat, which he offered to the learned 
Jos6 Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva, his countryman. 

Besides these works, Vicente Coelho de Seabra wrote : 
Memoria sobre a cultura do riccino ou da mamona 
em Portugal (On the culture of the castor-oil plant, or 
palma-christi, in Portugal) with observations respecting 
the practise in Minas Geraes ; and in 1801, printed in 
Lisbon, the Nomenclatura chimica Portugueza, Franceza 
e Latina (Portuguese, French and Latin Nomenclature 
of Chemistry), a work of great merit, the desinences pro- 
posed being those adopted to this day, with the excep- 
tion of the modifications called for by the progress of 

Towards the latter end of last century the University 
of Coimbra received Seabra as assistant professor of zo- 
ology, mineralogy, botany and agriculture ; but shortly 
after, in March 1804, before completing his fortieth year, 
this distinguished Brazilian was by death taken away from 

The works of Vicente Coelho de Seabra are now almost 

— 63 — 
unknow. This, however's is not surprining when neither 
the date of his birth nor the day of his death are known. 
His illustrious name is consigned here in memory of 
the 13th of January, the day on which the Royal Aca- 
demy of Sciences of Lisbon conferred on him the diploma 
of effective member. 


XJ,V OF J--A.3SrUA.R"y 



A native of the town, afterwards the city, of Olinda, in 
Pernambuco, where he was born in the last quarter of the 
16th century, Paulo de Moura, a legitimate son of Don Fran- 
cisco de Moura and of Donna Genebra Gavalcanti, was of 
noble descent, both on the father's and mother's side ; for 
his father belonged to the Portuguese nobility, and his 
mother, Donna Genebra, was the daughter of the Florentine 
noble Felippe Cavalcanti by his wife, a natural but lefiti 
mated daughter of Jeronymo de Albuquerque, brother in- 
law of the first donee of Pernambuce, Duarte Coelho, and 

▼OL. 1 9 

- 66 — 
of the Indian, Maria do Espirito Santo Arco Verde, whose 
father was the famous Arco Verde (Green Bow), morubir 
xaha, or chief of the tribe of the Tabayares or Tabayaras. 
Don Paulo de Moura, therefore, on the maternal side, 
descended from, and was a^rand son of the Indian Maria 
do Espirito Santo Arco Verde'^ and a nephew of the Brazil- 
ian hero, Jeronymo de Albuquerque, Maranhao, brother of 
Donna Catharina de Albuquerque. His nobility, therefore, 
had no flaw ; for his Indian grandmother, being the daughter 
of a morubixaba, was a princess in the tribe of the Tdbaya- 
res, and as such saved the life of Jeronymo de Albuquerque 
with whom she had fallen in love. 

When only twenty years old he became enamored, and, 
his love being requited, he married Donna Brites de Mello, 
his cousin-german, daughter of Joao Gomes de Mello, the 
younger, and of Donna Margarida de Albuquerque, legiti- 
mate daughter of Donna Genebra Cavalcanti. Donna Maria 
de Mello was the issue of this marriage. D. Brites de Mello 
dying shortly after, left the impassioned husband in afflic- 
tive widowhood. 

Wounded in his most tender love, sad and desponding, 
Don Paulo de Moura abandoned the world and retired to 
the monastery of Nossa Senhora das Neves, and there pro- 
fessed, taking the name of Friar Paulo de Santa Cath- 

Whilst a friar in the seraphic order, he was always dis- 
tinguished for his humility, and for the brotherly love with 
which he treated his companions. On the 14th of January, 
1717, in the chapter held at Santo Antonio of Lisbon he 
was elected custodian of Brazil, and performed th^ duties 
of the charge with as much zeal as prudence. His memory 
is revered by all. 
Donna Maria de Mello, the daughter of Don Paulo de 

— 67 — 

Moura, married Francisco de Mendonga Furtado, grand al- 
caide of MourSo, knight commander of Villa Franca do 
Hira, and governor of Mazagao. From this marriage was 
bom D. Mayor Luiza de Mendonga, who married JoSo de 
Almada de Mello, commissary-general of the Beira cavalry, 
grand alcaide of Palmella, and owner of the entail of 
Olivaes and Souto d'El-Rei : they had issue Donna Thereza 
Luiza de Mendonga who married Manoel de Carvalho de 
Athayde, a gentleman of the royal household, commander 
of the order of Christ, and captain of cavalry in the war of 
succession in Spain. Of this marriage was born Sebastiao 
Jos6 de Carvalho e Mello, afterwards Count of Oeiras, and 
Marquis of Pombal, the ffreat minister of Don Jos6 1. 

Don Paulo de Moura^^grandson of the Indian Maria do 
Espirito Santo Arco Verde, was, therefore, third grand- 
father of the Marquis of Pombal, who was, therefore, sixth 
grandson of that Indian of the Tdbayara tribe. 

This information is found in the Novo Orbe Seraphico, of 
Friar Antonio de Santo Maria Jaboatao. From Donna Maria 
de Mello forward, it accords perfectly with the Portuguese 
Nobiliarchy, From Donna Maria Mello backward to Maria 
do Espirito Santo Arco Verde, there can be no doubt ; for, 
besides the valuable testimony of Jaboatao, who was a con- 
temporary and companion of Friar Paulo de Santa Catharina, 
the marriage of the Florentine Felippe de Cavalcanti with 
Donna Catharina de Albuquerque, legitimate daughter of 
Jeronymo de Albuquerque, and of the Indian Maria do 
Espirito Santo Arco Verde, is a positive and well-known 

:sL'^ OF J-A.l^TXJ-A.I^,•Y 


Bartholomeu Antouio Cordovil was born in 1746 in Rio 
de Janeiro. He saw the light of day on the eve of the sec- 
ond half of the 18th century, in which poets and artists 
of the great Portuguese colony in America without com- 
pact, and naturally, commenced to shew in their works 
the character, subjects, ornaments and the inspired im- 
petus of Brazilianism. 

Bartholomeu Cordovil obtained what education he could 
in Rio de Janeiro, and with but little instruction he 
flourished and shone as a poet of vivid talent and consum- 
mate taste. His verses were much applauded, and they 
attained celebrity. 

The greater part of the poetical compositions of Cordo- 
vil are lost; but, thanks to canon Januario da Cunha Bar- 
boza and other devoted preservers of literary treasures 

- 70 — 
likely to be forgotten through careless negligence of valua- 
ble manuscripts, several pieces of his poetry were print- 
ed in the Pamaso Brazileiro, now rather rare. In these, 
and specially, as authorized critics aver, in the dittyramn 
ho ds nimphas goy annas (Dithyramb to the Nymphs of 
Goyaz), the splendid talent, and the charming and fertile 
fancy of the poet are manifest. He died on the 15th of 
January^ 1810. 



In the city of Laguna, province of Santa Gatharina, 
Jeronymo Francisco Goelho was bom on the 30th of Sep- 
tember, 1806. He was the legitimate son of Major Antonio 
Francisco Goelho, and of Donna Francisca Lena doEspirito 
Santo Goelho. 

When three years old he came with his parents to Rio 
de Janeiro, and on attaining his seventh year accompanied 
his father, who had been appointed to the command of a 
battalion of infantry and inspector of the troops in the 
province of Gear&. He there enlisted, as a cadet, in the 
artillery company on the 17th of December, 1813. 

In 1815 he returned to Rio de Janeiro and was dis- 
charged from the service. As, when only nine years old, 
he revealed remarkable intelligence, his uncle, Dr. JoSo 
Francisco Goelho, adopted him that he might enter a lit- 

— 72 — 
erary career. In that same year, however, the hopeful 
boy lost both his father and his uncle, and was left in ex- 
treme poverty under the sole protection of his mother, who 
spared no sacrifice on his behalf. 

On the 18th of Feburary, 1818, he again enlisted in 
a regiment of artillery, and ardently studied Latin, 
French, English, and rational and moral philosophy in 
the military academy. He became a distinguished stu- 
dent ; gained the first prize two years, and finally took 
his degrees in mathematics and engineering. 

By competitive and public examinations he rose in rank, 
so that, in 1824, when only eighteen years old, he became 

The prohibition of promotions in the army, and its dis- 
organization in 1831, delayed his military career. 
||[In 1834, he was transferred to the corps of engineers, 
and only in 1837 was he promoted to the rank of major. 
Thenceforward, however, new promotions raised him to 
the rank of a brigadier-general on the 14th of March, 1855. 

The high capacity of Jeronymo Coelho, however, was 
availed of in politics and in the administration. The prov- 
ince of Santa Gatharina gave him a seat in the pro- 
vincial assembly from 1835 to 1837, and in the chamber 
of deputies from 1838 to 1847, and also in the legis- 
lature which commenced in 1857, of which he did not see 
the end. 

In parliament he was always a liberal; but never re- 
fused his vote to measures indispensable to the regular 
course of government, even when his adversaries were 
in power. 

As an orator he was fluent, clear, logical, and sometimes 
energetic, but he was never intemperate. 

On the 2nd of February, 1844, he entered the cabine 

-73 — 

organized by the Viscount of Macahe, as minister of war. He 
debated brilliantly with the conservative opposition in 
the chamber until its dissolution. 

In that ministry he had the glory of drawing up the 
instructions of the 18th of December, 1844, which put 
an end to the rebellion of the province of Rio Grande do 
Sal, which had been raging since 1835. 

In 1848 Jeronymo Goelho was appointed president of 
the province of Pari, where he acquired fame through 
his tolerant, economical, and wise administration. He 
did not interfere in the election for deputies, which then 
took place, except to maintain the liberty of the vote. 
He also opposed with patriotic energy the occupation of 
Amapd, for the second time resolved on by the French of 

In 1850 he left the presidency of Pari, and, in Rio 
de Janeiro, he served successively as director of the gun- 
powder manufactory, as director of the war arsenal, and 
as director of the army school of practise. 

In March, 1856, he was appointed president of the prov- 
ince of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, where he ren- 
dered relevant services, the most important of which 
was systematizing and giving an impulse to public works, 
and to roads which he ordered to be opened. 

An arduous task which he undertook must not be 
forgotten : he was appointed chief of the corps of engineers 
charged with measuring and making out the twenty-five 
leagues of land which formed the complement of the 
dowry of the Most Serene Princess of Joinville. These 
lands are in the solitudes of S. Francisco, in the prov- 
ince of Santa Gatharina. After five months of most fa- 
tiguing toil Jeronymo Goelho renounced his ordinary pay 

▼OL. I 10 

- 74 - 
and valuable extraordinary gratifications granted to the 
other members of the commission. 

In 1857 having been again elected by his province, 
he took his seat as deputy, and on the 4th of March, 
as minister of war, entered the cabinet of which the 
Marquis of Olinda was chief. 

Though his strength was failing, and though already 
suflfering from a painful disease which was mining his 
life, Jeronymo Coelho, during the sessions, unflinchingly 
faced the numerous and vehement conservative opposi- 

With this effort he became extenuated. In the follow- 
ing year he ventured to continue the debate ; but shortly 
found it impossible to keep in the field, and he retired 
from the ministry. During six months medical science 
made every eflfort to save him, but at last despaired. 

As a last resource, Jeronymo Coelho went to breathe 
the pure and healthy air of Nova Friburgo. It was too 
late; after much suffering he died serene and resigned 
on the 16th of January, 1860. 

His intelligence was as brilliant as his heart was good ; 
frank, faithful, honorable and disinterested. He died, as 
he always lived, irf poverty. 

He was a member of the council of H. M. the Emperor, 
a chamberlain in the Imperial Household, commander 
of the order of S. Bento de Aviz, and of the Imperial 
order of the Rose; a brigadier-general in the army, member 
of the supreme military council, and deputy to the general 
legislative assembly. 


mm mm RntEiRo 

JoSo Gaetano dos Santos, the prodigious Brazilian dra- 
matic actor, was not a great artist, but he was a great 
genius, and, without doubt, for this reason he died with- 
out leaving a school ; the art necesoary to create it was 

Nevertheless, the splendor of his triumphs served as an 
incentive which led many young Brazilians to the boards 
flushed with the proud aspiration of having him for a 
master. Unfortunately, however, JoEo Caetano could not 
transmit to them the flame of his genius, nor initiate 
them in the delicate and profound secrets or precepts 
of dramatic art which he guessed when acting. He could 
not however teach them in school, not having himself 
sufficient instruction nor the necessary studies of its 
principles and rules. 

— 76 — 

Nearly all the pupils of Joao Caetano remained in 
most obscure mediocrity, and from this sad condition, 
only the few, the very few, escaped who, through the 
efforts of their own intelligence, advanced beyond the 
close precincts of the most limited instruction in the 
trivial and practical notions of acting. JoSo Caetano could 
not impart that which he had not to give : severe and 
instructed art; he could not transmit to others the 
riches of the treasure in which he abounded, his genius, 
which achieved wonders. 

Among the young enthusiasts of the great dramatic 
actor, who entered his company of the theatre of S. Pe- 
dro de Alcantara, was Joaquim Augusto Ribeiro. 

Born in the city of Rio de Janeiro on the 6th of June, 
1825, Joaquim Augusto was the son of Joao Thiago de 
Souza, an adoptive Brazilian, and of Donna Marianna Joa- 
quina de Jesus. 

Poor, and having but very little more than a primary 
education; but talented, and given to reading poetry 
and drama in the Portuguese language. Being an admirer 
of Joao Caetano, he took a fancy to the theatre ; he 
wished to be an actor and to appear on the boards. The 
Brazilian Talma received him with but doubtful hopes, 
and almost through mere condescension. 

Joaquim Augusto in reality did offer himself in very 
unfavorable physical conditions for an actor. It is true 
that he had an agreeable and handsome lace, an elegant 
figure, fine and eloquent eyes ; but he was rather deaf, 
spoke with difficulty almost bordering on stammering, 
and had an ungracious walk, which made him appear, 
if he in reality was not, a little lame. 

Nature, indeed, appeared to have closed the doors of 

— 77 - 

the theatre to Joaquim Augusto, but JoSo Gaetano, who 
was not exacting, opened them for him. 

Joaquim Augusto was a mam of strong will, remark- 
ably intelligent, and indefatigable at his work. 

He took dramatic art seriously to heart; he studied it 
and taught himself. Conscious of the physical defects which 
thwarted his aspirations to distinction in the pro- 
fession which he had adopted, he toiled with admirable 
patience and perseverance to correct them, and gradually 
he gained applause and the name of — artist. 

He appeared on the boards before he was twenty years 
old. In 1851 he created the role of Josd, in the comedy 
Fantasma Branco — and later on others followed, much 
applauded by the press. 

Leaving JoSo Gaetano, he acted in the capital and in 
different provinces of the Empire. When he had gained 
considerable instruction in his profession, and when he 
had, in a great measure, overcome or dissimulated his phy- 
sical deficiences, he went to Portugal. He acted in the 
cities of Oporto and Lisbon, gaining applause, and euphon- 
ical critcism, and honorable appreciation of his artistic 
merit from literary men and authorized judges, and re- 
turned to his country, to attain new triumphs. 

In the city of Rio de Janeiro he was the chief of the Oym- 
niosio Dramatico theatre, the most legitimate, though, at 
the end of a few months of splendor, the unfortunate re- 
presentive, of dramatic art. 

Almost simultaneously with Joao Gaetano, who had 
returned from Europe, having in Paris been present at 
the representation of the drama — Prestigiateur, Joaquim 
Augusto, who was lessee of the Gymnasia, announced the 
representation of the same drama translated into Portu- 

— 78- 

It was like a duel between two paladins, on the same 
field, and with arms supposed to be equal. 

The two men exhibited themselves in the contest as 
they were. They courageously and nobly submitted to 
comparison, and to the judgment of the more enlightened 
public of the capital of the Empire. 

JoEo Gaetano showed eruptions of genius which Joa- 
quim Augusto was far from attaining. 

Joaquim Augusto, on the other hand, displayed so much 
art as to have often exceeded JoSo Gaetano. 

This was, undoubtedly,the most brilliant and the proud- 
est triumph of Joaquim Augusto. 

To contend with JoSo Gaetano and not be vanquished , 
was a glory to which, until then, no other dramatic actor 
had aspired in the Brazilian theatres. 

Joaquim Augusto Ribeiro again returned to the prin- 
cipal provinces of the Empire, conspicuous everywhere 
for his remarkable talent and deep study of art. 

On returning to Rio de Janeiro, he had the great 
displeasure of witnessing the shameful decadence of the 
national dramatic theatre in the capital of the Empire. 

Joaquim Augusto Ribeiro died on the 17th of January, 
1873, at Engenho-Novo, in the district of the capital. 

After Joao Gaetano dos Santos, he was a dramatic 
actor of the highest and most justly acquired reputation 
of his time, and his is the glory of having been one 
of the first interpreters of the school called realistic. 

High comedy and the drama were the fields in which 
he culled his best flowers. 

As lessee or as partner in undertakings of this nat- 
ure, Joaquim Augusto Ribeiro always encouraged na- 

- 79 ~ 
tive dramatic literature, giving preference to the dramas 
and comedies of Brazilian authors. 

A distinguished and patriotic artist, he honored himself 
^with two titles, which recommend his memory to the 
latitude of Brazil:— a patriot and an artist. 



Angelo Moniz da Silva Ferraz died suddenly on the 
18th of January, 1867, in the beautiful and picturesque city 
of Petropolis, shortly after his fiftieth birthday. A few 
days before he had been created Baron of Uruguayana, 
and had not had time even to avail himself legally of 
the honorable distinction conferred on him. 

Having distinguished himself in parliament, his name 
as a paladin of debate was simply --Ferraz -: it ought to 
be preserved. 

Having taken his degree in the faculty of law of Olin- 
da, Ferraz, a talented and diligent native of Bahia, was 
elected a deputy by the province, which had already 
tried and applauded him in the provincial assembly. 

Ferraz took his seat in the chamber of deputies in the 

TOL. I 11 

-88 — 
legislature which commenced in 1843. He distingoished 
himself as a speaker for his close logic, and sometimes 
for his impetuous eloquence. In a political assembly, in 
which there was no opposition, being unanimously min- 
isterial, he must have toiled hard to have attained dis- 
tinction, being then a young and new member. 

That chamber being dissolved, he was again returned 
by his province in 1845. He led the opposition con- 
sisting only of three or four deputies, received the cele- 
brated name of chief of the patrol, and confirmed his 
reputation as a most able parliamentary speaker. 

In the following legislature he abandoned the conserv- 
ative party to which he had belonged, to support the 
liberal cabinet of the wise and virtuous Paula e Souza, 
a profound idealist, and a weak and discouraged states- 
man, who allowed his opponents to snatch power 
from him. 

In that catastrophe of the liberal party, Ferraz made 
a remarkable speech, closing with a strain of false judg- 
ment, which, nevertheless, aroused the enthusiasm of 
the vanquished now in the opposition. Before sitting down 
he exclaimed: «Some suicides are glorious !» and the cheers 
drowned the voice of the glorifier of the least justifiable 
of political suicides. 

Ferraz was then inspector of the custom-house of Rio 
de Janeiro, the first of the Empire, and there left the 
name of a very intelligent, active and enlightened admin- 

Seeing the confusion into which political parties had 
fallen , he became, as it were, independent of political 
leagues. He was appointed president of the province of 
Rio Orande do Sul, and being again sent to parliament, 
he voted at first with the conservative ministry, and 

immediately afterwards, nearly alone^or rather abandoned 
by pusillanimous and unfaithful companions who had 
combined an alliance, he energetically opposed the cab- 
inet of the Marquis of Parani, the man of strong will, 
and who then commanded almost irresistibly. 

During these contests Ferraz, who had been elected in 
the triple list by the province of Bahia, was by the Emper- 
or chosen senator in 1856. 

Three years later, during the heat of parliamentary de- 
bates on systems of political economy, being called upon to 
form a ministry, he became president of the council and 
minister of finance. 

In 1865 he became minister of war in the cabinet organ- 
ized by the Marquis of Olinda, and during the war with 
Paraguay displayed great activity. 

A Paraguayan army having in that year invaded the 
province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, Ferraz, as minis- 
ter of war, had the honor of accompanying H. M. the Em- 
peror Don Pedro II, who, leaving the capital of the Empire, 
went to the field of battle in the invaded province to exult 
with the country over the victory of Uruguayana, where 
the Paraguayan General Estigarribia surrendered a pris- 
oner with all the forces under his command . 

So diligent, solicitous, and energetic was Ferraz as min- 
ister of war, that when, in August, 1866, a new ministry 
was formed, in which councilor Zacharias de Goes e Yascon- 
cellos was president of the council and minister of finance, 
he had to continue in the cabinet, with the same port-folio 
until a few months later, when being much abated by a 
disease of the heart which so much arduous toil had aggra- 
vated, he left the ministry and went to Petropolis to die. 



The mind of Trajano GalvSo de Canralho was full of 
inspirations, he however had no aspirings of ambition. He 
had a fine talent bnt it was impaired by listlessness; it was 
like beautiful music played in solitude. Nature made him 
a poet, but he left only one book, or a limited collection 
of pieces of poetry, many of incontestable merit and 
which promised more brilliant and masterly compositions, 
when death overtook him at the age of thirty-four. 

Trajano was bom on the 12th of January, 1830, in Bar- 
cellos, near the town of Nossa Senhora de Nazareth, on the 
banks of the river Mearim, in the province of MaranhSo. 
His parents were Francisco Joaquim de Garvalho e Donna 
Lourenga Virginia GalvSo. 

Losing his father when still an infant, he was adopted 

— 88 — 

by his godfather and paternal uncle Raymundo Alexandre 
de Carvalho, whose wife, his godmother, Donna Maria 
Cecilia Bayma de Carvalho, lavished upon him the cares 
of a loving mother until he was eight years old, when his 
step-father and his mother, took him to Portugal. 

When fourteen years old Trajano had finished the pre- 
paratory studies necessary to matriculate in the faculties 
of law of BrazU, and his step-father sent him, in 1845, to 
S. Paulo to graduate in laws. 

Not arriving in time to matriculate in the Academy, he 
delayed passing the examinations and continued to study 
the preparatory subjects. As, however, he was an excellent 
flute-player, he, poor freshman, was constantly figuring 
in the serenades of the veterans, hence the undeserved 
name of a lazy student which he acquired and which 
terrified him so much that three years passed without his 
being able to muster suflScient courage to go up for his 

In 1849, owing to the persistent advice of the distinguished 
Dr. Antonio Henrique Leal, also a native of MaranhSo, 
who was then studying medicine in Rio de Janeiro, Trajano 
went to Pemambuco, where he passed the preparatory 
examinations and matriculated in the faculty of laws of 
Olinda. He passed the first and second years with very good 
notes ; but in his third year, an epigram, a poetic trick, 
applauded by the students, cost him a bad note in his 
examination. This stain so hurt his feelings, that, going to 
pass the vacation in MaranhSo, he went to his god-father's 
estate on the Upper Mearim, and there remained. He, how- 
ever, continued to read and to study, until^ in 1854, his 
cousin, Raymundo de Carvalho, who was studying in Per- 
nambuco, prevailed on him to return. 

Trajano at last took his degree of Batchelor of Law 

— 87 - 
returned to the Upper Mearim and married his cousin and 
companion from childhood, Donna Maria Gertrudes de 
Garvalho ; and having a great inclination for a rural life, 
he refused to enter into competition for a chair in the 
Lyceum of the capital of Maranhao, declined the appoint- 
ment of public prosecutor in the circuit of the Upper 
Mearim, and did not even accept the place of his step-father's 
attorney which was offered him, not only with the usual 
commission, but with a house and domestic service free. 

Trajano, however, was not losing his time ; the hours 
^w^hich he could spare from the administration of the estate 
he employed in the study of good books, and in the culture 
of poetry. In 1863 his friends obtained his consent to the 
publication of nearly all his poetic productions in a volume 
i0crith the title : As tres Lyras (The Three Lyres). 

Trajano GalvSo de Garvalho died in the midst of his 
cherished solitude on the 14th of July, 1864. 

Besides his book — As trbs Ltras — Trajano wrote in 
prose the critical opinion which is found in the first edi- 
tion of the PosTiLLAS DE Grammatica of F. Sotero dosReis' 
and two humoristic articles published in the Diario do 
Maranhdo and the Progresso. 

In his poetical works he displays the spirit of a close and 
subtle observer of scenes and customs, which he paints with 
the true local colors. His language is correct without aflfec- 
tation ; his metre is natural. He was a witty critic, and 
an inspired patriot. 

"XX. OF J-A^3SrU-A.II.7Z- 


Though a Portuguese by birth and of noble descent, 
Mem de S& was a Brazilian, or belongs principally to the his- 
tory of Brazil in consequence of the services he rendered, 
of the tomb in which his mortal remains were laid, and 
of the branch of his family which became Brazilian. 

Having been appointed governor-general of Brazil (he 
was the third), Mem de Sk arrived at the city of S. Sal- 
vador da Bahia, and, in 1558, succeeded Duarte da Costa 
in that charge, which he exercised uninterruptedly till 
1572, when he delivered it to his successor, dying short- 
ly after, being buried in the Jesuit church in the city 
of S. Salvador, as is seen by the epitaph on his tomb. 

In his long administration of nearly 15 year, Mem de 
S& had to overcome immense difficulties of different kinds : 

VOL. I 12 

- 90 - 
the war against the Indians in the capitanias of Porto Segu- 
ro andllhdos, where his son Fernando de Sk died, the 
terrible conjuration of the Tamoyos in the capitania of S. 
Vicente, in which his principal auxiliaries and negotiators 
of peace were the enlightened Jesuits Nobregaand Anchie- 
ta ; the plague and the famine which devastated the capi- 
tania of Bahia, and unpeopled the settlements of the 
friendly Indians, who died of small pox or fled in terror to 
the woods. Colonists, however, continued to arrive, o rder 
was preserved in the administration, and the empire of the 
law, still more difiScult to maintain in sparse colonies, and 
in numerous distant villages inhabited by numbers of 
criminals and men of dissolute habits. 

The governor-general did a great deal towards the peace- 
ful and humane conquest of the Indians who settled in 
villages, being their eflBcient and official protector ; justly 
confiding in the miracles of the Cross which the Jesuits with 
apostolic faith carried into the midst of the savages in the 
depths of their forests. 

But, in this continuous, severe and arduous toil of nearly 
fifteen years, the most conspicuous labor of Mem de SA was 
the military undertaking which he commenced, and which 
he had the glory of bringing to a brilliant close on the 20th 
of January, 1567. 

It is necessary to summarize in dates a long history : 

In 1555 Nicolas Durand Villegaignon, a vice-admiral of 
Britany and a Knight of Malta, under the protection of 
Admiral Coligny, arrived in the bay of Riode Janeiro, with 
an expedition of French Calvinists, and occupied and forti- 
fied a small island, to which he gave the name of his pro- 
tector, but which perpetuates and preserves to this day 
his own — Villegaignon. 

The king of France, who persecuted the Calvinists in his 

-91 - 

European kingdom, applauded the French occupation of Rio 
de Janeiro, despite its Calvinism, and assisted an important 
auxiliary force which was sent from France in 1556, under 
the command of Boisle Conte, and which arrived at its des- 
tination in the following year. 

In 1558, Villegaignon, having oppressed his companions, 
lost their confidence, and after many disputes and disagree- 
ments he returned to France, repudiated Calvinism and en- 
listed in the party of the Duke of Guise. But the French 
colony remained in Rio de Janeiro, and such was their con- 
fidence that they had already determined on the names of 
Antarctic France and HenrivUle for the lands of the ap- 
proaching conquest, and for the capital which they intended 

In 1560 Mem de SA received orders from Lisbon to expel 
the French from Rio de Janeiro, and, on embarking to exe- 
cute them, he answered the Queen regent Donna Ca* 
tharina : 

« I immediately prepared in the best way I could, 
which was the worst in which a governor could do it. » 

In truth, his army consisted of 120 Portuguese and 140 
auxiliary Indians. With these few men, however, he took 
the island defended by 150 French and a thousand Ta- 

Being routed, the French and Indians fled to the near 
continent. The forces of Mem de Sk being insufficient to 
occupy the island permanently, he destroyed the fort and 

The French returned to the island, fortified it in a more 
efficient manner, and, on the continent nearly in front, 
they established their camp and the defenses of Urt4gu- 

In 1564, Estacio de SA, a nephew of thegoyernor, arrived 

in Bahia commanding two galleons, and bringing orders to 
his uncle to assist him with all the forces of the colony to 
expel the French from Rio de Janeiro, and to found there 
a city. 

It was almost impossible to follow the orders of the Por- 
tuguese government, as the colony had no force. Memde Si, 
however, gave what aid he could to his nephew, who receiv- 
ing, at the capitania of Espirito Santo the heroic morufti- 
xaba Ararygboia, with his herds, and some auxiliaries 
from S. Vicente, enters the bay of Rio de Janeiro in March, 
1566, lands near the Sugar Loaf and, between this moun- 
tain and the hill of S. Joao, fortifies a position and lays the 
foundation of the future city to which he gives the name 
of S. Sebastido ; because Sebastiao was the name of the 
king of Portugal. 

The year 1566 passed in repeated and fruitless skirmishes 
between the Portuguese and the French, who, though 
such enemies, were very near each other. In November, 
however, Mem de Si being informed by Anchieta, who had 
gone to Bahia to take holy orders, of the perilous position 
of Estacio de Si, called out volunteers, took up arms, 
went for more combatants to Espirito Santo and S. Vicente, 
and arriving in Rio de Janeiro on the 18th of January, 1567, 
encouraged the Portuguese who were on the verge of de- 
spair for want of ammunition and provisions. 

Mem de Si could not submit to remaining on the defen- 
sive ; but consented to wait one day, for the 20th of January 
was the day of the feast of S. Sebastian, the tutelary saint 
of the newly founded city. 

On the 20th of January Mem de Si celebrated the feast 
of S. Sebastian by attacking the French. The flght was ter- 
rible ; UrtiQu^mirim was the first and most difiScult camp 
to assault and take ; then Villegaignon and some other for- 

tifled points were taken through the bravery of the men 
commanded by the governor-general. 

The greater part of the French fell in the flght; the rest 
were terrified, and fled into the forest at the mercy of the 
Tamoyos. Not a single Frenchman remained on the island, 
or on the continent of the bay of Rio de Janeiro. 

Estacio de S&, wounded in the face by an arrow, died a 
few days later. 

In the service of Brazil, in that of the colony and domin- 
ions of Portugal, Mem de Sk lost a nephew, having pre- 
viously lost a son. 

He adopted Brazil for his country, the land on which the 
blood of those he loved had been spilt. 

Mem de S4 then founded the city of S. Sebasti^lo do Rio 
de Janeiro, changing the seat from the place which Estacio 
de S4 had chosen, between the Sugar Loaf and the hill of 
S. Joao, to the hill then called S. Januario and now Cos- 
tello, from which it descended and gradually increased, 
until it attained the size which now allows fancy to 
picture its future greatness. 

As soon as the city was founded and regularity had been 
introduced in the administration, Mem de S& left as gover- 
nor of the place another of his nephews, Salvador Corrfia 
de Si, who proved himself worthy of his uncle. 

Mem de Si, having distinguished himself by so many 
and such important services rendered to the colonization 
and to the nascent civilization of Brazil, being also the 
glorious founder of the city which is the capital of the 
Empire of Brazil, can never be forgotten without the most 
culpable ingratitude of Brazilians who owe veneration and 
homage to his illustrious name. 



When the royal family of Portugal transmigrated to 
Brazil, the ship that conveyed the prince regent, afterwards 
King John YI, brought also the captain of marine artillery 
Gandido Roberto Jorge Bellegarde and his wife Donna Maria 
de Niemeyer Bellegarde and their two sons, then yery 
young, who were to become distinguished^ and serviceable 

The younger, Henrique Luiz de Niemeyer Bellegarde, 
then five years old, was born in Lisbon, on the 12th of 
October, 1802. 

Henrique Bellegarde having been carefully educated,en- 
listed when yet exceedingly young in the corps of artillery 

— 96 — 
volunteers, and entered as a student of mathematics in the 
military school created in Rio de Janeiro. When fifteen 
years old he was promoted to be an officer ; in 1820 he was 
a first-lieutenant, and in the following year became adju- 
tant-captain to the governor and captain-general of Mo- 
zambique, Lieutenant-General Jofto Manoel da Silva. 

On returning to Brazil in 1822 he adhered to the cause of 
the independence and finished in a brilliant manner his stud- 
ies at the military school. Being then an engineer, he im- 
mediately served his adopted country in a professional 
capacity, being employed on the fortifications which were 
then being constructed to proctect the capital from the 
expected Portuguese invasion. 

In 1825 he went to study in Europe, by order of the 
government, and in the three years which he remained in 
France, he graduated as bachelor of belles-lettres, and 
received the diploma of geographical engineer, and obtained 
besides very honorable certificates from the school of 
Fonts et chaussis which he also attended. 

In 1828 Henrique Bellegarde was charged with differ- 
ent commissions in Rio de Janeiro, and was promoted to 
the rank of major of engineers, and in 1831 he obtained 
just praise on publishing his Rbsumo da Historia do Brazil, 
of which he published a second edition in 1834. 

From 1831 to 1838 the enlightened intelligence and 
admirable activity of Henrique Bellegarde were displayed 
in important works. He dropped the author's pen, and 
went in his professional capacity to erect the Cabo Frio 
light-house, improving the entrance of the bay at the same 
cape, and placing on the points of the rocks thick iron 
rings, both of which works recommend his memory to 

— 97 — 

The bridges in the city of Campos and at Itajuru ; the 
canals of Ururahy and Maric4 and other works com- 
menced or projected are sufficient to attest the capacity of 
the engineer, and his activity and diligence after his labors 
in Cabo Frio. 

Such severe work can not be done with impunity. 

Henrique Luiz de Niemeyer Bellegarde died of pernicious 
fever in Cabo Frio on the 21st of January, 1839. 

Death overtook him in his thirty-seventh year, when 
the most brilliant future awaited him. 


•y^TTT OF JA.3SrXJ-A.H"2' 


The 22nd of January, 1532, is the famous date of the 
first, though rude, attempt at civilization on the soil 
of, till then wild, Brazil. 

To Don Manoel, King of Portugal, Brazil only owed 
unprofitable explorations. Having been discovered in 1500, 
Brazil was at first considered (one can hardly believe 
it) a sterile and umproductive country, serving only as 
a calling place for vessels on their voyage to Asia. Later 
on the country was better appreciated, but the East Indies 
absorbed the ambition and the glory of the Portuguese. 

The rivalry and the distrust of the Spaniards who 
frequented the River Plate, apprehensions of the ambi- 
tious projects of France, from whose ports vessels came to 
the coast of Brazil to load the precious wood that gave 
its name to the country, cementing by this means their 

— 100 - 
friendship with the tribes of savages, were the reasons 
which induced the king, Don JoSo III, to turn his at- 
tention to this large portion of South America. 

After an unimportant expedition from 1526 to 1527, 
under the direction of Christovao Jacques, Don Joao III, 
in December, 1530, despatched from Lisbon Martin Af- 
fonso de Souza, a member of his council, as commander- 
in-chief of the fleet composed of five sail and four hun- 
dred men, to guard the coast of Brazil. Martin Aflfonso 
de Souza, who signed documents with the title of Gov-- 
ernor of New Liizitania, was empowered to give and dis- 
tribulo Icinds to those who might desire them, and to 
pass the respective title deeds, and also to create notaries 
public and other offices of justice. 

Martin AfFonso de Souza, came therefore also charged 
with establishing a colonial nucleus in Brazil. 

The difierent episodes of his interesting and rather adven- 
turous expedition can not be related here. 

With regard to the seat of the colonial nucleus, it 
is surprising, and not easily explained, why he should 
not have chosen Bahia de Todos os Santos, where he 
met Diogo Alvares, a shipwrecked Portuguese, and the 
celebrated Caramuru, and which offered him all the ad- 
vantages of an excellent seaport, as well as the sincere 
aid of the TupinambA Indians, who obeyed Caramuru; 
nor the reason why he should have undervalued the 
magnificent situation, the grandeur, and the excellent 
conditions of the bay of Rio de Janeiro, where, however, 
he remained three months and built two brigantines^ 
entertained friendly relations with the Indian chief who 
governed the land, and obtained the provisions which 
the place could furnish for one year for four hundred 

- 101 — 

Whatever might have been his reasons for underrating 
Bahia de Todos os Santos, which later became the seat 
of the first capital of Brazil-colony, and for abandoning 
the bay of Rio de Janeiro, whose calm waters now reflect 
the capital of the Empire of Brazil, it is certain that 
Martin Aflfonso de Souza, on the 22d of January, 1532, 
founded the first Portuguese colony in Brazil, on the 
island to which he gave the name of the saint venerated 
on that day, 5. Vicente. 

The warlike Indians of the locality had commenced 
serious hostilities against Martin Afibnso, when, fortune 
favoring him, he received the unexpected and providential 
assistance of JoEo Ramalho, who, twenty years before 
had been shipwrecked on the coast, in a lost and unknown 
vessel, and who, in his greatest distress had received aid 
and protection from the savages who afterwards respected 
him, the civilized man. 

JoSo Ramalho, who lived in the interior and had taken 
as companion, or illegitimate wife, the daughter of Ty- 
birigi, the chief of the Indians who ruled that part of 
the country, on hearing the news of the arrival of the 
Portuguese, descended the sea range of mountains, ar- 
rived with Tybirigd at S. Vicente, disarmed the hostile 
Indians, and placed himself under the orders of Martin 
Affonso, who thenceforward always received assistance 
and support from the savages who at the outset had been 
his enemies. 

The appearance of Joao Ramalho in that part of Brazil 
is by som.e said to have been due to other causes and 
not to a shipwreck, as will be mentioned in the re- 
spective biographical article. What, however, is certain is 
the great assistance rendered by him to Martin Afibnso 
de Souza. 

— 102 — 

Besides the colony of S. Vicente, Martin AflFonso de 
Souza, guided by JoSo Ramalho, founded that of Pira- 
tininga on the banks of the river of that name, nine 
leagues into the interior, on a beautiful and fertile plain 
beyond the sea range, which at that place was afterwards 
named Gubat^U) range. 

After distributing lands among the colonists, and having 
named officers of justice in the two villages of S. Vi- 
cente and Piratininga, he named Jo9lo Ramalho guarda 
mdr of the latter, and Gon^alo Monteiro of the former. 
Having in this way fulfilled his mission he returned to 
Portugal in 1533. 

Whilst in S. Vicente this enlighened governor, who 
introduced colonization into Brazil, established in the 
neighborhood of the colony or village of that name the 
first sugar-mill seen in the country, having sent for 
sugar-cane plants from the island of Madeira. 

When in 1533 Don Joao III resolved to divide Brazil 
into hereditary capitanias, in order more easily to advance 
its colonization, he bestowed on Martin Afi'onso de Souza 
the capitania of S. Vicente, which comprised one hundred 
leagues of coast, as is declared in the letter which the 
king wrote to him. 

Martin Afibnso de Souza did not again return to Brazil ; 
his name however is perpetuated in history, and two 
Brazilian heroes, two Indians, also adopted it at the bap- 
tismal font: 

Martin Aflfonso de Mello — Tybirigd, 

Martin Afibnso de Souza — Ararygboia. 

9 M W H «c 

OF j-.A.X\rxj.A.R"sr 



This eminent man who, in the opinion of every one, 
possessed an enlightened intelligence and vast learning, 
was yet greater than it was generally supposed. 

He was the legitimate son of capitao m6r Manoel de 
Araujo da Cunha and Donna Marianna Clara da Cunha, 
both natives of Minas Geraes. He was born on the 15th of 
September, 1793, in Congonhas de Sabari, and up to his 
thirteenth year was named Candido Cardozo Canuto da 
Cunha ; from that age forward he was, with his father's 
consent, called Candido Jos6 de Araujo Vianna. 

He received preparatory instruction in his native province 

— 104 — 
under the tuition of Dr. Jos6 Teixeira da Fonseca Vascon- 
cellos, afterwards Viscount of Caeth6, and of the excellent 
preacher, poet, and latinist. Father Joaquim Machado Ri- 
beiro, who foretold his brilliant future, due to his great 
intelligence and application. 

Araujo Vianna was then already, what he continued to 
be all his life, a model of excessive modesty, which im- 
pressed his character with exaggerated timidity. 

On the 9tji of February, 1815, the prince regent, shortly 
after King Don Joao VI, appointed him adjuant of the 
militia of the circuit of Sabari ; but in 1816 he went to 
Portugal, and on the 15th of October he matriculated in 
the University of Coimbra, in the course of law. 

On the 9th of June, 1821, he took his degree as Bachelor 
of Laws. In Coimbra he earned the best academical repu- 
tation ; in the yearly examinations he always passed 
with distinction. Besides the course of laws which he 
studied, he attended lectures on medicine, and cultivated 
literature and poetry with ardor. He belonged to the 
enlightened circle of Manoel Alves Branco, Odorico Men- 
des, and, besides others, of Almeida Garret, who often 
after spoke of him with enthusiasm. 

On returning to Brazil with the intention of entering the 
bar, he had to abandon the idea, having being appointed 
judge of the probate court of the circuit of Sabari, but 
before taking possession of his charge he was appointed 
district judge of Marianna by decree of the 18th of Decem- 
ber of the same year, and by a ministerial order of the 23d 
of April, 1822, he had to exercise the functions of judge of 
treassury suits, of absentees and of the probate court. 

Then come fifty-three years and more than a month 
of relevant services during which Araujo Vianna, after 
wards Viscount and later, Marquis of Sapucahy, was 

- 105 — 
disputed by magistrature, by politics, by the high admin- 
istration, and by functions as high and honorable as they 
were arduous and delicate. 

In the magistrature some dates summarize his brilliant 
career. On the 10th of November, 1825, he was reintegrated 
in the charge of district judge, and before concluding 
the three years of the commission, he was, by decree of 
the 17th of May, 1827, appointed a member of the court 
of appeal of Pernambuco, when by decree of the 13th 
of December, 1832, he was removed to that of Bahia, and 
afterwards to Rio de Janeiro, serving several times as 
audit judge in the junta of commerce of the capital. From 
the court of appeal of Rio de Janeiro he was raised to 
the pinnacle of the magistrature as minister of the Supreme 
Court of Justice, obtaining his superannuation by decree 
of the 12th of September, 1860, after serving some years. 
In the exercise of the magistrature his judgments 
were always enlightened by his profound knowledge of 
the law, and were guaranteed by his sense of justice. 
It is not easy to judge him separately in p«)litics and 
in the high administration. 

In 1823 he was elected a deputy to the Brazilian con- 
stituinte by the province of Minas Geraes, and so highly 
was he considered then, that the delicate and important 
task of editing the Diario of that assembly was confided 
to him. 

In 1826 he took his seat in the first legistature of 
the Empire, as a deputy elected by his province, who 
always re-elected him until the fourth legislature ; send- 
ing his name twice in triple lists for senators. Araujo 
Yianaa being chosen senator the second time by the 
regent, in the name of the emperor, on the 29th of 
October, 1839. 

VOL. 1 14 

- 106 — 
On the 13th of November, 1826, Araujo Vianna was. 
by imperial letter, named president of the province of 
Alagoas. His connection had always been with the liberal 
deputies of his province. In 1826, however, the liberal 
opposition appeared straggling and with no parliamentary 
combinations, barely using their right to examine and 
censure; besides which Araujo Vianna, being very moderate 
and doctrinal in politics, could not belong to the op- 
position, afterwards formed, which adopted the principle 
of refusing to take a part in the government. 

Whilst president of Alagoas, Araujo Vianna in a few 
months allayed the political exaltation of parties, and if 
he did not harmonize them, which it was impossible to 
do, he at least subdued them by the justice and in- 
telligence which characterized his administration. 

Having been named president of Maranhao on the 17th 
of September, 1828, he took charge of his appointment 
on the 13th of January of the following year, and 
found that province in a lamentable state of administra- 
tive disorder and dangerous and threatening political ef- 
fervescence. The government there had been anti-liberal, 
oppressive, and violent ; the liberal opposition was highly 
irritated and enraged against the executive power, or, as 
was generally said, against the emperor. 

Araujo Vianna, at the end of a few days, of which he 
ably took advantage to compensate, by acts of justice and 
generosity, oflFenses to the constitutional rights of oppressed 
citizens and to regenerate and moralize the administration^ 
extinguished the flames of resistance, established his 
authority based on the confidence of those he governed, and 
was applauded with the name of regenerator of the adminis- 
tration, and of a president who faithfully observed the 
precepts of the constitution, when the news arrived in 

— 107 — 
Maranhao of the proclamation of the people and of the 
troops on the 6th of April and of the abdication of the em- 
peror, Don Pedro I, on the early morning of the following 
day in the capital of the empire. 

The excitement of the liberals attained serious proportions 
and in the impulses of the reaction against the opposite 
party and against the Portuguese, who had intrusively 
and provofeingly involved themselves in the politics of 
the country, some unreflecting patriots declared them- 
selves in a menacing revolt, the military being in their 
favor. Then Araujo Vianna had the glory of re-establishing 
order, and the empire of the law, without conflicts or 
contests, merely by employing gentle means, by making 
some concessions which circumstances had rendered 
necessary, and by the power of his influence he was able 
to dispel and prevent a new conspiracy. 

On the 29th of November, 1832, he made over the presi- 
dency of the province to his successor, leaving in Mar- 
anhao a name generally revered. 

On the 14th of December, 1832, he entered the cabinet as 
minister of finance, and in 1833 was also minister of justice, 
ad interim. He retired from government on the 2d of June, 
1834, having rendered great services to the financial 
administration of the empire. 

He afterwards served several times as fiscal attorney of 
the court of the public national treasury. 

On the 27th of March, 1841, he again entered as minister 
of the empire the cabinet, organized on that day. He con- 
tributed to the passing in the chambers of the bill which 
created the new council of state, and he was the minister 
who put that law into execution, and who drew up the 
regulations for the same council. 

The liberal revolts of S. Paulo and MinasGeraes, and the 

— lOB- 
parliamentarycontestwhich preceded them, absorbed the 
attention of everyone till September, 1842. The ministry 
that sabdned these reyoltsleft power on the 23d ol Janu- 
ary, 1843, owing to disagreements among its members ; but 
Araojo Vianna had had time to improve public education, to 
reform the scientific administration of the National Museum, 
and to instill into other branches of the public service his 
progressive spirit. 

By decre of the 14th of September, 1850, Araujo Vianna 
was appointed an extraordinary member of the council of 
state, and on the 20th of August, 1859, he became an ordinary 
member, belonging to the section of the affairs of the em- 
pire, and of agriculture, commerce, and public works. He 
served as secretary to the council of State from 1851 until 
his death. 

On the 12th of December, 1854, the enlightened and 
worthy Araujo Vianna was created Viscount of Sapu- 
caby, being raised to a Marquis by decree of the 15th of 
October, 1872. 

In the chamber of deputies he was aW'ays in important 
committees, and, after serving as vice-president, was elected 
president, serving iu 1838 and 1839. In the senate he 
was always chosen a member of the committee of the consti- 
tution of that for drawing up laws, except during his sec- 
ond ministry, and while occupying the presidency of the 
senate, which he resigned. 

In the government of the provinces, and as secretary of 
State he was always distinguished for his moderation, for his 
tolerance, and for his zealous efforts towards the encourage- 
ment and development of the moral progress of the nation. 
In politics, he joined the moderate liberals after the 7th of 
April, 1831, and from 1837 forward he adhered to the con- 

— 109 — 
servative party which Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcellos 
created. But the Marquis of Sapucahy was always want- 
ing in that energy of will which characterizes eminent 
tatcsmen in extraordinary times and circumstances ; never- 
theless it is a curious fact that, from 1832 to 1834 and 
from 1841 to 1843, the Marquis of Sapucahy belonged to 
ministries which dispelled tremendous crises by taking 
strong and oppressive measures, the legality of some of 
which is more than questionable. But he, though obedient 
and faithfully adhering to the principle of collective re- 
sponsibility, was never the instigator of those bold expe- 
dients and of that energy, which, in acts of violence, shield 
themselves with the plea of scUus populu 

It may be said that the Marquis of Sapucahy was not of 
the the conservative party, but simply of the conservative 
school, so sincere and truly tolerant, so mild, condescend- 
ing and obliging was he towards his political adversaries. 

In the Brazilian constituinte, in the chamber of deputies, 
and in the senate, of which he was a serviceable and hard- 
working member during fifty-two years, the Marquis of 
Sapucahy never shone and never had a triumph as an orator. 
He was not, and could no be a speaker. He had not the gift 
of speech, and found it difficult sometimes to express him- 
self. Either he had a defect in some vocal organ, or timidity 
and shyness, incredible in a man of so much learning, 
made him hesitate and falter at the enunciation of every 
thought. Even in reading in formal assemblies, he seemed to 
do violence to himself, wavering, confused and perplexed 
in an extraordinary manner. It was however natural and 
invincible. But away from the tribune, from ostentation, 
from formality, and from a large audience, in his chair in 
the senate, in the committee rooms, in his study he was easy, 
gentle and charming — a book to be consulted,— a fount of 

— 110 — 
erudition, which he alone ignored, a monument of science 
hidden in an immense abyss of modesty. 

In the council of State there was no more enlightened, 
nor a more profound and fertile toiler than he. He rivalled 
the Marquis of Olinda and the Viscount of Souza Franco in 
the almost daily exposition of enlightened consultations. 

Not only in the magistrature, in the high administration 
of the country, in parliament, and in the council of State, 
did the Marquis of Sapucahy render important services. 
He exercised other functions which, alone, would have 
sufficed for his glory on earth. 

In the imperial school of Don Pedro I he was for many 
years government commissioner at the examination of the 
respective students, a commission in which he was also 
several times employed at the Commercial Institute, and at 
the general public examinations of the district of the capital, 
being always regarded with respect and veneration by the 
multitude of thoughtless students. 

He was a member of the examining committee of the 
candidates to the diplomatic career. 

These commissions might have been confided, by the sym- 
pathy and the distinguished favor of government, to any 
other citizen, especially as, not being remunerated, they 
may rather be considered as a burthen than as a present. 
Others however there are which highly exalt the confi- 
dence reposed in the Marquis of Sapucahy. 

On the 11th of January, 1839, he was named professor of 
literature and positive sciences of the Emperor and his 
august sisters, and the strong and distinguished friendship 
of the Emperor, and the no less eloquent fact of H. M. 
appointing him professor of his august daughters, indicate 
how well he fulfilled the high and honorable mission. 

On the 12tb of December, 1864, he had the distinguished 

— Ill — 

honor of being appointed to serve as a witness, on behalf of 
the Emperor, to the marriage of the most serene princess 
Donna Leopoldina with the Duke of Saxe. 

From the 15th of September, 1874, the illustrious and 
venerable marquis commenced to suffer and to break down. 
The medical assistants discovered a deep lesion of the heart 
in the laborious and indefatigable octogenarian. On the 
14th of January, 1875, his sufferings increased. 

He was tfien in Petropolis, serving his week as chamber- 
lain to the Emperor, and, wishing to retire to the bosom of 
his family. His Majesty ordered for him a special train to 
the port of Maud, thence to the city of Rio de Janeiro he 
was conveyed in the imperial yacht, and in the city he was 
taken to his own house in one of the Emperor's carriages. 

The Marquis rose no more from his bed. Always 
calm and, mild he attempted to console his family. 
His enlightened intelligence remained unaltered and up 
to the end of January he examined and despatched papers 
of the council of State. 

On the 23rd, at 10 o'clock in the morning, the Emperor, 
accompanied by the ofScers of his household, went to 
visit his old professor and friend, who felt deeply gra- 
tified, and said : 

« Your Majesty is truly great. > 

The Marquis expired at twelve o'clock, quietly, and 
surrounded by his family. An hour before he had appeared 
a little better. 

The Emperor, who was then at the Fine Arts Academy 
distributing prizes to the pupils who had distinguished 
themselves, retired immediately, much moved, on receiving 
the news of the death of the Marquis. 

Brazil had lost a great man. 

From 1826 to 1875 always toiling and employed in so ma- 

- 112 — 
ny important labors: as magistrate, member of the chamber 
of deputies, and afterwards of the senate, twice president 
of provinces up to 1831, later, twice minister for some years; 
councilor of State, professor of the Emperor jind of his 
august sister, and afterwards of his august daughters ; 
occupied in several commissions, he nevertheless found time 
to study hard. He was profoundly learned, and was perfectly 
conversant with some living languages; a was a remarkable 
latinist, and knew Greek. The Portuguese classics were 
familiar to him, and he wrote the Portuguese language 
with notable purity. He found time to follow the progress 
of, and knew all the works on, the science of law and the 
modern literature of the Old World, as also to read all the 
works published in Brazil, whose authors always found in 
the learned old marquis a juvenile ardor to encourage 

More : the Marquis of Sapucahy was a hidden poet, 
and, if he had wished it , would have been a first-class 
poet. Some sonnets and odes, some light compositions 
which escaped the secrecy of his exaggerated modesty, 
are masterpieces of consummate art, of good taste and 

The Marquis of Sapucahy, even in literature, through 
his invincible modesty, always humbled himself. To the 
end of his life the learned old man admired the intelligence 
of others and doubted his own. 

The learning of the Marquis of Sapucahy was obscured 
by his exaggerated diffidence and timidity. If he had pos- 
sessed energy, and had been conscious of his high merit, 
he would have exercised an extraordinary influence in the 
distinies of Brazil. 

He was a great man who never had a mirror in the 
reflection of which he could appreciate his own greatness. 

- 113- 
Candido J096 de Araujo Vianna, Viscount and Marquis 
of Sapucahy, senator and councilor of State, member of 
the Supreme Court of Justice, chevalier of the orders of 
Christ, and the Rose, dignitary of the imperial order of the 
Cross, Grand Cross of the order of Saint January of Naples, 
and ofthat of Ernes tina, of the Ducal House of Saxe-Cob rg 
G 'tha, was also honorary grand-master of the Lavradio 
lodge of Free Masons, and was for more than thirty years 
president and afterwards honorary member of the Bra- 
zilian Historical and Geographical Institute, and of many 
other foreign and Brazilian scientific and literary so- 

fOL. I ^^ 



JosA DurSo was born at Cata Preta, hamlet of Nossa 
Senhora de Nazareth do Inficcionado, four leagues to the 
north of the city of Marianna, in the capitania afterwards 
province, of Minas Geraes, between 1718 and 1720. His 
parents were capitao m6r Paulo Rodrigues DurSo, and 
Donna Anna Garcez de Moraes, both natives of Minas. 

Councilor J. M. Pereira da Silva says that Jos6 DurSo 
pursued his primary and preparatory studies in the Jesuit 
classes in the city of Rio de Janeiro; that immediately after 
completing these he went to Portugal, and on the 24th of 
December, 1756, graduated in the University of Coimbra 
as Doctor of Theology, that in the year 1758 he pro- 
fessed in the religious order of the hermits of Saint Augus- 
tine, and immediately after began to be spoken of as an 

- 116 — 
orator, preaching at Leiria in the thanksgiving for the 
escape of Don Josd I from the mysterious outrage of the 3d 
of September. 

Questionsof self lore, which however have not been well 
verified, prejudiced the bishop of Leiria, Don Joao Gomes 
da Gunha, against the Friar Jos^ de Santa Rita DurSo, who, 
fearing him, passed into Spain, intending thence to go to 
Italy. War, however, having broken out between the two 
kingdoms of the peninsula, the traveling friar was arrested 
on suspicion of being a spy, and imprisoned in the castle 
of Segovia, which he left after the treaty of the 10th of 
February, 1763, which re-established peace in Europo. 

On being set at liberty, Santa Rita Durao went to Italy. 
In Rome he met Jos6 Basilic da Gama, with whom he be- 
came intimately connected. 

After remaining some years in Italy, he resolved to return 
to Portugal, when he heard in 1772 of the reform of the 
University of Coimbra, of which his compatriot and friend, 
Bishop Don Francisco de Lemos, was principal. On arriving 
in Coimbra and in combination with the bishop he entered 
in the competition for the chair of assistant professor of 
theology. He surpassed the other competitors and in 1778, 
at the opening of the courses, he was charged with the 
recital of the sapientia oration, written in Latin, as was 
then the custom. This discourse obtained great applause, 
and is still remembered with praise. 

The date on which DurSo commenced to compose his 
poem— Caramuru'— is unknown; it is supposed that he 
began in that same year or in the next. The Viscount of 
Porto Seguro alledges, that tradition says the poem was 
written in a very short time, and that Jos6 Agostinho de 
Macedo attests the facility with which DurSo ordinarily 
composed, sitting on a stone seat near the Cozelhas stream 

- 117 - 
which passed near the fence of his convent. There he would 
dictate to a liberated mulato, called Bernard, whom he 
had taken with him from Brazil. 

When the work was finished, DurSo went to Lisbon to 
have it printed, and the poem Garamuru* was published in 
that city in 1781. 

Unfortunately Caramuru' was not received by the con- 
temporaries as the poet expected. Deeply hurt, Santa Rita 
Durao became so disheartened that (according to councilor 
Pereira da Silva) he destroyed all the poetry which he had 

This Brazilian epic poet survived but a short time his 
disenchantment. He died at the college of Santo Agostinho 
on the 24th of January, 1784. 

To the laborious investigations of the indefatigable and 
enlightened Mr. Innocencio Francisco da Silva, author of 
the Dice. Bibliog. Portuguez, are due the knowledge of 
this last date, and of that of his professing in the order of 
Saint Augustine in the convent of Grag \, in Lisbon, on the 
12th of October, 1758. 

The epic poem of the discovery of Brazil-^G arauvrv' — 
which had been inspired by the love of his native country, 
had the fate of Milton's Paradise Lost. Only after the 
author's death did it commence to be appreciated. 

In the present century, the best authorities in Portu- 
guese literature avenged DurSo of the injustice of his con- 
temporaries. Viscount Castilho praises him ; Garrett exalts 
his merit ; Jos6 Maria da Costa says that Durao ought to 
be considered the founder of Brazilian poetry ; Jos6 Agos- 
tinho de Macedo calls Durao the « man who only 
wanted antiquity to be called great ! » Ferdinand Diniz 
thinks that Caramuru is a Brazilian national epopee 
which interests and delights the reader. 

— 118 - 

MoBglave (Eugene Paray de) translated the poem Gara- 
MURu' into the French language. 

This is not the place for a critical opinion. But the best 
and at the same time the most complete and just apprecia. 
tion is summarized in the following words, written by the 
already mentioned Jos^ Maria da Costa e Silva when in his 
Ensaio Biographico-Gritigo he speaks of Santa Rita DurSo: 
♦ He was the first who had the good sense to discard the 
European ideas which he had imbibed in the schools, to 
compose an epopee, Brazilian in the action, in the habits, 
in the sentiments and ideas, and in the local coloring. » 

To this opinion the only objection that can be raised is 
to the words 4:he was the firsU which might raise doubts as 
to the good sense which Josd Basilic da Gama, just as much 
a Braziliany had shown in his poem Araquat, published 
some years before Caramuru'. 

OF j-A.isrcrA.R,"2- 


Paulo, afterwards called da Trindade, was born in Ma- 
cah^y in the then capitania of Rio de Janeiro. He professed 
in the convent of S. Thom6 da Ordem Seraphica, and stu- 
died theology with the friar-professor, Manoel do Monte 
Olivete, sent from Lisbon to direct education in that con- 

He applied himself fervently to the study of theology, 
of canonic law, and of the holy scriptures. 

He devoted himself zealously to the conversion of the 
idolatrous Africans, having taught Latin to some and pre- 
pared them for a sacerdotal life. 

Such was the reputation he enjoyed as a man of virtue 
and learning, that he was frequently consulted. 

He was appointed commissioner-general, by the general 
vicar, Friar FranciscoHe nrique, who was afterwards bishop. 

- 120 - 

In 1634 he presided over the third chapter held in the con- 
vent of Madre de Deos of Goa. 

He died in Goa in the eightieth year of his age on the 25th 
of January, 1651. 

He composed the Conquista Espiritical do OrientCy re- 
lating the remarkable labors of the priests in the con- 
version of the infidels, from the Cape of Good Hope to 
the remotest islands of Japan : three books in manuscript. 

He also composed a Treatise on Moral Theology, a man- 
uscript still existing in the convent of S. Thom6. 

ii H MIia» 



Prom the midst of poetic fictions and of romantic tra- 
ditions, some of which are due to the inyeniiye genius 
which, to the detriment of history, was not wanting in 
the old chroniclers, arises the rnde but pleasing figure of 
the legendary Paragiuiissii, daughter of the virgin forests 
of Brazil. 

In the biographical article of the 5th of October, in 
which mention is made of Diogo Alvares — the Cara- 
murn, it will be seen how the young Tupinambi In- 
dian, taken for wife by the shipwrecked seaman who was 
saved in the bay of Todos os Santos, has a place in the 
chronicles of Brazil. 

ParaguassA was the daughter of one of the chiefs 
(muribiasabas) of the Tupinamb& Indians, and it is very 
probable that, besides the prestige acquired wiih the mus- 

TOL. I 16 ^ 

— 122 — 
ket that killed with a loud report the historical bird, his 
union with that Indian contributed not a little to Ga- 
ramurtis great influence. 

The father of Paraguassu, naturally proud of the hus- 
band which he had chosen for his daughter, protected him 
with all the power of his tribe ; and the chosen compan- 
ion of Dio^o Alvares was, undesignedly, and without pre- 
meditation, but owing to her father's importance and by 
her own daily increasing influence, the primitive, gentle, 
but strong lever of civilization on the soil of Bahia. 

The Indians had no idea of the duty and of the virtue 
of chastity in woman ; but Paraguassu, either instinc^ 
tively or from ardent love, was the honest companion of 
Caramuru, and as she was as devoted to him, as she was 
the vigilant protectress of her Indian brothers she became 
the idol of the Tupinamb&s, and the arbitress of their 

It is not known when she was baptized and, at the 
font, took the name ofCatharina Alvares. The tradi- 
tion of her voyage to France with Diogo Alvares, and 
of her baptism there, taking for her godmother Catha- 
rine of Medicis, who gave the Indian her name, is, from 
just motives, now rejected. 

> She was called Catharina Alvares, an indication that 
her baptism was almost immediatety followed by her mar- 
riage, which was her husband's family name. The choice of 
the name of Catharina may be well explained in many 
other ways: the memory of a loved relation of Caramuru, 
that of the Saint venerated on the day on which she was 
baptized, or any other motive ; or if any princess of that 
time influenced the fact, there was queen Catharine of 
Austria, in Portugal. 

It is certain that Diogo Alvares married Paraguassil 

erther shortly after she was baptized in 1531, when 
Martin Affonso de Souza was in Bahia for a few days, or 
when Francisco Pereira Goutinho founded there his ca- 
pitania in 1539, or in 1549 under Thomd de Souza, who 
arrived in Brazil in that year, as first governor-general 
of the Portuguese-American colony. 

Gatharina Alvares, the Paraguassu of the Tupinambi, 
was always more than the companion and afterwards 
the wife of Garamuru. She had through her generous and 
sisterly love^ acquired such influence over the savages as 
to be of great assistance to her husband. 

The Tupinambis consented in, and contributed to, the 
foundation of the colonial establishment of the donee 
Francisco Pereira Goutinho. Some writers say that after 
these important services, war broke out between the 
Portuguese and Indians, who had revolted, and the colo- 
nists, faithful to the donee, who imprisoned Diogo Alva- 
res, on which Paraguassu armed and brought into the 
field a large force of Tupinambis. If this controverted 
tale be true, it only proves the powerful influence of 
the devoted wife; for Goutinho was beaten and expelled 
from the capitania, dying some time after on the isle of Ita- 
parica, where he had been shipwrecked, by the hands 
of the savages who hated him. 

In 1549 Thom6 de Souza, the founder of the general 
government of Brazil in Bahia, found in Diogo Alvares and 
in Gatharina Alvares faithful, sure, and most useful guar- 
antees of the support and co-operation of the TupinambdSi 
who became their best allies in their first and arduous labors. 

From her union, at first natural but afterwards con- 
secrated, with Diogo Alvares, Gatharina Alvares — Para- 
guassu, had four daughters, who all married, becoming 

- 124- 
the progenitors of illnstrioiis descendants, some of whom 
became titularies. 

Their descent is of the noblest in the old capitania' 
now province of Bahia, and the Bahia house of Torre, 
so celebrated for their opulence and civic services, descends 
from Paraguass^ and Diogo Alvares. 

Diogo Alvares— the Carawuni— died on the 5th of Octo- 
ber, 1557, and his wife Catharina Alvares, the legendary^ 
Paraguassii, more than eighty years old, nearly a cen- 
tenarian, died on the 26th of January, 1583. 

Her mortal remains were laid in the church of the 
monastery of Nossa Senhora da Graga (in the city of 
Bahia), where the following epitaph is inscribed : 

« Sepulchre of Donna Catharina Alvares Paraguassu, 
owner that was of the capitania of Bahia, which she 
and her husband Diogo Alvares Corrfia, a native of Vianna, 
gave to the kings of Portugal: built this chapel of Nossa 
Senhora da Graga and gave it with the lands annexed 
to the patriarch of S. Bento in the year 1582. » 

zsr^m or JA.N"CJJLRTsr 


Jacob de Andrade Vellosino, a Doctor of Medicine 
and a naturalist who became celebrated in Holland, was 
bom in Pemambuco in 1639, at the time when the Dutch 
dominion flourished most under the government of Prince 
Maurice of Nassau. 

He was the son of a Dutchman, and, as his surname 
of Andrade would lead to believe, of a Pemambuco or 
Portuguese lady; for it is well known that many mar- 
riages took place between the Dutch and the natives of 
Pemambuco, despite the national repulsion then ob- 

When in 1654 those invaders capitulated in Recife, 
the families of the Dutch who had married in the capi- 
tania where they ruled were allowed freely to retire. 

Jacob de Andrade Yellosino, accompanied his parents 

to Holland, where he completed his studies, commenced 
in Recife, graduated in medicine, established in Amster- 
dam, obtained a good name, and attained a well-merit- 
ed reputation as an able physician and naturalist. He 
published scientific works and memoirs in the language of 
his adopted country, which deserved the praise of learned 
Dutch witers. 

He died in 1712, at the age of seventy-three. 

In the absence of more precise dates in the life of 
Jacob de Andrade Vellosino, his name is remembered on 
the 27th of January, the day on which, in the year 
1654, owing to the capitulation of Taborda, he, fol- 
lowing his parents; left the land on which he was 

or J-A.2SrXJ-A.Il"5r 


Antonio Joaquim Franco de S& was born on the 16th 
of July, 1836, in the city of Alcantara, province ofMaran- 
hao. He was the legitimate son of Joaquim Franco de 
Si,, a senator of the Empire, and Donna Lucrecia Rosa 
da Costa Ferreira, daughter of, also senator, Antonio 
Pedro da Costa Ferreira (afterwards Baron of Pindar*). 

Haviug always accompanied his father, either to Rio 
de Janeiro when he came to take his seat in the cham- 
ber of deputies, or to other places where he was obliged 
to reside in consequence of political changes, Antonio 
Joaquim Franco de Si followed no regular course of 
study until 1846, but he already then gave proofs 
of a brilliant and hopeful talent. From that year to 
1349, in Maranhao and in Rio de Janeiro, at Marinh&s 

— 138 — 
boarding-school, to the end of 1851, he completed his 
preparatory studies. 

He was only fifteen years and a few months old when 
he composed some sweet and melancholy pieces of po- 
etry, precursors of future and grand transports. 

He was an inspired boy, but his heart had already 
been drowned in tears. In 1850 he had lost his mother, 
and on the 10th of November, 1851, he received, in Rio 
de Janeiro, the news of his father's death. 

The orphan left for Olinda where he matriculated in 
the faculty of law in 1852. 

Franco de S4 studied law, philosophy and literature, 
and cultivated poetry until the year 1856, when on the 
Istjof January, leaving a ball in a state of perspiration 
and excitement he caught a cold and was attacked with 
a fever which never left him until he died on the 28th 
of the same month when he had nearly finished his 

After his death his brother. Dr. Felippe Franco de 
S4, published in a volume of one hundred and forty- 
five pages the spring flowers of the poet who had died 
when only twenty years old. The title of the book is: 
PoESiAs DE Antonio Joaquim Franco dk Sa'. 

The compositions produced, as it were spontaneously, 
by his muse when only between eighteen and twenty 
years of age, please by their freshness and delight by 
their purity of form, the brightness of the images, and 
above all by his good taste in avoiding the contagion 
of exaggeration and extravagance, which were shielded 
with the name of Byron. 

The little piece Idalina may serve as a proof of the 
good sense of the young poet. The two sonnets -Sabba- 
tina and Esbelta — have real merit. 

— 129 - 

In the piece — Amor e namoro — Franco de Si shows 
the wit of a thorough^bred student. 

The distinguished Portuguese poet Mr. ThomazRibeiro, 
the author of Don Jayme, in a letter which he wrote 
to Dr. Felippe Franco de S4, highly praised the poetry 
of young Antonio Franco de S4, and especially the lines 
written in the album of his friend and colleague (also a 
poet) Mr. Pedro de Gallazans, of which the folio wing are 
an extract. Here the enthusiasm of the poet defies the 
torments which await the future of poets, and enlightens 
the crowd, despite all resistance : 

Entao surjamos altivos 

£ lancemos ao redor 

Do olhar— lampejos mais Tiros, 

Da lyra — canto melhor. 

Embora a turba resista, 
Ganbemos nosso lugar; 
Generosos dando Tida ; 
A' quern nos quizer cegar. 

Fagamos nectar divine 
Dessas gottas de amargor! 
De cada gemido— urn bymno ! 
De cada espinbo-^uma flor ! 

Then proud let us rise and around us throw from the eye^ 
brighter glances, from the lyre — a better song. Though the crowd 
resist, let us attain our place ; generously giving light ; to those 
who wish to blind us. Let us divine nectar make of these drops 
of bitterness I and of each sigh— a hymn ! of each thorn— a flower. 

VOL. I n 

•yyry OF^sr 


The fine arts, like belles-lettres, only commenced to 
appear and to have their own history in Brazil in the 18th 
century, though some Brazilian notabilities had already 
shone in the horizon of the European world. 

Until then letters and arts were almost exclusively 
cultivated in silence and in the gloom of the convents of 
religious orders, which were the only source of some 
instruction in humanities, and which had their friars, arcih- 
tects and painters of merit. 

In the 18th century those who cultivated letters began 
to meet timidly, and finished by being persecuted. The 
arts less subject to suspicion, less capable of immediatety 
influencing and vibrating on the spirit of the people were 
tolerated, with the exception of the barbarous condem- 
nation of Brazilian jewelry, whicli un4er the impulse 

— 132 — 
of the designs and elegant models of Master Valentim, 
had excluded all those ornaments imported from Lisbon. 

With the exception of the monopoly decreed in favor of 
the jewelry from the metropolis, no other measure opposed 
the progress of fine arts in the colony of Brazil. 

Artists commenced to appear spontaneously and natur- 

Manoel Dias was bom in the middle of the last century, 
in the, then flourishing, but afterwards devastated by a 
terrible plague, and now extinct, townof Macacu. Not only 
the day, but the year in which he was born are doubtful, 
though some old people of that town, proud of the glory 
of their compatriot, said that he came into the world in 
the parish of Santo Antonio de S&, that of the town, on 
the 29th of January, of the year controverted and disputed 
among them. 

Manoel Dias descended the river Macacu, and came to 
the city of Rio de Janeiro to learn the trade of a goldsmith, 
in which he distinguished himself. But the handiwork of 
Leandro Joaquim, and of Master Valentim delighted him, 
and he began to draw and to dream of painting, aspiring 
to study in Lisbon. 

Manoel Dias had not a real of his own. But that did not 
matter ! a merchant, who had been pleased with some 
jewelry which he had juade for him, took him to the city 
of Oporto ; but dying soon after left the unfortunate 
young man in such a state of penury, that he considered it 
a piece of good luck to obtain a place as the servant of 
another merchant who had been in Brazil. 

On going to Lisbon with his master Manoel Dias found a 
protector who sent him to study in the.Casa Pia, and after- 
wards entered him in the Academia do Castello. 

It was a life of privation, of torments, and of sad mor- 

tiflcations, butit was the life of one who felt the irresistible 
vocation of an artist. 

Manoel Dias distinguished himself so much that he was 
sent to Rome, where he became a pupil of the celebrated 
Pompey Battoni, one of those who contributed most to the 
artistical revolution of wliich Winkelmann and Raphael 
Mengs were the chiefs. 

When the French army invaded Portugal the poor Bra- 
zilian artist went to Crenoa where he experienced all the 
hardships of misery and hunger. 

On returning to Portugal, thanks to some fame which 
he carried with him, he obtained the appointment of royal 
professor of drawing and painting in Rio de Janeiro, where 
he established, in his own house, the class of naked models, 
having among other pupils Manoel Josd Gentil and Fran- 
cisco Pedro do Amaral, who will be mentioned. 

Manoel Dias obtained the surname of Roman from his 
residence and studies in Rome. 

He left several paintings : that of Saint Anne, which 
was in the old mint ; tha,t of Our Lady of the Conception, of 
beautiful coloring and kept in the Fine Arts Academy ; 
others which were lost, and several portraits and land- 
scapes ; but especially a head of S. Paul, executed on ivory, 
of admirable design and expression, and beautifully dotted^ 
wliich would suffice for his greatest glory, if his greatest 
glory were not his having been, with regard to painting, 
the king of the fine arts, one of the first or oldest, and 
most proficient elements that nourished art in Brazil. 

Manoel Dias, a great master of drawing, an honorable 
man, the excellent father of a numerous family, after 1831, 
old and disheartened, retired to the town, afterwards city 
of Campos, and there died, probably mortified because the 
ixiilifference of ungrateful contemporaries had wounded his 

— 134 — 

heart with forgetfulness, which was the barbarous assassin 
of the artist. 

Manoel Dias, the Roman, though not a genius, was at 
least, and this is a great deal, a considerable and efficient 
element of civilization in Brazil, as an able drawing and 
painting master. 

"trsr OF JA.^TXJA.:E<rZ' 


— *-X'^- 

bescended from one of the noblest Portuguese families, 
and worthy of his illustrious ancestors, Gomes Freire de 
Andrade, afterwards Count of Bobadella, came to govern 
the capitania of Rio de Janeiro in 1733, and extended his 
government to those of Minas Geraes and S. Paulo ; he left 
a name glorified by relevant services and considerable ben- 

In Minas, he established a capital in 1735, and created 
a hospital in 1738. In Rio de Janeiro he built the gover- 
nor's house, which afterwards became the royal and the 
imperial palace ; he finished the arches of the Garioca aque- 
duct and made the washing tanks ; repaired and increased 
the fortifications; constructed the Concei^ao fort; ordered the 
erection of the first fountain in the Largo do Pa^o and saw 
it finished. This the viceroy, Luiz de Vasconcellos, had 

— 136 — 
replaced by another designed by Master Yalentim. Gomes 
Freire de Andrade was the veritable founder of the con- 
vent of Santa Thereza, and was buried in the church. 

In Rio Grande do Sul, he made war against the Indians, 
who had been armed and were commanded by the Jesuits, 
when he, following the orders received from the metropolis, 
had occupied and was marking out the limits, in accor- 
dance with the unfortunate treaty of Madrid. 

More than that, as governor he gave the example of 
religious zeal, of disinterestedness and unblemished honor ; 
he was wise and loved the people. Strong and energetic, he 
sometimes went a step too far, imposing his despotic will. 
It was, however, always done with the best intentions, be- 
sides which the customs ofthe time raised above everything 
the duty of obedience to authority. 

Don Josd I created him Count of Bobadella, and ordered 
that his portrait should be placed in the senate ofthe cham- 
ber of Rio de Janeiro, and that it should be kept there 
perpetually as a stimulus and example for future gover- 

The Count of Bobadella died in Rio de Janeiro on the 1st 
of January, 1763. 

But the date which is here remembered^ the 30th of Jan- 
uary, 1854, marks a noble eflfort which should not be for- 

Until the seventeenth century no care had been bestowed, 
nor any encouragement had been given to civilization in 
Brazil, though the country was rich, and, owing to the great 
exploits of Brazilians, had become a glorious colony of 
Portugal. The convents were almost exclusively the only 
places where Brazilians could obtain any instruction ; nev- 
ertheless some brilliant intellects existed in the land of 


There was no press, and everyone feared being suspected 
of thinking freely. 

But on the 7th of March, 1724, the viceroy, Vasco Fer- 
nandes Cezar de Menezes (afterwards Count of Sabugosa), 
did not fear to light the first lamp of the public and author- 
ized dawning light of Brazilian intelligence in a literary 
society, which, according to the ideas of the times, 
was called Academia do$ Esqueddos (Academy of the 
Forgotten), inaugurated in the city of S. Salvador da Bahia, 
and which realized its name, for it fell into oblivion for 
more than a century. 

Gomes Freire de Andrade had the glory of encouraging 
the second impetus of the poor civilization of Brazil, which 
so ardently desired an opportunity of exhibiting some in- 
fluence, and the first irradiations of intellect in the bosom 
of the country. Far away, beyond the Atlantic, distin- 
guished Brazilians were already known, but only to the 
honor and profit of Portugal. 

On the 30th of January, 1752, in the governor's house, 
was founded the Academia dos Selectos (Academy of the 
Select), which lasted but a very short time. The founders, 
through easily explained interest and absolute dependence, 
were not parsimonious of their poetic flatteries. Latin, 
Spanish, and Portuguese poetry was read, of bad taste, but 
influenced by the spirit of the times and the Jesuitic, Be- 
nedictine, Seraphic and Carmelite muse. 

In the midst of the poets Gomes Freire de Andrade drank 
large draughts of the flattery offered by intellect begging 
for encouragement and fearing the suspicion of that civilizing 
influence, which they did not even calculate. 

Gomes Freire honored the installation of the Academia 
dos Selectos in Rio de Janeiro with all the brilliancy of 
his court of captain-general and governor, surrounded by 

VOL. I 18 

— 138 — 

his aides-de-camp and by the principal authorities of the 

Even so the Academia dos Selectos had no duration. 

Civilization in Brazil was still struggling in its infancy. 

The carelessness, the indifference, and the egotism of 
the metropolis imposed an infancy of two centuries on the 
immensely rich colony. 

The Academia dos Selectos, lived, like roses, buta very 
short time. 

But the march of the civilization of a people is studied 
from its first doubtful and tottering steps, from the essay 
of the unfledged wings of the eagle, which can with diffi- 
culty leave the nest, and can not yet proudly soar over 
the Andes in search of the sun. 

The Academia dos Selectos in Rio de Janeiro has a 
right to exact and a duty to fulfill in the history of Brazil. 

A duty of gratitude towards Gomes Freire de Andrade 
who showed his readiness and solicitude to honor and pro- 
tect the culture of letters. 

A right to be honorably remembered as endeavoring to 
cultivate and develop civilization in Brazil, the rich col- 
ony, abundantly explored and drained ; but like a miser- 
able slave, forgotten with indifference and egotism by the 
avaricious and unloving metropolis. 



Antonio Jos6 Duarte de Araujo Gondim was born in 
1782, in the capitania of Pernambuco. He studied human- 
ities, and immediately after went to Portugal , and 
took his degree in law in the University of Coimbra. 

Returning to Brazil in 1808 he entered the magistra- 
ture and became distinguished for his enlightened intelli- 
gence and for his zeal in the distribution of justice. 

After serving as juiz de f6ra of Marianna, in Minas 
Geraes, he was appointed ouvidor of Villa Rica, afterwards 
city of Ouro Preto, where, in the absence of the governor, 
D. Manoel Jos^ de Portugal, he exercised the charge of 
member of the prov sional government. 

In 1820 he passed to the province of Bahia as ouvidor. 
Four years later he was appointed dezembargador of the 

— 140 — 
casa de Supplicagao (judge of the court of appeal) of Rio 
de Janeiro, where he also served the charges of ouvidor 
do crime, of juiz do crime, of juiz da corfia, of corregedor 
do civil, and of fiscal da junta dos arsenaes. 

Having attained considerable reputation for talent and 
for honorable conduct, his native province, Pernambuco, 
in 1823, elected him a deputy to the Brazilian constituinte, 
and in that august assembly, though he seldom spoke, 
owing to his shyness, he was an active and working 
member in committees and became known as a politician 
of moderate opinions, which, after the dissolution of the 
constituinte, induced him to abandon the liberal party, in 
opposition to the government of the first emperor since 
that imprudent act. 

In 1826 Araujo Gondim was elected by his province in 
the triple list and was by the emperor chosen senator 
on the 22d of January of the same year. He, however, 
did not take his seat in the senate, for he died on the 
31st of January, eight days after the honorable choice 
had fallen on him. 

An enlightened toiler, Antonio Josd Duarte de Gondim 
had an auspicious political future in Brazil, when death 
arrested his career at the age of forty-four. 

He was a chevalier of the Order of Christ, and a dig- 
nitary of the Imperial Order of the Cross. 



Friar Don Francisco de Lima was appointed bishop of 
Pernambuco ( the fourth in chronological order ) and con- 
firmed on the 22d of August, 1695. He entered on the 
duties of his diocese on the 1st of February of the 
following year. 

He was more than sixty years old when he commenced 
to govern the diocese, which must have been one of the 
richest in Brazil, as the capitania of Pernambuco, alone 
had su£Scient population and wealth to rival the capital 
of the great colony. 

Friar Don Francisco de Lima was so simple in his habits, 
so humble and so abstemious that wiht himself he spen 
but very little. 

But the old and venerable bishop created thirty settle-- 

- 142 — 
ments of Indians whom he collected from distant points 
in the interior, and burning with zeal, he spared no 
cares, no extraordinary personal fatigue, to encourage 
them and direct them in the service of God, and to the 
profit of the country. When over seventy years of age, 
he still visited his thirty families, penetrating into the 
interior of the country and traveling over at least two 
hundred leagues. 

Besides his Indian children, he had others, the poor, 
who never appealed to him vain. 

At the end of nine years of service in the diocese 
D. Francisco de Lima died on the 29th of April, 1704, and 
did not leave money enough for his burial. 

In his bishop's chest forty reis in money were found. 

Charity had been unable to keep the secret, which was 
known to all ; but displayed the majesty of that apostolic 

The remains of Friar Don Francisco de Lima rest in the 
Carmelite convent of Olinda. 



The hero who immortalized his name on this day of 
February, was born on the 28th of September, 1829, in 
the city of Recife, capital of Pernambuco. He was the 
legitimate son of Antonio Vital de Oliveira and of Donna 
Joanna Florinda de GusmSo Lobo Vital. 

When fourteen years of age, having studied humanities, 
Vital de Oliveira came to Rio de Janeiro and matriculated 
in the naval school on the 1st of March, 1843. He became 
noted for his intelligence and application. In 1845 he was 
made a midshipman, and on the 2d of December, 1849, ho 
was promoted to a sub-lieutenancy. 

In transatlantic voyages he soon accustomed himself to 
a life at sea. On returning from one of these, under the 
command of the present Viscount of TamandarS, who 

was bringing out from England the war steamer Don 
Affonso, he took part in the fight of the 2A of Feb- 
ruary, 1849, in the city of Recife, which the praieiro 
rebels had attacked, but from which they were repulsed. 

But it is the 2d of February which immortalized the 
hero. In 1849 Vital de Oliveira did his duty ; but in civil 
war the vanquished are brothers, and the conquerors shed 
tears over their laurels. 

In that same year he was decorated with the medal of 
a chevalier of the Order of Christ. In 1854 he was* pro- 
moted to be a lieutenant, and, in command of the sloop 
of war Parahybano he drew up the chart of the coast of 
Brazil, between Petimbu and S. Bento, annexing to the 
chart a very lucid report. He also made the plan of the 
shallows das Rosas, which lie near the island of Fernando 
de Noronha, and those of the two lakes, one in the north 
and the other in the south of the province of Alagoas, 
and made the necessary surveys for establishing steam 
navigation. In 1862 he published five hydrographic charts 
raised from the river Mossoro, in the province of Rio 
Grande do Norte, to the river S. Francisco. He examined 
and studied certain points on the coast to the south of 
Santa Martha, in the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande 
do Sul. In 1863 he examined and sounded the river Merity, 
in the district of the capital, and presented a plan of the 
river and a report. 

In the same year he was president of the committee 
named to ascertain and estimate the amount of the losses 
suffered by the owners of the vessels and cargos taken by 
the British admiral, Warren, under the title of reprisals. 
The committee had also to determine the place where the 
prizes had been taken, in order to verify if they had been 
taken in the waters of Brazilian dominion. 


After this, Vital do Olireira commenced to raise the 
general chart of the coast of Brazil, and for urpwards of 
two years he, with scrupulous and active labor continued 
this most important work, which, unfortunately, he did not 

The surveys and studies made by Vital de Oliveira of 
the coast of Brazil, were, as the French hydrographer 
Mouohez confesses, the bases for his work. The young 
Brazilian hydrographer, being then well known in Europe, 
was by the Portuguese government made a commmander 
of the Order of Christ ; by the French government a 
chevalier of the Legion of Honor ; and by the Italian a 
chevalier of the Order of Saint Maurice and Saint Lazare. 

H. M. the Emperor of Brazil had already made him an 
Officer of the Imperial Order of the Rose ; and he had been 
promoted to be a commander on the 2d of December, 1862. 

The Paraguayan war broke out. 

In 1866 Vital de Oliveira goes to France to receive and 
bring out to Brazil the iron-clad Nemesis built there. He 
brings her out in very rough weather. In the latitude of 
Pernambuco he meets with ar terrible tempest, which dis- 
couraged and terrified his companions. His hability and 
energy, however, saved the iron-clad, which he brought 
into Rio de Janeiro, where the American admiral compli- 
mented him and said : < The fact of crossing the Atlantic 
in such a ship as the Nemesis, is a triumph of naviga- 
tion. » 

The Emperor changed the name of Nemesis for that 
of SilvadOf a name already heroic. Vital de Oliveira went 
to the seat of war commanding the Silvado, and on the 21st 
of January, 1867, was promoted for his merit to the 
rank of post-captain. 

VOL. I 19 

— 146» 

Twelve days after came the day of Vital de Oliveira's 

On the 2d of February, 1867, at daybreak, the Brazil- 
ian fleet, in three divisions, attacked the tremendous for- 
tress of Curupaity and the Paraguayan trenches, and 
penetrated into lake Pires. 

Ten steamers opened their fire against Curupaity, one of 
them, the foremost, is the Silvado, and Vital de Oliveira, 
her commander, under the impulse of bravery and patri- 
otic pride, despised the shield of the iron armor, and, on 
the bridge, he became the target for the enemy*s shots, 
whilst he directed the fire of his ship. 

That hero of astounding intrepidity appeared to the 
enemy, not as a gallant warrior, but as a menacing bul- 
wark. T he Paraguayans honored him ; pointing at him a 
portion of their artillery, with two projectiles, at the same 
time, they overthrew the colossus. 

Manoel Antonio Vital de Oliveira did not fall on the 
deck ; he was received in the arms of his companions who, 
at his side, also challenged death. 

The 2d of February, 1867, was the date of his death 
but also that which immortalized Manoel Antonio Vital 
de Oliveira. 

axe OF rEBHTJ-A.if'sr 



Joao Pereira Ramos de Azeredo Coutinho, the eldest 
son of Manoel Pereira Ramos de Lemos e Faria and of his 
wife Donna Hellena de Andrade Souto Maior Coutinho, was 
born on the estate Marapicu, disrictofthe town of Iguassti, 
in 1722, and, like his brother, Don Francisco de Lemos, 
after attending the Jesuit's classes in the city of S. Sebas- 
tiao do Rio] de Janeiro, went to Portugal and took his 
degree in law in the University of Coimbra. 

Having entered he career of the magistrature in Por- 
tugal, and being distinguished for his intelligence and en- 
lightenment, he occupied high and important charges, and 
gained the confidence of the Marquis of Pombal, whose 
intimate friend he became, and by whom he was appoint- 

-148 — 
ed crown attorney, dezembargador do Pago, member of 
the junta for examining the state of, and improring, the re- 
ligious orders, and chief chronicler of the Torre do Tombo. 

When the Marquis of Pombal, in 1770, created the junta 
called <(Providencia Litteraria* to carry out the great re- 
form of the University of Coimbra, Joao Pereira was one 
of the members of that junta, which was composed of the 
ablest men, whose high capacity had been proved and 

When D. Jos6 I died, and the Marquis of Pombal was 
dismissed, the illustrious and honorable Jo^o Pereira Ramos 
did not forget him in his misfortune, but went to visit him 
in his retirement, as a good and faithful friend. For a similar 
and laudable demonstration of esteem and friendship, the 
bishop of Coimbra, Don Francisco de Lemos, was punished 
by being dismissed from the charge of rector of the Uni- 
versity; but this unjust and censurable act of the govern- 
ment of Donna Maria I did not discourage the generous 
and noble brother of the bishop. 

When that government had resolved on commencing 
the prosecution of the Marquis of Pombal, in order to 
bring before the court which was to try, or rather to con- 
demn him, for his acts during his ministry of twenty-seven 
years, JoSo Pereira Ramos appeared courageously in the 
defence of the great minister, and, as crown attorney^ 
exalted the services of the Marquis, and opposed the vin- 
dictive persecution which would have been a reproach and 
a stain on the reign of Donna Maria I, as he was bold 
enough to say in a written opinion which he presented to 
the queen. 

In consequence of this honorable conduct he was, by the 
new ministers, relieved of several commissions with which 
he shortly before had been charged, and he and his brother. 

— 149 — 
the bishop of Coimbra, fell under the displeasure of the 
court. But, some years after, by decree of M of February, 
1789, the queen made reparation for the injustice with 
which he had been treated, giving him a seat in the council 
of ministers; and he recovered, to the profit of government 
and of the country, all his former influence. 

Jo5o Pereira Ramos de Azeredo Coutinho died in Lisbon 
in the year 1789. 

This enlightened Brazilian enjoyed the reputation of an 
able politician, and of a consummate jurist. He passed for a 
man well versed in letters, and, like his brother the bishop, 
was one of the most assiduous colaboreis of the Royal 
Academy of Sciences of Lisbon. 



Francisco de Souza wasbornin Bahia in 1628. He entered 
the Company of Jesus, and having acquired great learning, 
became very celebrated as a profound theologian and as a 
most able chronicler. 

Much more than by this information, his memory is 
perpetuated by the work which he left, and which was 
published in 1710, with the title — Oriente conquistado — 
m which he displays his remarkable talent and varied in- 
struction, and gives, like a good patriot, curious information 
respecting his mother country. 

Father Francisco de Souza died at G6a in the year 1713. 

No precise day, month, or year of his life is known 
which could serve to register his name in this an- 
nuary, it is therefore here arbitrarily memoralized on the 
4th of February. 




Of all the remarkable men who figured in Brazilian pol- 
itics up to the year 1843, Father Diogo Antonio Feijd is the 
most distinguished. 

He was bom in the citj of S. Paulo, in the month of 
August, 1784, where, owing to his talent and severe appli- 
cation, he obtained that limited literary education which 
could then be imparted by the priests, and in 1807 he took 
orders of presbyter and applied himself to the education of 
youth, teaching Latin, rhetoric, and rational and moral 
philosophy, in the town of Parahyba, in Campinas and 

Father Feijd in a very short time became, in those places, 
the object of every ones veneration. He led an austere life ; 
his habits and manners were simple, his character pure and 
TOL. I ao 

— 154 - 
his virtues were exemplary. His zeal in doing his duty 
was equal to his disinterestedness ; prompt and decisive in 
deliberation, energetic in executing, firm and tenacious, it 
was later said of him, that he might be broken, buJt cotdd 
not be bent. To these last qualities, which sometimes 
touched the verge of the corresponding defects, must be 
added unexcelled patriotism and civic courage. 

The constitutional revolution of 1820 triumphed in the 
kingdom of Portugal. 

In 1821 Father Feij6 was one of the deputies sent by the 
province of S. Paulo to the Lisbon cdrtes, in which he took 
his seat on the 11th of February, 1822, and on the 25th of 
April following he made a powerful and remarkable speech, 
defending the rights of Brazil, menaced by the large Por- 
tuguese majority of the constituinte. 

The efforts of the Brazilian deputies were in vain, and 
five of them, Father Feij6 being of the number, retired fur- 
tively from Lisbon, and on arriving at Falmouth they pub- 
lished, on the 22d of October of the same year, 1822, the 
famous manifest in which they exposed the motives of 
their conduct. 

On returning to the mother country Feijd immediatly 
re ired to Itu. 

In the beginning of 1824 the Emperor Don Pedro I offered 
the project of the constitution of the empire, and convoked 
the municipal council to pronounce upon it. It was accepted 
almost unanimously. But in Itu Father Feijd drew up 
some amendments, which were offered by the municipal 
councils , ot proposing direct elections, the abolition of 
decorations, and others reforms. 

The province of S. Paulo elected him a deputy to the first 
(1826—1829) and the following (1830—1833) ordinary leg- 
islatures, and Father Feij6, a free and vigorous liberal, 

— 155 — 

took his seat among the opposition, and exercised consider- 
able influence. 

In the session of 1827 he, the priest of virtuous and aus 
tare habits, proposed the abolition of clerical celibacy. In 
that of 1828 he presented his project of municipal reform. 

In 1831 he received in S. Paulo the news of the events 
which had occurred in the capital of the Empire in March 
and April, and of the abdication of the Emperor Don Pe- 
dro I. 

The revolution of the 7th of April shook the empire. In 
many provinces, and principally in the capital of the em- 
pire, the absence of discipline in the military corps, the 
excitement of many liberals, the frenzy of the factions, 
and the weakness of the government, deprived of the ma- 
terial elements of action, terrified and engrossed the mind 
of the public. 

Father Feij6 was at his post in the chamber, which on the 
ithofivly, 1831, he was called upon by the permanent 
regency to take charge of theporf-/bKo of justice, on which 
depended the defense and guarantee of order and tranquil- 
ity in the empire. Feij6 was chosen for his well known 
patriotism and energy, for his impassible courage in danger, 
his iron will, his prompt action, and his unhesitating de- 

Father Feijo obeyed as a duty, and entered the ca- 

The eyes of the country were fixed on him, and, whilst 
trembling, hoped and waited... 

The priest minister of justice dissolved the undisciplined 
and turbulent military corps ; crushed the isle of Cobras 
revolt of the 7th of October, and created on the 10th of the 
same month the municipal permanent corps. In 183!$ h^ 

— 156- 
subdued the revolt of the eooaltados on the 3d and quaahed 
that of the restauradores on the 17th of April. 

In the legislative session of 1832 he presented a candid, 
severe, and vehement report. When he had finished reading 
it, a deputy who was sitting near, asked him : 

« Has Y. E. forty thousand men to support the opinions 
emitted in your report ?... » 

Feijd immediately answered : 

« No ; but I have four thousand national guards. » 

He would not submit to contemporize ; he was a man of 
yes or no, exacting the fullest confidence. Therefore, when 
the bill suspending Josd Bonifacio from his functions as 
tutor of the Emperor, fell in the senate. Father Feij6 gave 
in his dismissal as minister of justice, on the 26th of July. 

Was this act of Father Feijd premeditated in combination 
with the club which conspired for the coup d'etat of the 
30th of July, which four days later was proposed and 
failed?... many believe it. But it does not appear probable. 
F6ij6 never dissimulated his intentions, he was incapable 
of conspiring in the dark, and would have remained in the 
ministry to propose, under his own responsibility as min- 
ister, the most daring and violent projects if he had con- 
scientiously considered them necessary to the security of 
the country. 

In the one year and twenty-two days which he remained 
in the ministry he wrote the brilliant epopee of his political 
life. Being the object of the deeply-rooted hatred, and of 
the infamous calumnies of the delirant party press and of 
factions crushed, but thirsting for revenge, there was no 
insult, no insolent or outrageous invective which was not 
thrown at the honest man, at the austere priest, at the en 
lightened patriot, who preserved order, maintained the 
integrity of the empire, and saved the monarchy of Brazil. 


In his ministry of 1831 to 1832 Feij6 built the highest 
pyramid of his glory, and it is but just to record in his 
life the 4th of July, the day on which he accepted the post 
of minister of justice. 

Having been elected in the triple list for the province of 
Rio de Janeiro, and chosen senator on the 5th of February, 
1833, that election was annulled by the senate. He, how- 
ever, was again elected and being again chosen senator in 
the same year, he took his seat in that chamber on the 15th 
of July, 1833. 

In the following year, when the Acto Addicional was 
put into execution, the electors of the empire raised the 
minister of justice of 1831-1832 to the supreme charge of 
regent of Brazil. 

Father Feij6 took the oath as regent on the 12th of 
October, 1835 ; but on the previous day he had been elected 
bishop of Marianna, an honorable mission, which he refused 
either from modesty, or through being, politically speaking, 
well inspired. 

Being raised to the highest pitch of greatness to which a 
Brazilian citizen could aspire, the regent Feijd published a 
short proclamation full of sound and patriotic ideas. 

But Don Pedro I, the man of the restauradores, who 
had obliged the dominant liberal party to keep together, 
died in September, 1834. A terrible and menacing rebellion 
broke out in the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do 
Sul, and immediately after Bernardo Pereira de Vascon- 
cellos, the great prescient statesman, always ready to 
take advantage of the natural reaction of political opinions, 
deserting from the liberals, proclaimed regress, and, in the 
opposition, called to his flag the vanquished of the 7th of 
April, the dissatisfied of the following period, and formed 

- 158- 
and disciplined the conservative party, and directed Ms 
able attacks against the regent, Feijd, and his ministers. 

The contest in parliament, and in the press, lasted for 
nearly two years. Father Feijd would accept no compro- 
mise, he refused to govern with the conservative party, 
and being vexed and hotly pressed by a numerous and 
most able parliamentary opposition he suddenly resolved 
to resign the regency of the empire, and immediately 
carried his resolution into effect on the 18th of September! 
1837, and delivered the reins of government to his polit- 
ical adversaries. 

His Manifest to the Brazilians, -which he then published, 
is a historical document of the greatest importance, and 
reveals great elevation of sentiments. 

On retiring from the regency Father Feij6 had barely 
means to pay the expenses of the journey to his native 

In the regency he continued his simple and modest 
habits ; but a great part of his yearly subsidy of twenty 
contos de reis passed into the hands of the poor. 

Being sick and dejected in S. Paulo, he did not appear in 
the senate during the session of 1838 ; but in that year he 
gave a fine example of christian humility. 

In 1828, in support of the opinions emitted in his project 
of 1827, Father Feij6 published a pamphlet entitled « J3e- 
monstragdo da necessidade da aboligdo do celibato cle- 
rical pela assemblea geral do Brazil, edasica verdaieirae 
legitima competencia nesta materia. Pelo deputado Diogo 
Antonio Feijd. » (Demonstration of the necessity of the 
abolition of clerical celibacy, by the general assembly of 
Brazil and of its true and legitimate competency in this 
matter. By the deputy Diogo Antonio Feij6.) 

In the year 1838, through the press in S, Paulo, he made 

- 159 — 

a declaration that he revoked and unsaid everything 
which, in his speeches in the chamber of deputies or in his 
writings could directly or indirectly oflFend ecclesiastical 
discipline, or any one personally, adding that the declar- 
ation was spontaneous and due only to his fear of having 
erred, despite his good intentions. 

In S. Paulo he still wrote a political paper — Jt^stp- 

Father Feij6, weakened and prostrated by disease, 
nearly a sexagenarian, and appearing still older owing to 
a ruined constitution and to the ravages of time, was in 
Campinas, when hearing in 1842, the noise of the revolt 
which had broken out in Sorocaba in the name of liberal 
principles, the oldandinvalid veteran had himself conveyed 
to Sorocaba, and took upon himself the chief responsibility 
of the revolutionary movement. He was arrested there, 
and, by order of the government, taken to Santos and 
there thrown on board a vessel of war which brought him 
to Rio de Janeiro, whence he was taken in July, 1842, to 
the city of Victoria, capital of the province of Espirito 
Santo. He remained there until the month of December, 
when he was permitted go to the capital of the empire 
and take his seat in the senate where his prosecution, as a 
leader of the rebellion, awaited him. 

Explaining his conduct in the exposition which he pre- 
sented to the senate, Feij6 still displayed the frankness 
and energy of his former days. 

This exposition was the last act of his political life. 

Father Diogo Antonio Feij6 died in the city of S. Paulo 
on the 10th of November, 1843. 

In private life Father Diogo Antonio Feij6 was the proto- 
type of virtue; in the government he committed errors 
owing to his untameable and most rigid character, incapa- 

- 160 — 
ble of making concessions to his adversaries. But from 
1831 to 1832, he was the minister who maintained order 
and the monarchy ; and at all times he was an example of 
firmness, of personal disinterestedness, and of the purest 
patriotism. Men like Father Feijd are rare. 


On this day of the year 1644, Pedro de Albuquerque, 
governor and captain-general of the State of MaranhSo 
and Gr5o Pari, died in the city of Nossa Senhora de 

He vas a native of Pemambuco and one of the sons of 
Jeronymo de Albuquerque, brother-in-law of Duarte Coelho 
Pereira, the first donee of that capitania. 

Pedro de Albuquerque enlightened and glorified his 
life by one of those feats which reveal unexcelled bravery. 

The war of the Dutch invasion had been raging since 
1630; Domingos Fernandes Calabar, deserting from his 
country's flag carried the fortunes of his arms to the 
enemy's camp. 

In November, 1632, Calabar, leading a numerous force* of 
the Dutch, landed at a place befween. th« rivers Formosa 

TOL. I 21 

— 162 — 
and Serinhaem, and commenced hostilities, which seriously 
injured the people of Pernambuco, retreating in safety 
and in time after pillaging and destroying plantations. 

General Mathias de Albuquerque had a redoubt built on 
the river Formoso, with two 'guns of calibre 4 and 6, 
and put into it a garrison of twenty men, one of them 
being a gunner, and gave the command to Pedro de Al- 
buquerque, who had been a captain of the militia of the 
parish of Villa Formosa. 

In the following year Major Schkoppe, at the head of 
five hundred men, leaves the port of Recife on the 4th of 
February, and on the 6th brings his flotilla to an anchor 
three miles south of the mouth of the river Formoso, lands 
half the force at a place chosen by Calabar, in order that 
the redoubt might be attacked by land, whilst the boats 
at the same time attacked it from the river. 

At daybreak of the 7th of February fire is opened 
on the front and on the flank of the small and weak 
redoubt of river Formoso. But Pedro de Albuquerque, 
with his twenty men, resists bravely and refuses to sur- 
render : his two guns answer the enemy's fire ; four suc- 
cessive assaults are repulsed, with great loss to the as- 

Netscher, the Dutch historian, wrote the following 
generous words: 

« There never were soldiers who did their duty better 
than that handful of brave men. » 

But at each assault and at each discharge from the 
boats the numbers of the defenders of the redoubt became 
reduced, and at last the Dutch entered it unresisted. What 
they found, what they saw, astounded them. Nineteen 
corpses strewed the ground, and among these Captain Pedro 

- 163 - 
de Albuquerque half dead, with two severe wounds, one 
from a musket ball and one from a pike. 

Of the twenty-one men who garrisoned the redoubt, 
Jeronymo de Albuquerque, a relation of the captain, finding 
himself alone, and having received three wounds, to avoid 
being taken prisoner, threw himself into the river and 
saved himself by swimming. 

The D .tch were moved and surprised at such gallantry, 
they lavished every care on Pedro de Albuquerque, and 
taking him to Recife they rejoiced on seeing him recover 
under the most careful treatment. They sent him to India 
tinder parole not again to take up arms against Holland. 

Pedro de Albuquerque passed over to Spain and thence 
to Portugal. In 1642 he was appointed governor and cap- 
tain-general of the State of Maranhao and Grao Pari, 
where he died from infirmities consequent on the severe 
wounds which he received in the defense of the redoubt 
of the river Formoso, the taking of which cost the Dutch 
eighty men killed, besides the wounded. 

"VrC or FfiBUXTAllTf 


The man who is raised to greatness by the flights of 
his enlightened intelligence, and hy the charm of his vir- 
tues, conquers a place in history as an example and 
as a beacon. 

Romualdo de Souza Coelho^ son of the planter Alberto 
de Souza Goelho and of Donna Maria de GusmSo, both 
natives of Pari, was born on the 7th of February, 1762, 
in the village, now city, of Cameti, in the province of 
OrSo Par4, and there received primary Instruction, and 
completed the study of Latin. Friar Angelo, of the order 
of Nossa Senhora das Merces and Redemption of Slaves, 
appreciating the intelligence and character of the boy, took 
him to his convent in the city. 

Romualdo de Souza devoted himself to priesthood and 

— 166 - 
received orders of presbyter in 1785, becoming notable 
for his learning and for the austerity of his life. In the 
following year he was appointed vicar, ad interim, of 
S. Josd of the river Araxi. In 1789 he was named Pro- 
fessor of Latin in the seminary. In 1794 the new bishop, 
Don Manoel de Almeida Carvalho, made him his secretary 
and appointed him treasurer of the Pontificals and vice- 
rector of the seminary, synodical examiner, professor of 
theology, and archpriest of the cathedral in 1805. 

And this came without his aspiring to or asking for 
it ; his only object in life had been to become a priest ; 
the rest came because he knew how to be a priest. 

In the capital of Pari he was the only one who ignored 
that he was a model of virtue, and a rich fount of science. 
The bishop, Don Manoel de Almeida, often called him to 
scientific conferences. 

In 1817 the safne bishop sent Romualdo de SouzaCoelho 
to Rio de Janeiro to congratulate Don JoEo VI who had 
succeeded to the throne of Donna Maria I, and to compliment 
him in his name, in that of the chapter, of the clergy, 
and of the diocese of Pari, and on taking leave, said . 
« Go ; I wish them to know you ; for you will be my suc- 
cessor in the see». 

The prophesy was realized very soon after ; Don Ma- 
noel de Almeida died on the 30th of June, 1818. Don Ro- 
mualdo de Souza became bishop of Pari in 1819. 

He became bishop because he had been a simple, humble, 
zealous and benevolent priest, an example of virtue and 
learning. No one ever had a more numerous family; all the 
poor were his children; no one ever thought less of himself, 
and no one ever had more blessings implored on him than 
Don Romualdo de Souza. 

- 167 — 

The seminary and the pious institutions were the objects 
of his love on earth. 

He was elected deputy to the Lisbon cfirtes by GrSo 
Par&y and on his return to the city of Belem he was 
named president of the Junta Provisoria Governativa. The 
bishop accepted the charge and employed every means to 
preserve order, to prevent conflicts, and he counselled 
conciliatory measures, till the province escaped the influ- 
ence and the oppression of the Portuguese troops, with the 
proclamation of the independence, and of Don Pedro I, Em- 
peror of Brazil. 

Though old and tired out by study, which enlightens 
the intelligence but abates the disregraded body, Don Ro- 
mualdo de Souza Coelho undertook long and toilsome jour- 
neys to many parishes and chapels of his diocese, his 
apostolic word being heard every- where. 

A fatal disease attacked him shortly before the revolt 
of 1835 broke out in Pari. Anarchy, the frenzy of the fac- 
tions, and his horror of bloodshed made him,, almost a 
corpse, rise from his bed of pain. Leaning on the arms of 
two priests, Don Romualdo de Souza twice went and ex- 
posed himself to the rage of the rebels who had committed 
the greatest outrages. He spoke to them in the name of 
God, in the name of the country, calling on them to 
obey and promising to beg an amnesty. 

The old bishop could obtain nothing, and again retired 
to his bed of sufiTering. He continued five years this life of 
a martyr, until he expired on the 15th of February, 1841. 

His sepulchre received a corpse of mere skin and 

The printed works of Don Romualdo de Souza Coelho 
are numerous : two of them explain the events of 1823 in 

whioh he took part. The others are catechisms, dissertations^ 
discourses, orations^ and pastorals of great merit. 

Don Romnaldo de Soa2a was a prince of the church, 
who, like the apostles of Jesus Christ, was taken from the 
midst of poor and humble people. 

"Vm or FBBDRXJAil-'Sr 


The functionary, even in a high position, and in the most 
important department, he who in one or other branch of 
public administration consecrates himself to the country, 
lives a whole life of toil and devotion, improving the sys- 
tem of accounts, facilitating the solution of a thous- 
and questions, clearing up doubts which embarass the 
work, destroying the obstacles which ministers may en- 
counter in their path, regulating the administrative engine, 
directing the subalterns, his assistants, and, finally, pre- 
paring the road to progress, is as worthy of respect as the 
warriors of the country, or the champions of parliament . 
Nevertheless he often remains there many years almost 
unknown and hidden among the books and port-folios in 
the room of the department to which he belongs. He has 
VOL. I 22 

— no — 

not the incentive of popular ovations to stimulate his pro- 
gress, but still he proceeds and modestly and calmly he 
contributes to the prosperity of the State ; like the small 
and nameless brook ^hich runs quietly along the valley 
fertilizing the lands through which it winds. 

Councilor Emiliano Faustino Lins was one of the finest 
types of the public functionary. 

Emiliano Faustino Lins, the legitimate son of Ignacio 
Josd Lins and of Donna Anna Inocencta da Silva, was 
born in the city of Rio de Janeiro on the 8th of February, 

He received his literary education at the old seminary of 
S. Joaquim, where he learnt the Latin and French lan- 
guages, and attended the course of philosophy with profi- 
ciency. On leaving the seminary he entered the class of com- 
merce, where he was considered as one of the first students ; 
instead of losing his time in frivolous pastimes, he employed 
his leisure hours in the study of the English language. 

He commenced his career as a public functionary by 
entering the junta of finance as a clerk, and such proofs 
did he give of his intelligence and zeal, that, without the 
magic of patronage which sometimes raises incapable men, 
as the wind carries on its wings the dry leaves which lie 
rolling in the dust, he gradually rose in position, until on 
the 18th of November, 1819, he was appointed second writer 
in the national treasury. 

In December, 1827, the reputation of Emiliano Faustino 
Lins was already so well established that he was chosen 
for a highly important commission : that of regulating 
the junta of finance of the province of Bahia, and so well 
did he fulfill his arduous mission that on returning to Rio 
de Janeiro, he was first made a chevalier of the Order of 
Christ, and afterwards of that of the Cross, and was pro- 

— ni — 

moted to be a first writer in the national treasury, which 
was then undergoing the reform authorized by the law of 
the 1st of October, 1831. 

On the 22d of December, 1840, Emiliano Faustino Lins 
was appointed chief officer of the general accounting depart- 
ment of the rension of the national treasury, and by 
decree of 21st of February , 1844, he was appointed account- 
ant general and H. M. the Emperor made him a comman- 
der of the Order of Christ. 

He always enjoyed the fuUest^confldence of his superiors 
and of the ministers with whom he served ; he was respect- 
ed by all his colleagues, and loved by all who knew him, 
being an example of unblemished probity, and of intelli- 
gent, severe and vigilant zeal. Councilor Emiliano Faus- 
tino Lins, after forty years of relevant services, a tired 
laletudinarian, obtained his superannuation as accountan- 
general on the 2d of December, 1850, seven years before 
his death, which happened on the 18th of October, 1857. 

This enlightened citizen was one of the members who 
founded the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute, 
and he served many years as its treasurer, being always 
elected member of the committee of accounts. 

Intelligence, zeal, severe probity, patriotism, perfect 
courtesy and amiabitity^ made Smiliano Faustino Lins the 
model of public functionaries. 



In his manuscript notes bestowed on the Historical Insti- 
tute of Brazil, Balthazar da Silva Lisboa informs, that Diogo 
Gomes Carneiro was born in Rio de Janeiro on the 9th of 
February, 1628. It has been ascertained, and no one denies, 
that Rio de Janeiro was the birthplace of Diogo Gomes ; 
the date of his birth, however, is unknown. Balthazar da 
Silva Lisboa does not prove his assertion, which being 
transcribed here, and being accepted with this explana- 
tion, leads to the conclusion that this distinguished Bra- 
zilian died when only forty-eight years of age. 

Of the life of Diogo Gomes Carneiro in his native country 
nothing certain is known ; he was probably educated in 
Portugal, where he distinguished himself for his intelli- 
gence and assiduous study. 

— 174 — 

Neither could this Brazilian otherwise have been sec- 
retary to the Marquis of Aguiar, nor could he have been 
appointed by the king chronicler-general of Brazil, with 
the annual pension of three hundred mil reis. 

This appointment also indicates that Diogo Gomes paid 
great attention to matters concerning Brazil, his native 

Diogo Gomes Carneiro died in Lisbon on the 26th of Feb- 
ruary, 1676. 

He left the following works : 

Oragdo apodixica aos scismaticos da patria (Apodictical 
oration to the schismatics of my native country.) 

Historia da guerra dos Tartaros, em que se refers 
como invadirdo imperio da China, etc., (History of the 
Tartar war, wherein is related how they invaded the Chi- 
nese Empire, etc.) Translated from the Latin. 

Primeira parte da Historia do capuchinho Escocez, 
(First part of the History of the Scotch Capuchin). Trans- 
lated from the Tuscan. 

Instrucgdo para hem crer, hem ohrar e hem pedir 
em cinco tratados. (Instructions for believing well, for 
proceeding well, and for praying well ; in five treatises). 
Translated from the Castilian. 



Francisco Solano was bom on the 10th of February, 
1743, either in the parish of S. Joao de Itaborahy or in the 
town of Macacu (the same parish as that of the town of 
Santo Antonio de Si, now extinct). He was a legitimate son 
of Jorge Antonio Leite Mendonga, a native of the same 
village, afterwards town of S. Joao de Itaborahy, which then 
belonged to the district of Santo Antonio de S&, capitania of 
Rio de Janeiro. He commenced studying in the convent 
whichthe Franciscan friars then had there, going afterwards 
to that of Santo Antonio ip the city of Rio de Janeiro, where 
he professed and acquired much learning. 

In 1814, after occupying the highest charges of the 
order he became provincial, having the famous Friar Sam- 
paio as his secretary. 

— 176 — 

Having an extraordinary disposition for the fine arts, 
and there being no school in Brazil, which country he never 
left, Friar Solano could never become a great master, but 
he became as skillful as it was possible for him to become in 
sculpture, in drawing and in painting. 

The convent of Santo Antonio still preserves some pic- 
tures of Saints, and some backs of chairs, the work of Friar 
Solano, and two wooden jars, of which only tradition re- 

A devotee was in the habit of lending, for the feast of 
Santo Antonio, two beautiful and valuable Chinese porce- 
lain jars, but one year the friars did not ask for the loan 

The devotee went to the feast and saw his jars embellish- 
ing the altar. Surprised at the sight, when the solemnity 
was over, he questioned the sacristan, who laughingly 
showed him the two wooden jars which he believed to be his 
Chinese ones. 

When at the end of the last century, the learned Friar 
Velloso, also a Franciscan, was working at his Flora Bra- 
zileira, Friar Solano was the assistant artist who aided in 
the work. 

As Friar Velloso could not draw, he asked for an assis- 
tant who could help in the matter and the viceroy, Luiz de 
Vasconcellos, sent him Friar Solano, who became the in- 
separable companion of that scholar, and followed him in 
his excursions into the forests. All the drawings of plants 
mentioned in the Flora Brazileira are from his pencil. 


jEEomo DE mmm marmo 


On this day of the year 1618 in the city of S. Luiz do 
Maranhao, a tomb was opened to receive the mortal remains 
of the Brazilian hero, Jeronymo de Albuquerque Mar- 

The issue of an illegitimate union, he was the son of Jero- 
nymo de Albuquerque — the terrible^ of Cam5es, and brother- 
in-law of the first donee of Pernambuco, Duarte Coelho, and 
of an Indian girl, who when baptized was called Maria do 
Espirito Santo, daughter of Arco Verde, murvbixaha, or 
chief of a tribe settled near Olinda. This renowned and 
illustrious Brazilian was born in 1548, 

With the Jesuits he learnt to read, to write, and to speak 
well the Portuguese language, and this was all the literary 
education which he received. He did not however forget 
VOL. 1 23 

— 178 — 
the Ttipi or Indian language, which was that of his 

While yet very young, but already accustomed to the use 
of arms, he followed his father, or Arco Verde, his grand- 
father, in campaigns against the hostile Indians of Igua- 
rassu, and he was twenty years old, when he took part in 
the last combats which established the conquest of Para- 
hyba, having acquired in these fights a glorious reputa- 

Brave, untamed and proud, he was much respected by 
the Portuguese, owing to his father's name ; and owing to 
that of his maternal grandfather he was the object of the 
love and of the pride of the friendly Indians, but his fame 
and t)ie fear of his arm spread to the tdbas or villages of the 
yet unconquered savages. 

The half-caste, Jeronymode Albuquerque, was from 1598 
to 1599 the real conqueror of Rio Grande do Norte, and 
was appointed captain of the young colony. The Indian 
chiefs Itaptcanguasstiy SorobabS, and Uiratining, or Dry- 
Stick, submitted to the grandson of Arco Verde and had 
opportunities of experiencing his good faith and his pro- 

The gallant and patriotic half-caste was declared or 
made a nobleman of the royal household. 

He had two nobilities, that which came from his father, 
to which and to the services rendered he doubtless owed 
that high distinction, and that of the grandson of the vali- 
ant Arco Verde, of whom he proved himself worthy ; this 
and the fame of his bravery, as well as the ostentation of 
his Indian descent, gave him that extraordinary influence 
over the savages, of which he was extremely proud, and of 
which he boasted. 

Having been sent in 1613 to Gear4, he establishes there a 

— 179 — 
settlement in the bay of Jurard-^codra or of Tortoises, 
the church receiving the invocation of Nossa Senho7*a do 
Rosario. Having, however, been informed that a strong 
expedition of Frenchmen had established a colony on the 
island of Maranhdio, he instructed his companion Martim 
Scares Moreno to go by sea and examine it, and he himself 
'went to Pernambuco to obtain reinforcements and ammuni- 
tion. On his arrival he found there positive orders from the 
court for the expulsion of the French from the large island 
which they occupied, and on the 17th of June, 1614, he re- 
ceives the appointment of captain of the conquest and dis- 
covery of the lands of Maranhao, and though his forces were 
insufficient he started for his greatest and most glorious 

The history of the conquest of Maranhao, even though 
summarized, would occupy too many pages to be related 

After many mischances, Jeronymo de Albuquerque was 
at last able to enter the bay of MaranhEo and land at a place 
called Guaxemduba. 

The French founders of the colony of S. Luiz, which 
name has been preserved by the capital of the province of 
Maranhao, had a chief named Ravardiere. On the sea they 
had double, and on land treble the force that Jeronymo de 
Albuquerque commanded, besides a great disproportion in 
the number of Indians, many of those on whom the proud 
young half-caste had counted not having appeared. 

Ravardiere embarks a relatively overpowering and crush- 
ing force, throws the greater part of it in front of Guaxem- 
duba, and summons Jeronymo de Albuquerque to surren- 
der. He answered by charging the enemy, regardless of the 
superiority of numbers, and routs them. The Indians fly, the 
French who had landed were either killed or taken prison- 

— 180- 

ers, and as the tide had fallen and the shore is very shal- 
loW) Ravardiere, at a distance, witnesses the defeat of his 
men without the power to render them any assistance. 

Jeronymo de Albuquerque, the thunderbolt of war, had 
obtained an almost miraculous victory. 

Ravardiere, though still with superior forces, soon found 
himself restrained to the occupation of his young colony 
and the forts of S. Luiz, having signed an armistice to last 
till the end of the following year, whilst two noblemen, 
one Portuguese and the other French, went to the respec- 
tive courts to explain the case and await the final decision 
of the war. 

Jeronymo de Albuquerque, whose resources were limited 
and who could not communicate with Pernambuco owing 
to the French cruisers, forseeing that ammunition and pro- 
visions would fail him, and having before him an enemy 
stronger than himself and already fortified on the Island, 
signed an armistice inglorious to the French who retired to 
their fortifications of S. Luiz ; at the same time the armis- 
tice gave the metropolis time to conquer and expel the fo- 
reign enemy from the island of MaranhSo. 

The hero did everything that could be imagined or exact* 
ed from a general without an army. The armistice, how- 
ever, was not approved by the government of the metrop- 
olis, who had sent no soldiers and who had abandoned 
the half-caste hero, grandson of Arco Verde. 

Alexandre de Moura arrived from Lisbon with strong re- 
inforcements for the expulsion of the French from Mara- 
nhao. On arriving there and resolving to attack them in 
their forts, he confided the command of the forces to the in- 
trepid and gallant Jeronymo de Albuquerque. 

Ravardiere being vanquished, retired with his compan- 

- 181 — 

Alexandre de Moura named Jeronymo de Albuquerque 
capitao mdr of Maranhao. He however, conscious of his vic- 
tory, as a conqueror decorated himself, and to his name, 
and to that of his father, added that of his greatest glory — 
Maranhdo — and thenceforward called himself Jeronymo de 
Albuquerque Maranhdo, and left to his descendants the 
noble family names of Albuquerque Maranhao —Aifti^gwer- 
que, the pride of the Portuguese, and MaranMo, the pride 
of the Brazilians. 

Jeronymo de Albuquerque Maranhao, the worthy de- 
scendent of Affonso de Albuquerque, the hero of Asia, the 
grandson of the Murubixaba Arco Verde, the half-caste 
twice noble, died, as was said on the 11th of February, 1618, 
at the age of seventy years, leaving three sons, all nobles 
of the royal household and illustrious for their services. 

Jeronymo de Albuquerque Maranhao is a homeric figure 
in the history of Brazil. 



In November, 1807 , Napoleon's conquering eagles 
invaded the peninsula, and obliged the royal family of 
Portugal to emigrate to Brazil. The ship of war Principe 
Real, which conveyed the prince regent, afterwards king Don 
Joao VI, and his son Don Pedro, who fifteen years later was 
to be the founder of the new empire, brought also, as 
commander of a detachment of artillery, Captain Gandido 
Norberto Jorge de Bellegarde who was accompanied by 
his worthy wife. Donna Maria Antonia de Niemeyer Bel- 
legarde, despite her delicate state, and who, owing to the 
violent commotion produced by a terrible tempest, was pre- 
maturely delivered, on the 3d of December, of a boy who at 
the baptismal font received the two first names of his 
godfather, the prince Don Pedro, and was called Pedro de 
Alcantara Bellegarde. 

— 184- 

Candido Norberto, then major, haviag died in 1810, the 
prince Don Pedro in the following year enlisted as a ca- 
det of artillery, with pay and counting time of serrice, not 
only his godson, the boy Bellegarde, but also his brother 
Henrique Luiz de Niemeyer Bellegarde, mentioned in the 
article of the 21st of January. 

Pedro de Alcantara Bellegarde, when thirteen years 
old, matriculated in the military school, having received 
prizes in five years out of the seven into which the course 
was divided. 

The law then established competitive examinations for 
promotion in the corps of artillery, and Pedro Bellegarde 
in this way obtained promotion in 1823 to the rank of 
second-lieutenant; in 1826 to that of first-lieutenant, and 
in the following year to that of captain. 

He was still in the military school when he under- 
took his first engineering ; works under most able chiefs. 

Having passed into the corps of engineers, and having 
been promoted in 1828 to the rank of major, he went 
to Campos de Goytacaze»<», where during two years he was 
employed in engineering works. 

In 1832 (his godfather being then Emperor of Brazil, 
he was one of the six candidates inscribed for the compe-? 
titive examinations for the three vacancies of assistant pro- 
fessors of the military school, and the only one whose 
name was presented to government. He, however, was only 
appointed in 1834 ; but almost immediately after became 
a cathedrated professor, and lectured most ably in most 
of the chairs until in 1853 he retired on a pension. 

In 1836 he contributed powerfully to the establishment 
of the school of architects, in the province of Rio de Ja- 
neiro, of which he became professor and director, pro- 
viding and publishing the compendiums for the same. 


At the same time he, and his uncle Gonrado Jacob de 
Niemeyer, presented to the government the project of 
levelling the Gastello hill in the capital of the empire. 

In 1841, at the invitation of the provincial government 
of Pemambnco, he went to that province with his uncle, 
Colonel Conrad, and in two months they presented the full 
plans for the water- works of Recife, which were executed 
with merited applause. 

Besides other important commissions with which he 
was entrusted and which he ably discharged, in 1852 he 
was appointed director of the war arsenal of the capital, 
when serious abuses observed in that department had been 
denounced in parliament* 

He and his uncle and companion raised the topograph* 
ical map of the province of Rio de Janeiro. 

Before undertaking these works, however, he had spent 
four years out of the empire serving his country. In 1848 
his patriotism obliged him to accept the appointment of 
charg6 d'affairs of Brazil in Paraguay, with which coun- 
try he entered into a treaty of alliance which facilitat- 
ed the development of the policy of the Empire in the 
River Plate. 

In 1853 Pedro de Alcantara Bellegarde entered the 
cabinet, formed by the Marquis of Parana, as minister of 
war, leaving it at the end of two years, having complet- 
ed, with the batallion of engineers, the organization of 
the army ; he also created the school of practise. 

On the death of the Baron ofCagapavahe was appoint- 
ed chief of the committee of limits between the Empire 
and the Republic of Uruguay. 

In 1863, immediately after the dissolution of the chamber, 
he entered, as minister of agriculture, commerce, and public 
works, the cabinet presided over by the Marquis of Olinda, 
VOL. I 24 

— 186 — 

and was elected a deputy to the general assembly. Bat 
at the end of eight months the ministry retired on the 
15th of January, 1864. 

Twenty-eight days after, on the 12th of February, 
Pedro de Alcantara Bellegarde slept the sleep of death. 

Besides his important services, some of which are not 
mentioned here, it must not be forgotten that he was one 
of the founders of the Historical and Geographical Ins- 
titute of Brazil. 

Pedro de Alcantara Bellegarde was a field marshal, a 
member of H. M. the Emperor's council, a chamberlain 
of H. M. the Empress, a commander of the Order of Aviz, 
a doctor in mathematical sciences, a retired professor of 
the military school, a member of the supreme military 
council of justice, a member of many scientific and lit- 
erary societies, and above all — an honorable man. 

During his life he published the following works : 

Compendia de mathematicas elementares, (Compendium 
of elementary mathematics). 

Compendio de topographia, (Compendium of topography,) 
for the use of the school of architects in the province 
of Rio de Janeiro. 

Nogffes de Geometria Descriptivay (Notions of descrip- 
tive geometry), for the same school. 

Compendio de mechanica elementar e applicada (Com- 
pendium of elementary and practical mechanics). 

Nogffes elementares de direito das gentes, (Elementary 
notions of international lawj, for the use of the students 
of the military school. 

Nogdes e novas taboas de balistica pratica, (Notions and 
new tables of practical balistics). 

Instrucgdes para as medigOes stereometricas e aero^ 
metricaSy (Instruction in stereometric and aerometric meas- 

— 187 — 
urements^, ordered to be put in practise in the custom- 
houses of the Empire in October, 1835. 

Compendia de architectura civil e hydraulica, (Com- 
pendium of civil and hydraulic architecture). 

Limites ao sul do imperio com o Estado Oriental do 
Vrugmy)y Southern Boundaries of the Empire with the 
Oriental Republic of Uruguay), in an official report to 

3:m OF E^BitTj-A-n^sr 



Antonio do Padua Fleury, the legitimate son of JoSo 
Fleury Coelho, and of Donna Rosa Maria de Lima Ga- 
margo. was born on the 8th of December, 1795> in the 
village of Santa Cruz, province of Goyaz. 

When still young he served in the militia, in which he 
rose to the rank of lieutenant in one of the cavalry 

In 1823 he responded to the heroic shout of the inde- 
pendence with the enthusiasm of a patriotic heart, and 
contributed with spontaneous donations towards the 
increase of the national naval force. 

In the city of Cuyabi, to which he removed to estab- 
lish himself as a merchant, he was highly esteemed by his 
fellow citizens, who raised him to all the charges of popu- 
lar election. 

— 190 — 
During two years he had a seat in the council of the 
president of the province of Matto-Grosso, and for four 
years he was a member of the provincial council,over which 
he also presided. In Goyaz, to which he afterwards re- 
turned, he served in the provincial assembly during differ- 
ent legislatures, having several times been elected its 
president. In 1836 his fellow provincialists gave him a 
high proof of their confidence by including his name in a 
triple list for senator. In the last legislature but one 
he was by them elected a deputy to the general 

These eloquent demonstrations of regard and esteem of 
the people could not be groundless. The worthy citizen 
had an undisputed right to them. 

In Cuyabi as well as in the province of Goyaz to 
where he removed, Antonio de Padua Fleury always 
devoted himself to the good and to the progress of the 
country. In 1838 he was appointed colonel, chief of the 
legion of the national guard of the city of Goyaz, and 
proved himself worthy of this high and honorable post. 
He was included in the list of the vice-presidents of his 
province from the publication of the acto addicional to 
1846, by the choice of the respective assembly, and from 
that date forward by imperial decree. As vice president 
he administered the province for more than a year, from 
the 13th of February, 1848, to June, 1849, to the satis- 
faction of everyone. During that period he founded the 
settlement of Pedro AfjTonso, a civilizing centre of sev- 
eral savage tribes. 

In 1825, 1831 and 1842, this patriotic citizen opened 
his purse to assist the State, both in the provincial and 
mthe general expenses. 

- 191 — 

In 1837 and 1851 he lent monies to the treasury for 
an unlimited time and without interest. 

Padua Fleury contributed generously to a great im- 
provement, the lighting of the capital of the province, and 
the establishment of the first printing office in the prov- 
ince. He constantly encouraged the navigation of the 
Araguaya, a source of future riches and of progress, which 
wil shortly ensure immense advantages. 

Antonio de Padua Fleury died in Goyaz in the year 
1860, blessed by his fellow provincialists who remem- 
ber his name with due gratitude. 

M tWiMc 




The dissolution of the Brazilian constituinte assembly 
on the 12th of November, 1823, estranged the liberal 
party from the Emperor Don Pedro I, and originated that 
implacable opposition which only ended on the 7th of 
April, 1831. 

Under the excitement of political passions the govern- 
ment of the Emperor looked upon most of the liberals as 
republicans, and these accused the ministers and the 
friends of the emperor of entertaining reactionary views 
for the establishment of absolutism. 

Vol. I 35 

— 194 — 
Among the statesmen most devoted to Don Pedro I, was 
Manoel Jacintho Nogueira da Gama, who suffered in con- 

This illustrious Brazilian, a legitimate son ofNicolau 
Antonio Nogueira and Donna Joaquina de Almeida e Gama, 
was born in the city of S. JofLo d'El-Rei, in Minas-Geraes, 
on the 8th of September, 1765. 

Being descended from an old and distinguished family, 
whilst yet a child he received a splendid lesson of pa- 
triotism, seeing his father, who was an ensign of the 
militia of S. Jofto d'El-Rei, on hearing that the Span- 
iards menaced the frontier in 1777, collect the corps 
of which his prestige and the love of the men gave 
him the command, start for S. Paulo, and march a hun- 
dred and sixty leagues, afterwards refusing indemni- 
fication or reward. 

Manoel Jacintho studied humanities in his province, 
and before his nineteenth year went to Portugal, intend- 
ing to take his degree in the University of Coimbra. 
At that time communications were difficult, and the 
student, with no pecuniary resources during two years, 
maintained himself by his work, copying music for a live- 
lihood, as Rousseau had done. 

On receiving remittances from his family, he matri- 
culated in the faculties of philosophy and mathematics 
in Coimbra. He became distinguished for the brightness 
of his intelligence and for his good conduct; but before 
concluding the courses of the two faculties, he received 
a severe blow. 

His father's fortune had become comprised as he had 
become surety for a farmer of taxes who had fallen 
into debt. 
The young student was not disheartenedo. He became 

- 196 - 
private teacher to many of his less talented colleagues, 
and thus obtaining means, he not only was able to cond- 
tinue his studies, but also had the consolation of sen- 
ding his family some small aid, which at least cheered 
the hearts of his parents as it proved that the absent 
son was not suflfering the torments of poverty. 

Having passed and received prizes in every year of the 
course of philosophy and mathematics, his insatiable in- 
telligence aspired to more, and he entered the faculty of 
medicine, gaining laurels in the first and second year, 
which he passed with applause. 

His academical career, however, was suddenly and glo- 
riously interrupted. Without asking for it, without even 
expecting it, he received, by decree of the 16th of No- 
vember, 1791, the appointment of assissant professor of 
mathematics of the Royal Naval Academy of Lisbon, 
which he exercised till 1801. 

Brazilian pride rejoices at the thought that the unpro- 
tected Manoel Jacintho, he who was two years in Lis- 
bon copying music for a livelihood, he who, owing to 
the misfortunes of his father was left at the University 
of Goimbra without means, and studied at his own ex- 
pense, gaining his bread by private teaching, should^ 
being a Brazilian, have deserved that appointment, which 
proved his great merit. 

In 1793 he was promoted to the rank of first-lieu- 
tenant in the navy, and in 1798 to that of post captain, 
having been made a chevalier of the Order of S. Bento de 
Aviz, three years before. 

Among the friends of a high social position, which his 
fine intellectual gifts and his good-heartedness attracted^ 
one of the most aflfectionate was Don Rodrigo, afterwards 
Count of Linhares, Rfanoel Ja<?intbo »vaile4 himself 

— 196 — 
of this friend on behalf of the patriot, his countryman, 
Jos6 de Rezende Gosta^ exiled with his father to Cape 
Yerde for the crime of high treason in the conspiracy of 
Minas Geraes, called the Tiranientes conspiracy. 

Rezende Costa was pardoned and obtained employment 
in the public treasury of Lisbon, whence he afterwards 
returned to his beloved country. 

This was not the only Brazilian protected by Manoel 
Jacintho, who haying himself experienced misfortunes, well 
knew how he could be useful to his unfortunate country- 
men in foreign lands. 

Another misfortune, and another proof of a generous 
heart : Manoel Jacintho*s eldest brother, Antonio Joaquim 
Nogeira da Gama, had no sooner taken his degree in 
medicine at the University of Coimbra, than he died leav- 
ing a widow and six children perfectly destitute. Though 
poor, Manoel Jacintho*s accepts the fraternal legacy, sends 
his nephews to his family in Minas Geraes, and gives 
the widow a small pension in Coimbra until her death. 

Being anxious to return to his native country, he 
obtained, on the 1st of July 1801, the appointment, of 
inspector-general of the nitre deposits and of the man- 
ufactories of gunpowder of Minas Geraes, of deputy to 
the mining and coinage junta, and of Secretary to the 
government, this place being declared for his life by 
decree of the 1st of October, on which day he was also 
named to the junta of the Royal Treasury, in the same 
capitania, and on the 12th of November of the same year 
he was moreover appointed assistant to the intendent- 
general of the mines and metals of the kingdom, in the 
assaying department of the mint, where he established 
'a chemical laboratory, and undertook the construction of 

manufactories of artificial nitre at the Brago de Prata, 
of which he became inspector. 

This was not enough ; because the last appointments 
detained him in Portugal. On the 9th of February, 1802, 
he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-colonel of 
engineers. In the same year he tendered his resignation 
as secretary of the government of Minas Oeraes, never 
having occupied the place, and, at last, on the 24th of 
September, he returned to Brazil with the appointment 
of deputy and secretary to the Junta of Finance of his 
cherished province. 

From 1806 to 1821 the biographical history of Manoel 
Jacintho is long and praiseworthy. In Minas Geraes he 
appears as the zealous, but prudent fiscal functionary. In 
1808, as secretary to the Royal Treasury, created in 
Rio de Janeiro, he suppressed abuses and prevarications. 
He proposed improvements and a system for recovering 
the taxes and for auditing the expenses, despising the 
enemies which he created in the zealous fulfillment of 
his duty. 

In 1811 he was named deputy to the administrative 
junta of the military academy which had been created, 
and inspector of the classes, a place which he occupied 
until 1821, without any salary. 

In 1809 he was made a commander of the Order of 
Aviz; in 1814 a member of the council; in 1815 a nobleman, 
and on the 11th of December, 1822, he retired on half pay 
with the rank of marshal. 

In February, 1821, he was appointed member and secre- 
tary of the committee of twenty, who, with the members 
elected by councils of the cities and towns of Brazil, had 
to examine which of the articles of the future Portuguese 
constitution were adapted to this kingdom, and propose 

- 198 — 

the necessary reforms. In April, he assisted, as elector 
of the parish of S. Jos^, the tumultuous discussions and 
the violent and barbarous attack on the electoral 
assembly holding its sitting in the Exchange. 

Having been elected by the province of Rio de Janeiro 
a deputy to the Brazilian constituinte assembly in 1823, 
Manoel Jacintho distinguished himself remarkably, and 
on the 17th of July of the same year, the Andrada min- 
istry having retired, he entered the cabinet, organized 
by the emperor, as minister of finance. In November, 
however, refusing to accept the responsibility of the im- 
politic dissolution of the constituinte, he, and four other 
ministers his colleagues, wisely resigned their port- 

On the 13th of November the ex-minister-Manoel Ja- 
cintho, was named a Councilor of State, and he had the 
glory of being one of the authors of the constitution 
of the Empire and of signing it, for which relevant service 
he was made a dignitary of the Imperial Order of the 

On the 15th of October, 1825, he was created Viscount 
of Baependy, with the honors of a grandee, being a year 
later created a marquis. 

On the 21st of January, 1826, he again entered the cabi- 
net as minister of finance, occupying the post during two 
years, though mortified at seeing his plans of administrative 
and fiscal reform frustrated. 

In 1826 he had been voted in the triple lists for senators 
both by the province of Rio e Janeiro and by MinasGeraes, 
and having been chosen for this province by the Emperor, 
he took his seat on the installation of the senate. 

Out of power until 1831, the Marquis of Baependy shone 
in the senate amongst the $iblest and most (Jistinguishe4 

— 199 — 

members, and in the council of State he sometimes saw, unfor- 
tunately, his opinions disregarded which however remained 
consigned in writing and which, had they been adopted, 
would have saved the government of the Emperor from 
committing fatal errors. He strenuonsly opposed the. 
London loans which so heavily burthened the finances 
of the government, and brought so much obloquy upon the 
ministry. His were the wisest views on the question 
which arose in consequence of the death of Don John YI, 
and of the call of the Emperor of Brazil to the throne of 
Portugal as king Don Pedro IV. Of all the opinions 
which he proffered, however, none is more important 
than that which he emitted, when vehement and bitter 
party debates in the chambers were at their height, and 
announced the crisis which appeared in March and April, 
1831 : the Marquis of Baependy voted, advising government 
to circumscribe their action within the sphere of the cons- 
titution, and to confirm the independence and power of 
the two chambers of the legislative power. 

lu March, 1831, the capital of the Empire was heaving 
with the germ of revolt. The national pride, during three 
consecutive nights, had been outraged by bands of Portu- 
guese, who remained unpunished, and this served the 
manifest conspiracy of the exalted liberals against the 
Emperor, who, wishing to appease the anger of the peopl 
formed a cabinet of liberals who unfortunately had neither 
prestige nor influence, and who, whilst they were able to 
crush the revolting intervention of the foreign element, 
were incapable of embarassing the action of the conspira- 
tors. Don Pedro I, under these circumstances, suddenly 
changed the ministry, and on the night of the 5th of April 
organized another with the Marquis of Baependy as minister 
of finance. 

— 200 — 

This ministry lasted from the night of the 5th of April 
till daybreak of the 7th, when Don Pedro I abdicated the 
crown, refusing to accede to the people and the troops, who 
exacted the reintegration of the ministers who had been 

The Marquis of Baependy from the 7th of April forward, 
abstained from politics. 

In 1831 the liberal party being in power, and acceding 
perhaps to the necessity of satisfying popular passion, 
framed, in the chamber of deputies, accusations against 
the ex-ministers of Don Pedro I; but the accusation brought 
against the Marquis of Baependy was acknowledged to be 
unfounded by the report of the committee of the house, 
which obtained the votes even of the liberal deputies. 
After 1831 the Marquis of Baependy was vice-president, 
of the senate, and Don Pedro II, who had been declared of 
age, on his coronation day, the 18th of June, 1841, pre- 
sented him with the Grand Cross of the Order of the Rose. 

The Marquis of Baependy left an honored memory for 
important services which he rendered apart from politics- 

His was the idea and the project of the annuity association 
for the families of military men, and of another which he 
presented in 1825 to Don Pedro I, of the general annuity 
society for Brazilian families, which was submitted to the 
consideration of the senate. The result of this patriotic 
work was the institution of the Monte Pio Geral dos Ser- 
vidores do Estado, (State Servants Annuity Institute), 
which, to prove once more the sic vols non vobis, ignored 
its illustrious initiator. 

The Marquis of Baependy died near midnight of the 
14th of February, 1847, at the age of eighty-one years and 
some months in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and was buried 

—201 r- 

in the cimetery of the third order of S. Francisco de 

Conspicuous as a student, as a professor^ as an adminis- 
trator, as a financier, as a legislator, he was a man of vast 
science, and of great practise in the direction of the 
treasury and fiscal departments. 

The proof that he was an able statesman is rather to be 
found in the Council of State papers, and in the fact that 
he positively refused to sanction the dissolution of the 
constituinte assembly, than in his acts in the cabinets of 
which he was member, the first of which lasted a little 
more than three months, the second one year full of 
difficulties, and the third only one day and two nights of 

The liberal party during the reign of the first Empe- 
ror opposed him strongly, owing to his being an unwav- 
ering supporter of the conservative party, as well as 
a loyal and devoted friend of the Emperor Don Pedro 
I, opposing, in the Council of State, grave errors of 
his government, but shielding him in parliament with 
personal abnegation. 

Immediately after the abdication of Don Pedro I, on 
the 7th of April, the people, exulting in their victory 
ry, outraged his house. 

But in 1847, when he died he was generally regretted. 

More than a quarter of a century has passed since 

Posterity commences to pass judgement; on the tomb 
of the Marquis of Baependy it will engrave the words : 

« Courage and toil; benevolence and learning; loyalty 
and abnegation; patriotism and honor. » 

VOL. I 26 

3:"V or FEs,:RTjAJErz' 


From 1820 to 1823 a Brazilian student shone in the 
University of Coimbra; having entered at the faculties of 
mathematics and philosophy, he obtained prizes in every 
year and at the end of the fourth took his degree as 
bachelor in mathematics. 

The board of the faculty which conferred the degree pro- 
posed to government that the Brazilian student should 
be graduated gratuitously, if he would accept the fa- 
vor; one of the professors attesting his academical trium- 
phs, added that the bachelor laureate would be coun- 
ted among the learned. 

This student was Gandido Baptista de Oliveira, son of 
Francisco Baptista dos Anjos and Donna Francisca Can- 
dida de Oliveira, and bom in the city of Porto Alegre, 

— 304 - 
province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, on the ISth 
of February, 1801. 

Candido Baptista being destined by his parents for an 
ecclesiastical life, studied humanities at the Seminary of 
S. Jos6, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. As, however, he 
had no inclination for the priesthood, he went to Por- 
tugal, where at the University of Coimbra he obtained 
such extraordinary and brilliant distinction. 

Candido Baptista from Portugal passed over to France, 
and obtained leave from the government to attend the 
polytechnic school; he there gained the friendship of the 
learned Arago, who taught astronomy. 

On returning to Brazil in 1827, he was appointed assis- 
tant professor at the military academy, becoming shortly 
after cathedrated professor of rational mechanics. 

The fame of his triumphs in Coimbra, and of the name 
which he left at the polytechnic school in France had 
spread, and his province elected him a deputy in the sec- 
ond legislature. 

Candido Baptista in 1830 became connected with the 
liberal party, and in 1831 he was one of the twenty- 
four who signed the famous representation of the 15th 
of March. 

After the abdication of Don Pedro I, the minister of 
finance, Bernardo Pereira de Vasconcellos, who in the 
chamber had appreciated the profound knowledge of Can- 
dido Baptista, appointed him inspector-general of the 
National Treasury when he realized the reform of that 
department and its dependencies. 

In the execution of this arduous task he rendered 
important sei vices, and among others he introduced the 
especial use of stereometry, till then unknown in the 
custom-houses of the Empire, anew formula for measure 

-ao5 — 

ing the capacity of merchant vessels in order to regu- 
late the anchorage dues ; he also systematized weights 
and measures. 

In 1834 he left the treasury, but returned in 1837; 
Miguel Calmon, afterwards Marquis of Abrantes, being 
then minister of finance. 

In the meantime, as a deputy, though he did not 
shine as a speaker, he was the chief collaborator of all 
financial measures. 

In 1838 he did not obtain a seat in the chamber. A 
tremendous revolt having broken out in his province, 
it took no part in the elections of the fourth legisla- 
ture. In 1839, however, he entered a cabinet holding 
the two ofiices of finance and foreign affairs. This min- 
istry did not satisfy the ardent expectations of political 
parties, and therefore lasted but a few months. In the 
administration of the finances, however, Gandido Baptista 
raised himself above all opposition, and as minister of 
foreign afiairs he had the glory of calling upon l^imself 
the hatred of the slave dealers. 

From 1840 to 1843 a high diplomatic mission took 
him to St. Petersburg and shortly after to Vienna. At 
this place Gandido Baptista was admired, and enjoyed 
the esteem of prince Mettemich. In St. Petersburg he 
acquired the friendship of Gount Nesselrode ; and would 
sometimes pass whole days in the astronomical observ- 
atory, with the director, who received and commended 
him as a fellow, and an equal in science. 

On returning home he occupied his professor's chair 
until 1847, when he was superannuated. In May of the 
same year he again accepted oiBce as minister of ma- 
rine in the cabinet presided by Manoel Alves Branco, 
afterwards Viscount of Garvellas. This ministry also lasted 

— 206 - 
only a short time; but Candido Baptista left office, having 
created the corps of naval fuzileers, having increased 
the navy, and having given such an impulse to admims- 
tration, that his retirement from government was justly 

regretted. . 

In 1850 national gratitude presented him in a list of six 
names for senators for the province of Ceari, and H. M. 
the Emperor, who honored Candido Baptista with his friend- 
ship and confidence, and appreciated his great merit, his 
capacity, and his preeminent services to the country, gave 
him, by his constitutional choice a well-deserved chair in 
the Brazilian senate. 

There, in the senate, as in the chamber of deputies, he 
was a weak speaker ; always mathematically concise, he 
had no high flights of oratory. He rose and spoke to say 
clearly and simply, but in a few minutes, only what was 
absolutely useful and necessary. In the cabinet, however, 
the great orators asked his advice and accepted his arbi- 

As a statesman he was an administrator but not an 


The Emperor appointed him a councilor of State, and 
the government made him a director of the Bank of Brazil, 
and Candido Baptista, the learned and practical adminis- 
trator, the man of unblemished probity, did his duty, and 
served with intelligence, zeal, and devotedness in the coun- 
cil of State, and in the board of the Bank of Brazil. 

He was also inspector of the Botanical Garden. 

Politics and administration perhaps deviated Candido 
Baptista from his special vocation. He was a profound ma- 
thematician, and would have been an admirable scholar 
if he had had the pecuniary means, and had not been con- 
strained by family cares from persuing exclusively his 

— 207 — 

favorite science, and if he had not been urged by gov- 
ernment, that' sometimes displaces predestined intellien- 

Candido Baptista was a passionate and masterly culti- 
vator of mathematics ; he loved them as Tasso loved poetry ; 
the science of calculation was the flame of his life. With 
the pencil in his hand and the board before him, he used 
to forget the world, or rather, to conquer worlds, he 
would sometimes pass four or six hours consecutively in 
calculating and resolving problems without feeling any 
fatigue, or fearing the precision of his calculating mind. 
When he commenced calculating, it became necessary for 
his family, tired of waiting for him, to go and bring him 
from his pencil and his board. 

Candido Baptista de Oliveira, the worthy, the learned, 
the enlightened and the honorable Brazilian, died in the 
city of Rio de Janeiro on the 15th of October, 1865. 



On the 16th of February, 1630, a numerous and formid- 
able Dutch fleet, conveying a large force destined for the 
conquest of the capitania of Pernambuco, appeared in the 
port of Recife and opened fire on the city. General Wawden- 
bnrch landed with his army on the beach of Pdo AmarelU), 
about twelve miles to the north of Olinda, capital of Per- 
nambuco, on to which he marched at sunrise on the fol- 
lowing day. 

The people of Pernambuco, who later on behaved so 
gallantly, on the first day of the Dutch invasion showed 
weakness and even cowardice. 

The governor, General Mathias de Albuquerque, vainly 
attempted to dispute Wawdenburch the passage of the 
river Doce. All his men fled disbanded^ and he retreating, 
VOL. I 27 

— 210- 
evacuated Olinda to attempt a very doubtful resistance in 
Recife, which commands the port. 

The Dutch, numbering three thousand men, entered 
Olinda in three columns; finding the place abandoned 
and no troops to combat, they commenced the pillage of the 
churches, for in the private houses they found very little to 

It was then that patriotism and the spirit of religion 
inspired acts of desperation, and men, who had born for 
heroes, sacrificed their lives in vain and hopeless resis- 
tance ; thus depriving the country and religion of sublime 

So it was that Captain Salvador de Azevedo, with 
twenty-two brave men, posted himself in front of the 
Jesuits' college, and fought furiously, only leaving the 
field when his twenty-two, against a thousand, had all 
been killed or wounded, and the doors of the church had 
been broken in by artillery. 

Captain Andr6 Pereira Temudo, committed a still more 
desperate act. 

Temudo's birthday, his birth-place, and his life prior 
to this day are unknown. He was a captain of militia and 
called himself a native of Pernambuco. The 16th day of Feb- 
ruary, 1630, with the admirable sacrifice, useless though 
it was, of his life, if it be not a glorious, is at least a 
proud day for Brazil. 

Quite alone, instigated by foolish pride, Captain Temudo 
refused to leave Olinda. His spirit revolted at seeing the 
pillage of the churches, and rushing to that of the Miser- 
icordia, invaded by bands of Dutch soldiers, seeing them 
brutally and indignantly profane the altars, he gave one 
shout, and drew his sword. 

Captain Temudo had not a single person at his side ; he 

— 211 — 
alone without hope, with the certainty of death, he alone, 
sword in hand attacked the Dutch. 

It appears incredible ; but so it was. 

Desperate and furious, he becomes a Hercules, a hero 
of Ariosto, or of old romances of chivalry of the middle ages. 

Like a wild lion he roars, felling men, and, in the midst 
of ten or more of the sacrilegists, whom he dlone had 
prostrated with his sword, he falls covered with wounds 
and dies amidst those he had killed. 

Captain Andr6 Pereira Temudo may not be a hero ; 
but he is at least legendary in the history of Brazil. 



Jos6 Clemente Pereira, the legitimate son of Jose Gon- 
^Ives and Donna Maria Pereira, was born at a place 
called Adem, in the town of Castello Mendo, district of 
Trancoso, in the kingdom of Portugal, on the 17th of 
February, 1787. 

He took his degree in law and canons at the University 
of Coimbra. 

Daring the French invasion of Portugal he enlisted in 
the academical corps which was commanded by 3os6 Bo- 
nifacio de Andrada e Silva, and as a captain commanded 
one of those famous guerrillas so fatal to the enemy. 

He served in the Anglo-Luzitanian army which, under 
Wellington, invaded Spain. 

In 1815 he left for Brazil, arriving in Rio de Janeiro 
on the IStb of October, and practised as a lawyer till 1819, 

— 2U — 
when he was appointed juiz de f6ra of the town of Praia- 
Grande (afterwards the city of Nictheroy) which had lately 
been created. 

The plan and the measurement and laying out the streets 
and squares of the town are due to him, as also other 
services of a real founder of a town. 

On the 26th of February, 1821, in the town of Marici, 
he convoked the council and the people to take the oath 
of the constitution which the c6rtes were to promulgate. 
In the same year he was appointed juiz de f6ra of the city 
of Rio de Janeiro and commenced to exercise his functions 
on the 30th of May. , 

On the 5th of June following the auxiliary division (Por- 
tuguese troops) which garrisoned the city became undis- 
ciplined, and succeeded in obtaining from the prince regent 
Don Pedro the oath to the bases of the constitution ema- 
nated from the Portuguese cortes, and the dismissal of the 
Count dos Arcos'ministry. But the rebellious troops, under 
arms, resolved that a junta of nine deputies should be 
named to assist the Prince in the despatch of state papors, 
as a means of subjecting Don Pedro to the influence of 
General Avilez, their commander. Jos6 Clemente cour- 
ageously and firmly opposed this violent measure as pre- 
sident of the senate of the chamber, and succeeded in 
annulling it. 

In December, 1821, he proposed that the chamber should 
make representation to the Prince begging him to remain 
in Brazil, which was equivalent to proposing the revolution 
of the independence. 

On the 9th of January, 1822, Jos6^ Clemente, as juiz de 
f6ra, president of the senate of the chamber, at the head 
of this corporation, with the greatest solemnity and fol- 
lowed by an immense crowd, went to the city palace to 

— 215 — 

present the famous representation of the people of Rio de 
Janeiro to the prince D. Pedro, proposing disobedience 
to the decrees of the cflrtes, with the request that he 
should remain in Brazil. 

When he presented that representation he delivered a 
memorable and energetic speech, which is a pattern of 

It was Josd Clemente who, from one of the palace win- 
dows, repeated to the people in a loud voice the Prince's 
answer : « As it is for the good of all and for the gen- 
eral welfare of the nation, I am ready; tell the people 
that — I remain. » 

The senate of the chamber, owing to its representative 
character, ought to have been, and was in 1822, the offi- 
cial organ of the revolution which addressed the Prince 
and which convoked the people of Rio de Janeiro. On the 
13th of May the corporation offered the Prince Don Pedro 
the title of Perpetual Defender of Brazil ; and on the 
23d of the same month petitioned for the convocation of 
a Brazilian constituinte assembly. On the 21st of Sep- 
tember, after the shout of Ipiranga, they convoked the 
citizens for the solemn proclamation of Don Pedro I as 
Emperor of Brazil on the 12th of October, and on that 
day the act of the proclamation was drawn up. The name 
of Jos6 Clemente Pereira, president and speaker of the 
senate of the chamber, is written in all these documents 
of the history of the independence of Brazil. 

Immediately after the triumph, discord appeared among 
the toilers for the independence. The Andrada ministry 
persecuted as demagogues and anarchists Jos6 Clemente, 
Ledo, Januario, Nobrega and others, and who, after a rapid 
inquiry, were exiled. 

The intrigues and plots of the enemies of the patriots 

— 216- 
of the independenoe, which in November, 1823, would aLso 
succeed in exiling the Andradas, now obtained the exile 
of those illustrioue men of 1823. 

On the 17th of February, 1824, Josd Clemente, who 
had returned to the country of his adoption, was named 
a dignitary of the Order of the Gross. 

In the first Brazilian legislature three provinces elect- 
ed him as deputy : Rio de Janeiro, S. Paulo, and Minas 

After being intendant-general of police, Jos6 Clemente 
entered the cabinet; as an administrator he supplied the 
capital of the Empire with drinking water, fountains being 
erected in different points. He systematized the post-office, 
and ordered the first public exhibition of the fine arts; as a 
legislator he collaborated in the monumental criminal code 
of Brazil, and was the chief initiator and organizer of the 
commercial code ; as a politician and as minister he devote 
ed himself entirely to the Emperor Don Pedro I, and was 
the object of the most vehement opposition of the liberal 
party during the last four years of the reign of the first 

In 1831 he retires from politics and from administra- 
tion, convinced of the general repulse of the liberal party, 
then in power. In the third and fourth legislatures he 
had no seat in parliament ; but in 1835 Evaristo Ferreira 
da Veiga had included him in his list and had succeeded in 
having him elected a member of the first provincial as- 
sembly of Rio de Janeiro, where Jos6 Clemente rendered 
great services. 

In 1836 and 1837 Vasconcellos hoists the flag of the 
conservative party, and Jos* Clemente enlists under it. 
In 1838 he was returned a member of the chamber of deputies; 
in 1841 he accepts office as of minister of war; hisacti- 

— 217 — 
vity and energy multiply resources to crush the liberal 
revolts of 1842 in S. Paulo and Minas Geraes. He was, 
in the same year, chosen senator from the triple list 
offered by the province of Pari , and in 1851 he was ap- 
pointed the first president of the tribunal of commerce, 
and a councilor of State. 

He rose as high as it was possible for him to rise in 
the administration and in politics. 

He had a solid basis for his undeniable glory in the 
monumental work of the independence of Brazil in 1822. 
In his administrative services he had brilliant flowers. 
From 1827 forward he led a political life more or less 
tempestuous, cursed by the liberals, sanctified by the im- 
perialists of the first reign, and applauded by the conserv- 
atives of the second ; but in the latter days of his most 
active life, liberals and conservatives, all admired, extolled, 
and honored the worth of Jos6 Clemente Pereira as the 
administrator of the hospital of the Santa Casa da Miseri- 
cordia of the city of Rio de Janeiro. 

To this zealous and most devoted administrator, to Jos6 
Clemente Pereira, who held that post from the 8th of 
June, 1838, until the night on which, an hour before his 
death, he was still toiling in the service of the Santa 
Casa, does this establishment owe many and extraordinary 
improvements : he passed the interments from the ditches 
of the Misericordia to the Campo Santo or cemitery of 
the Caju ; he raised at the Praia de Santa Luzia a fine 
building, and systematically reformed the infirmaries of 
the Misericordia; he removed the foundling asylum to 
a new building ; he improved the orphan asylum, and built 
at the Praia Vermelha, a magnificent palace, the Hospicio 
de Don Pedro II; for a mad asylum. 

In the last few years of his life Josd Clemente Pe- 
voL. I 28 

— 218 - 
roira did as much for the benefit of his fellow-creatures 
as would be suflScient to fill with glory a long life, 
entirely devoted to the service of mankind. 

There is no doubt that Jos6 Clemente Pereira was 
assisted by government with great protection and immense 
favors ; but there is great merit in having deserved and 
in having applied to charitable and pious institutions, 
all the gifts, aid, and resources which his personal in- 
fluence and the deserved confidence reposed in him could 

The memory of Jos6 Clemente Pereira is blessed by his 

The Emperor Don Pedro II, who had intended shortly 
to confer on him a title of nobility, was surprised by 
the sudden death of this praiseworthy citizen on the 
night of the 10th of March, 1854 ; but immediately honored 
his memory by conferring on his widow the title destined 
for her husband. She was created Countess of Piedade. 

Jos6 Clemente Pereira, the pious, thanks to the muni- 
ficence of the Emperor, left to his widow the inheritance 
of the saintly nobility of Piedade, (Piety). 




The interesting Indian girl who became the legitimate 
wife of the Indian hero Poty, or Antonio Felippe Ca- 
marSo, was the daughter of Indians, and was born in 
some unknown taba of the deserts, probably in Ceard or 
Rio Grande do Norte. A savage girl, she was received or 
taken by civilized people, losing her primitive name, which 
was probably that of some flower, some delicate shrub, 
some stream or some beautiful image, given to her by her 
loving parents. 

The active, brilliant and glorious part which the gal- 
lant Camarao took in the war against the Dutch is well 
known. Damiao de Frees says that Donna Clara followed 
her husband in all his campaigns, and that she gained 
martial laurels in all his victories. That she accompanied 
her husband in his warlike excursions, but without entering 

— 220 — 
actively in the fights, though exposed to danger, is more 
than probable ; for such was the custom among the savages 
from whom she descended. That she might have entered 
in one combat or another in which she might have seen 
her cherished Poty in danger, is very possible, it is even 
natural; but what is certain is that she immortalized 
her name as a heroine on the 18th of Februuiry, 1637. 

Prince Maurice of Nassau, having been appointed gov- 
ernor-general of Dutch Brazil, arrived at Recife, in Per- 
nambuco, on the 23d of January, 1637, and immediately 
proceeded to attack the army of Pernambuco, fortified at 
Porto Calvo, under the command of General Bagnuolo. 

On the 18th of February a terrible fight took place 
near the river which runs by Barra Grande. The Dutch 
were divided into three columns under the command-in- 
chief of Nassau. The army of Pernambuco, was not only 
inferior in number, but was also under the disadvantage 
of fighting without its general, Bagnuolo being absent, 
but even so immortalized itself by its bravery. 

Henrique Dias, commanding his black soldiers, performed 
unheard-of feats, and receiving a wound in the left hand 
from a ball, had it amputated and continued the fight. 

Camarao, always the same hero, searched death every- 
where, for his Indians commenced to waver, when sud- 
denly Donna Clara, his wife, appears sword in hand at 
the head of some ladies, whose anxious fears had been 
changed into a warlike impetus, and with incredible gal- 
lantry encourages the Indians with her example, and 
battles like Ariosto's Brandimarte, exceeding in valor and 
in exploits the greater part of the men. 

The battle raged till night, and remained undecided, 
which probably would not have been the case but for 

-221 - 

the impetuous and manly concourse of the heroine Donna 

Taking advantage of the night Bagnuolo retired to 
Alagdas, and Donna Clara GamarSo^ without resting from 
the fatigues of the combat, escorted, at the head of her 
warlike and enthusiastic companions, the families which 
emigrated from Porto Calvo, fleeing the dominion of the 
foreign conqueror. 

Clara Camarao shared, as was her right, the title of 
Don which Phillip IV (III of Portugal) conferred on her 
husband, besides making him a chevalier of the Order of 

Towards the end of 1648, and after the first battle 
and glorious victory of the Guararapes, the gallant Don 
Antonio Felippe CamarSo, died at the new hamlet of Bom 
Jesus, of pernicious fever. 

After her husband's death, the heroine of Porto Calvo 
did nothing further to commemorate her name. 

Donna Clara CamarSo, the Brazilian Brandimarte, after 
losing her husband retired completely from the world. 



In the month of February, 1822, the generous first blood 
was spilt for the independence of Brazil in the city of 
S. Salvador, capital of the province of Bahia. 

Brazilians and Portuguese were already separated into 
two parties, when on the I5th of February a royal decree 
was received appointing Brigadier Luiz Ignacio Madeira de 
Mello (a Portuguese), military commandant of Bahia, a 
post which was occupied by Brigadier Manoel Pedro de 
Freitas GuimarEes (a Brazilian). The provisional junta of 
government and the municipal council invented pretexts 
for refusing to invest Madeira, and to preserve Manoel 
Pedro in the military command. 

On one side were the natives of Bahia in the city, and 
some batallions mostly of militia ; on the other was the 

— 824- 

numerous garrison of disciplined Portuguese troops, and 
the Portuguese established at S. Salvader. 

On the 17th and 18th of February the two parties fought 
in the streets. The Brazilians were beaten, and retreated 
to the fort of S. Pedro (which they also evacuated on the 
21st and went to encamp in the interior). On the 19th the 
victory of General Madeira was complete. 

But the unrestrained and frenzied soldiery, taking ad- 
vantage of the disorder and the defeat of the patriots, broke 
into and pillaged the houses of the people of Bahia, going 
so far as to plunder churches, and furious and impelled by 
the thirst for blood they ventured ta attack the Lapa 

It was a fearful day, that 19th of February. 

The Lapa convent, the asylum of virgins consecrated to 
the Lord, was an object of respect and veneration to every- 
one. No suspicion, no shadow of doubt, no insolent jest had 
touched the walls of that tenement, which light spirits 
might repute anachronic ; but virtue dwelt in the Lapa 
convent, venerated for the saintly piety of those innocent 
exiles forgotten by the world. 

The mother abbess of the Lapa convent was Joanna An- 
gelica, a Bahia lady, whom all Bahia respected and admired, 
owing to her exemplary charity, her mildness, and her chas- 
tity, worthy of her name — Angelica, 

Whilst the fight raged in the streets, the mother abbess 
and her sisters were kneeling at the foot of the altar pray- 
ing God for peace, and pardon, and remission for all... 

But on the 19th of February the furious soldiery advance 
and menace the Lapa convent. . . the sacrilegists enter... 
they knock and in savage shouts announce their intended 


The Carmelite virgins, terror-stricken, embrace the feet 
of the image of the Immaculate Mother. 

The postigo, however, opens and the noble abbess, Joanna 
Angelica, appears before the soldiers, pale and weak from 
maceration, with a crown of grey hair. 

— Retire, she cried, you cannot enter here ! The sentinel 
of this sacred asylum is Jesus !... 

In vain she cried; the door of the convent is burst in, 
and the phrenzied and vandalic crowd rushes in. . . 

Then placing herself in front of the savages, firmly and 
with a flashing eye, the admirable Joanna Angelica, the 
abbess, alone and unflinching,exclaims with the enthusiasm 
of the martyrs of faith : 

— You shall only enter, trampling on my corpse !... 
And she fell under the bayonets of the ruffians.. . 

The chaplain of the convent, the old virtuous Father 
Daniel da Silva Lisboa appears, and is killed whilst trying 
to remove the body of the martyr from under the feet of 
the assassins. 

The Portuguese soldiers invade and plunder the convent, 
and the terrified nuns flee and take refuge in the Soledade 

And on the 19th of February Joanna Angelica, the nun 
martyr, rose to heaven, leaving in the city of S. Salvador 
da Bahia, the cause of the independence of Brazil consecrat- 
ed with the blood of a virgin spouse of Christ. 


OF FBBIl.X7-A.Il."5r 


Angelo de Siqueira, an apostolic missionary, was a 
native of S. Paulo, where he was born and for many 
years devoted himself to the service of God and mankind 
in the eighteenth century. 

Little is known of his humble, austere, and most mod- 
est life. 

Being in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and obtaining 
the protection of Captain Antonio Rabello, who gave him 
the necessary ground, Angelo de Siqueira, in order to 
promote devotion to the Most Holy Virgin, under the 
invocation of Nossa Senhora da Lapa, built a house for 
a seminary to receive young aspirants to the priesthood. 
The friar bishop, Don Antonio do Desterro, on the 2d of 
Felruary, 1751, granted leave for the execution of tho 

project^ and permission to teach chant, choir ceremo- 
nies, spiritual exercises, Latin, and very little else. 

The foundation stone of the building was laid on the 
20th of February, 1751; it was built entirely from the 
proceeds of donations obtained by the indefatigable An- 
gelo de Siqueira. 

The Lapa seminary became very prosperous. Some of 
the seminarists became men of note: Father Elias, Dr. 
Goulao, Canon Luiz Gon^alves, Joao Manso, and others. 
Its prosperity, however, and the very existence of the 
institution did not exceed half a century. 

In 1808, the Carmelite convent being connected by a 
gallery to the house of the viceroy for the accommodation 
of the Portuguese royal family which came to Rio de 
Janeiro, the Carmelites in 1811 went to, and to this 
day occupy, the old seminary at the Lapa. 

Friar Angelo de Siqueira, soon after founding his cher- 
ished seminary, went to Portugal, and was in Lisbon in 
1755, for he then preached there penitence sermons to 
allay divine justice, which he announced as chastizing 
the sins and the corruption of the people, with the hor- 
rors of the earthquake of the 1st of November of that 

Friar Angelo de Siqueira wrote: A Boticapreciosaou 
thesouro precioso da Lapa ; printed in Lisbon in the 
printing office of Miguel Rodrigues in 1756. 

penitento arrependido e flel companheiro para in- 

struir uma alma devota e arrependida, fazendo confissdo 

geral com varios soliloquios para antes e depots da com* 

. munhdo ; printed in Lisbon in the printing office of Costa, 

and in Coimbra in that of Pedro Ferreira in 1757. 



Jos6 Pereira Rebougas was born in the town, afterwards 
city of Maragogipe, province of Bahia, on the 2d of 
January, 1789. He was the legitimate son of Gaspar Pe- 
reira Rebou^as and Donna Rita Bazilia, a happy pair 
who gave to their country three citizens, models of 
education, ardent patriots, and highly intelligent. 

Jos6 Rebou^as was studying humanities, commencing 
with Latin, which he learnt in three years. But acquir- 
ing with great facility some other preparatory stud- 
dies, he abandoned letters to devote himself entirely to 
music, which he passionately cultivated, becoming a vio« 
linist of great merit. 

As he was completely absorbed by the study of the 
art of his predilection, in a short time there was no 

- 230 — 
unconquered difficulty of musical execution on his violin, 
an instrument of the most delicate secrets. 

He only wanted a good school. 

Jos6 Rebougas was as much esteemed for his educa- 
tion and moral gifts as for his merit as an artist. 

He created' and organized the band of the second regi- 
ment of militia of the city of S. Salvador, and led it 
during the governorship of the Counts of Arcos, and of 
Palmas, and even after these. 

In 1822 when the strife broke out between General 
Madeira with the Portuguese troops, and the militia corps 
and patriots of Bahia, who being beaten in the city, re- 
tired on the 21st of February, to 1822, the interior, Jos6 Re- 
bougas gave up music to take his post of honor among the 
heroes of Cachoeira, where he was almost immediately 
charged with the guard of a store of provisions and 

The combats commenced shortly after. Jos6 Rebougas 
was at the side of his two brothers, who were devot- 
ed to the independence of their mother country. He 
enlisted in the heroic army and fought gallantly tQl 
the glorious 2d of July, 1823, on which day Madeira 
evacuated the city and the patriotic army entered it, vic- 
toriously hoisting the auri-verd flag. 

The artist then laid aside his musket and again took up 
his violin. 

In 1829 the love of his beautiful art, and the laudable 
ambition of improvement took him to Europe. He landed 
at Havre, and went to Paris, where he studied a year and 
a half in the musical conservatory, hearing at the same 
time in the theatres, Sontag, Malibran, Pasta, Lablache 
and other wonders of the day. 

From France he passed over to Italy and there saw the 


— 231 - 

principal cities; as an artist he wished to learn. In Bo- 
logna he remained three years, attending the musical aca- 
demy, passing examinations, obtaining at last an honorable 

He was the first Brazilian who, for love of the musical 
art went to Europe to study and to conscientiously cul- 
tivate it. 

He returned to his beloved Bahia an enlightened musi- 
cian and master ; but Bahia could offer him no field where, 
in great compositions, he could expand his musical talents. 

Jos6 Rebou^as became celebrated as a surprising, a 
masterly, and an inspired violinist. 

As a composer, who became remarkable for his pro- 
found knowledge of the art, he did much less than he 
could have done, if he had flourished in Italy or in France. 

He belonged much more to the Italian than to the Ger- 
man school. If, to the attractive transports, more co- 
quettish than serious, of Donizetti and Bellini and even of 
the immortal Rossini who preceded the other two, he had 
preferred the path followed by Haydn, Mozart and other 
masters, he would have found in the majesty of art, in 
sacred music, a more opportune and frank revelation of 
his genius, which aspired to, but did not find in Bahia, 
the opera-house which so enraptured him in France and 

Notwithstanding, Jos6 Rebougas left compositions of 
great merit, which ought to be remembered. 

Among many others which he scattered profusely, 
and which in his time were much prized, though less im- 
portant, the following were much applauded ; 
An ouverture^ in Bologna, 1832 ; 
Two ouvertures, in Bologna, 1833 ; 
Three ouvertures, in Bahia, 1834 ; 

— 232 — 

The magnificaty in Bahia, 1835 ; 

Variations on the motive of the air of the Estragniera, 
for the violin, in Bahia, 1836 ; 

Constitutional hymn, and against the republican revolt 
of the city of S. Salvador, in Bahia, 1837 ; 

Cansonets, romances, lundus, martial marches, in great 

Jos6 Pereira Rebougas, musical genius, did not ap- 
pear greater because it was only the size of the times 
in which he lived, in his mother country. 

If any thing is to be deplored and lamented, on exam- 
ining his great musical intelligence which produced so 
little, it is that, being of a religious turn of mind 
like his parents and his illustrious brothers, he should not 
have cultivated sacred music. 

Nevertheless, his name as an artist, as a patriot, and 
as an honorable man, is worthy of his parents, and of 
his brothers, and deserves the gratitude of Brazil and 
a record in national history. 

xxrc or febuxtah^z- 


Antonio Francisco Dutra e Mello was born the city of 
Rio de Janeiro, on the 8th of August, 1823 ; When 
yet very yoyng, he lost his father, who bore the same 
name, and was left in great poverty, and confided to the 
tender love of his sad widowed mother, Donna Antbnia 
Rosa de Jesus Dutra. 

But to a mothers love God gives the charm of devotion 
and loftiness in sacrifices ; poor and laborious, but honest 
and sensible. Donna Antonia with great toil and economy 
maintained, though very poorly, her children, for her 
husband had left her others besides Antonio Francisco 
Dutra e Mello, and to this one, the eldest, she herself, for 
want of means, gave primary education. 

YOl. I 30 

— 284 - 

Dutra 6 Mello received from his mother education and 
the example of virtue, and perhaps, from the mourning 
and the tears of the widow, that deep sadness which was 
his constant companion through his short life. 

It would be difficult to say how that loving mother 
multiplied the resources she drew from her honest toil, 
and from the privations she imposed on herself. How that 
son, still so young, to an extraordinary talent and an 
intense application to his studies, joined a grave and serious 
conduct, only found at a more mature age. It is, however^ 
certain that Dutra e Mello succeeded in matriculating in 
the school of elementary instruction of Captain Januario, 
where he completed, in his seventeenth year, the study of 
algebra, geometry, trigonometry, geography, chronology 
and history, Portuguese grammar and literature, the 
Latin, French, and English languages, religion, philosophy 
and rhetoric, being always considered the first student o{ 
the school. 

Captain Januario, who had been for some time his protec- 
tor, and some other friends, encouraged young Dutra e 
Mello to follow either medicine or law as a career. He 
however thanked them, declined their generous offers, and 
devoted himself to private tuition, being immediately 
employed in the school, which he had left. 

His friends tried to ascertain the reasons for his i^ingular 
refusal, and at last discovered that Dutra e Mello was 
paying a sacred debt to his beloved mother, saving h'er 
from "^ incessant work and assisting her to maintain the 

Dutra e Mello, however, did not stop with his studies, 
but in his leisure hours he learnt Greek and Hebrew, and 
was studying Sanscrit ; he also cultivated physical sciences 
and astronomy. He would have become a learned scholar : 

His spirit, however, was burning with a brilliant and 
irresistible flame which consumed his nights in long and 
constant vigils : Dutra e Mello had been born a poet and 
poetry enraptured him. 

During the day he worked for his mother and his family, 
some leisure hours belonged to his severe studies ; night he 
devoted to the culture of poetry, to the flights of his 
imagination, writing poetry, not hackneyed nor of exag- 
erated or extravagant transports, but full of philosophy, 
and sentiment, and replete with melancholy. 

Porto Alegre (now Baron of Santo Angelo) said of Dutra 
e Mello : < His poetry appears to have been written by him 
sitting on his coffin ; they breathe the pain of mourning, 
and the breath of the tomb ; they are veiled in sorrow, 
like him in his winding sheet. > 

Entirely devoted to tuition, to study, and to solitude, 
Dutra e Mello only had intercourse with a few learned 
and literary men and only attended literary societies. In 
Rio de Janeiro he belonged to the following : 

Instrvtcgdq Elementar, Atkeneu Fluminense, 4-cademia 
Brazileira, AtuxnliadoradalndicstriaNacionaly and Ins- 
tituto Historico e Geographico Brasileiro, besides which 
he was a corresfonding memhev of the Polytechnic of PaHs. 
Pale and melancholy, thin and meditative, he stooped' 
at twenty years of age, as if searchinig for his sepulchre. 
He did not long search for it. Antonio Francisco Dutra 
e Mello died at the age of twenty-two, on the 22d of 
February, 1846. 

Owing to his singular virtues he might be likened to 
an angel, he was a most devoted son and brother, his 
conduct was irreprehensible, he was mild and faithful to his 
friends, and incapable of the slightest shade of envy. Porto 
Alegre wrote his eulogy, and commenced saying : the earth 

- 286 - 

received the virgin body of Dutra e Mello, and concluded 
with these words : this angel, born in poverty, was 
educated in orphanage. 

The following lines, chosen at random, from his Hymno 
d Noitet are of Dutra e Mello : 

Tu es, oh dia, o predilecto encanto 

Da natureza inteira ; 
Todos amao colher as aureas flAres 
Que as rodas do teu carro a terra lauQao 
Para o teu rutilar volvem-se os olhos 
E ninguem busca a noite ! somno os prende^ 
Emquanto vagaroso vai seu plaustro 
As Campinas do c6o placido arando, 
Mas tu me is sempre deleitosa e cars, 
Oh ! noite melancolica I a minha alma 
Attractiyos em ti descobre anciosa 
Nao amo o perylampo a luz do dia 
Nem as aves da morte entao solu^ao. 

Thou art, oh day, the favorite charm of all nature : all lore to 
cull the golden flowers which the wheels of thy chiarriot scatter 
on the earth ; all eyes turn to thy brightness and no one seeks night! 
Sl^ep arrests them,whilst slowly goes his car the fields of heaven calmly 
ploughing, i>ut thou art always dear and pleasant. Oh I melancholy 
night! my soul in thee attractiveness always finds. The fire-fly loves 
not the light of day, nor do the birds of death then sigh. 

or FEBrnxjAinr 


Now rises the majestic figure of one of the three great 

Martin Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada was born in 1766 
in the same nest whence came the eagles Jos^ Bonifacio 
and Antonio Carlos. (See the article of the 6th of April to 
avoid repetitions). 

His parents were rich and were able to cultivate his fine 

Martin Francisco took a degree in mathematics at the 
Uniyersity of Coimbra, and iji 1800 he had scientific employ- 
ment with his brother Jos^ Bonifacio and Lieutenant- 
General Napion. 

On returning to S. Paulo, his native province, he in 
twenty years of a quiet and happy life, sometimes in retire- 

- 288 — 

ment absorbed in severe studies of letters and sciences, 
sometimes in scientific journeys, examined and registered 
in manuscripts the natural, and especially the mineral- 
ogical riches of the province. 

In 1821 he was appointed secretary to the provisional 
government of S. Paulo, and, a patriot, starts At the news 
of the decree of the 29th of September, fulminated by the 
Lisbon cdrtes against Brazil, and on receiving the fraternal 
invitation from Rio de Janeiro, contributed in a remarkable 
manner towards the representation which, on the 24th of 
that month, the provisional government sent to the prince 
regent Don Pedro begging him to remain in Brazil. 

On the 9th of January 1822 Don Pedro pronounced the 
— / remain — the first words of the revolution of the inde- 
pendence of Brazil. On the 16th 3os& Bonifacio, who had 
just arrived from S. Paulo, was appointed minister for home 
and for foreign afiairs. 

In the meantime an adverse influence prevails in S. 
Paulo ; Martin Francisco is expelled from the provisional 
government and is taken to Rio de Janeiro as a prisoner. 
Shortly after, on the 4th of July, 1822, he readily accepted 
office as minister of finance in the glorious ministry of the 

Rigid economy, activity, zeal, probity which calVimny 
never dared to attack, a. strict check on the expenses, able 
recourse to a loan and to patriotic subscriptions, put in 
order and systematized the finances, and furnished capital 
to revolutionized Brazil. 

The independence was proclaimed and Martin Francisco 
was elected a deputy to the Brazilian constituinte assembly 
by the province of Rio de Janeiro. 

On the 17th of July, 1823, the Andrada Qiinistry retired 
owing to the opposition of the constituinte. 

- 239 - 

In November of the same year the antagonism between 
Brazilians and Portuguese was at its height . Daniel Pam- 
plona, the writer of an article in a newspaper, having been 
beaten by some Portuguese officers in the service of Brazil, 
complained to the constituinte: Martin Frantisco made 
a speech which electrified the people. Antonio Carlos, 
Montezuma, and others spoke in the s^me sense; the 
position of affairs became worse, and the Emperor Don 
Pedro I disastrously and impolitically dissolved the consti- 
tuinte, the house being surrounded by artillery and by 
numerous troops on the 12th of November. 

Martin Francisco being arrested, with other deputies, at 
the door of the constituinte, was, with his two brothers, 
Montezuma, Rocha and others exiled to Europe. 

The exiled patriots were prosecuted, the evidence brought 
against them being the periodical, Tamago, the speeches 
of the Andradas in the constituinte, and even letters 
written by them to their families !... In 1828 they were 
to be tried for the crime of sedition; Martin Fran»;isco and 
Antonio Carlos return from Europe, present their defence, 
and are absolved by the Relagdo ; Martin Francisco leaves 
the fortress of Cobras island, where he had been impris- 
oned, to be informed shortly after that he had been 
elected a deputy to the second legislature by the province 
of Minas Geraes, which was then the great focus of liberal 

From 1829 forward he opposed the cabinet with moder- 
ation but energetically ; in 1839 he refused to enter the 

After the abdication of Don Pedro 1, he again refused 
oflBce under the regency, and in parliament he vigorously 
opposed the ministry of Father Feijd and of Vasconcellos, 
and those that followed, representing the liberal party 

- 240 - 
victorious, but sensible and moderate, after the events of 
the 6th of April, 1831. 

The car(imurti, or restoration party, had been reorgan- 
ised since 1^33, and it wis then said that Josd Bonifacio 
was its soul ^nd counselor, he who was the guardian 
of the Emperor and his august sisters, then minors. • 

Martin Francisco eloquently defended his brother in par- 

In the third legislature, though not proscribed like Aris- 
tides, he was forgotten and set aside by the political party 
in power, patriotic though it was. 

This party however wasted itself in sacrifices and in dis- 
cussions ; the death of the ex-emperor Don Pedro I in Por- 
tugal extinguished the powerful party which had been 
united and compact to resist the plans of restoration. 

In 1836 Yasconcellos in the chamber declared himself a 
contrite sinner, proclaimed the necessity of regress, and 
raising Lazarus from the grave, called for the regular 
political reorganization of the conservative party. 

In 1837 Vasconcellos leader of the dead, but ressuscita- 
ted, party triumphed on the 19th of September. 

In 1838 Martin Francisco and Antonio Carlos, who h^d 
been elected deputies to the fourth legislature by the pro- 
vinc? of S. Paulo, supported the Vasconcellos cabinet and 
gave it prestige and force ; in the following year, howe- 
ver, they opposed the ministry and in 1840 put themselves 
at the head of those who insisted on the majority of the em- 
peror Don Pedro. 

On the 22d of July two decrees were read in the chamber, 
the first communicating that senator Vasconcellos had been 
named minister of the empire, and the second, signed by 
this minister, adjourning the general assembly. 

Maftin Francisco, Antonio Carlos, with other liberal 

deputiesy went to the house of the Senate, amidst the crowd 
who cheered them, joined the senators who supported the 
declaration of the Emperor's majority, and sent a deputa- 
tion to the Emperor, to explain the dangers of the nation, 
and begging him to assume the reins of government. 

The regent of the empire, Pedro de Araujo Lima, after- 
guards viscount and marquis of Olinda, in view of the ge- 
neral feeling, receded, and after going to the Emperor, 
convoked for the next day (23rd of July) the general assem- 
bly which immediately voted the Emperor of age ; and 
Don Pedro II arriving at the house of the Senate at half 
past three o'clock in the afternoon, took the oath prescri- 
bed by the constitution. 

On the 24th of July the Emperor formed his first minis- 
try, in which Martin Francisco held the office of minister 
of finance. 

This cabinet lasted eight months. 

In 1841 Martin Francisco strongly opposed, in the cham- 
ber, the cabinet which had been organized in March, and 
afterwards attacked it still more ardently in the provincial 
assembly of S. Paulo, protesting against the laws of the 
3rd of December, and of the council of State. 

In 1842 he had to shew his last political vexations in 
consequence of the liberal revolt of S. Paulo and Minas 

Physically depressed, though his intelligence preserved 
all its brightness, Martin Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada 
died in Santos on the 23rd of February, 1844. 

He was a dinguished orator, elegant and correct, his habits 
were severe and his probity was unexcelled. He was twice 
minister, he was a deputy to the Brazilian constituirUe, and 
to the general assembly in two legislatures, and died a 

TOL. 1 31 

— 242- 
chevalier af the order of Christ, a decoration which he had 
received in colonial times. 

Having been robbed from science by politics, he left but 
the few following published works : 

Manical de mineralogia, ouesbogo do reino mineral, dis- 
posto segimdo a analyse chimica de M. Farher, etc. Trans- 
lated into Portuguese. Lisbon, Jo5o Procopio Ferreirada. 
Silva, 1799, 4% 2 vols with plates. 

Traciado sobre o Canamo, translated from the French of 
Mr. Morcandier, Lisbon, 1799, 8vs. 

Diario de uma viagem mineralogica pela provincia de 
S. Paulo em 1505. Published in the three monthly Re- 
view of the Historical and Geographical Institute, vol IX, 
pag. 527. 




Francisco Cordeiro da Silva Torres e Alvim, was born at 
the quinta of Olaia, district of the town of Oureos, in the 
Kingdom of Portugal, on the 24th of February 1775 ; he 
was the second son of Antonio de Souza Mello e Alvim and 
of his wifo Donna Maria Barboza da Silva Torres. 

When seventeen years old having completed in a bril- 
liant manner the course of humanities, Francisco Cordeiro 
went to Lisbon, and having passed his examinations, he 
enlisted as a naval cadet and entered at the naval school 
in 1797; after going through the course of the academy 
with honors, and being then a sub-lieutenant, he petitio- 

— 244 - 

ned to attended the military school of fortification, artil- 
lery, and drawing, and obtained the first prize every year. 

At the request of all the professors, who hoped to have 
him as a companion in tuition, government in 1804, trans- 
ferred him to the corps of engineers. 

On finishing the course of engineering, Francisco Cordeiro 
was employed in the water works of the river Tejo which 
had overflown its banks between Santarem and Vallada ; 
he had directed these hydraulic works with great skill for 
upwards of a year, when, on the storny night of the 25th 
of November, 1807, his house was suddenly invaded by a 
multitude of French soldiers who were advancing on 

Not wishing to remain in Portugal under the dominion 
of the invaders, he, a few weeks after, at the Sodr6 quay, 
in Lisbon, embarked in a boat, with a lady, whom he had 
married the day previous, descended the river six leagues, 
crossed the line of gunboats that watched and defended 
the entrance of the port, and at day break got on board the 
Bristish frigate iVt/mp/i. Shortly after he went to England, 
and thence to Brazil, arriving in Riode Janeiro on the 12th 
of May, 1809. 

Having been prometed to the rank of captain, and being 
employed in the service of the royal household, he was in 
1811 appointed professor in the military school, and was 
charged with preparing the compendiums for that school, 
which had been created in Rio de Janeiro, this he readily 
did, compiling from the best authors. 

In 1813 he directed the repairs and the improvements of 
the hydraulic works, left by the jesuits,of the estate of Santa 
Cruz, afterwards the Maracanan aqueduct, and the erec- 
tion of the fauntain in the campo de Sant*Anna (prasa da 


Acclamagao) ; in the old city the quay of the exchange, and 
also inspected the works of the custom house. 

In 1822 he adhered to the cause of the independence of 
Brazil, and, in the service ofthe new empire, he was em- 
ployed on the fortifications at the entrance of the bay, 
from Guaratiba as far as the Gavea ; on the 24th of Decem- 
ber he was appointed inspector general ofthe sinking fund 
department, and on the following year he entered the cabi- 
net as minister of war, but found tha the was out of his ele- 
ment ; from his first day of office he became discouraged, 
and at the end of a few more obtained the dismissal for 
which he had been insisting. 

In 1830 he administered the works of the Pat?wna canal 
and of the river Guandu, and left proofs of his great abili- 
ties in opinions given respecting machinery and inventions, 
in the plan for the dock in the isle of Cobras, in the plan 
for the house of correction of the capital, in the inspection 
of the naval arsenal, and in the work which he wrote for 
the reorganization of the Military School. 

He had gradually risen in rank, and in 1833, at his own 
request, he was put on the half pay list with the rank of 
field marshal, and in 1846 he was superamuated in the office 
which he held in the sinking fund department. 

The Emperor, on being declared of age in 1840, 
appointed him major-domo to the princesses, and in the 
following year named him a member of the Council of 
State which was then organized, having previously 
made him a grand dignitary of the Imperial Order of the 
Rose, and creating him afterwards, in 1854, Viscount 
of Jerumirim. 

This illustrious citizen died in the city of Rio de Ja- 
neiro on the 8th of May, 1856, in the eighty-first year of 
his age. 

— 246 — 

Besides being a grand dignitary of the Imperial Order 
of the Rose, he was an officer of that of the Cross, and 
a chevalier of that of S. Bento de Aviz. 

He was honorary president of the Society for the Pro- 
motion of National Industry, and one of the founders of 
the Historical and Geographical Institute of Brazil. 

The Viscount of Jerumirim was one of the most illus- 
trious and most modest men of his time. 

He left many important manuscripts on systems of 
weights and measures, general system of light-houses, 
on matters of financial administration, and many others 
on different subjects. 

:K.:Er^ of"2- 


The day and month are very uncertain, but there 
is no doubt as to the year in which we register the 
name of this Portuguese nobleman, who is a Brazilian 
from the services rendered to the capitania of Pernam- 
buco, with which he became intimately connected, 
leaving there his name perpetuated by a great number 
of children, more than one of whom immortalized his 
name by heroic exploits. 

Jeronymo de Albuquerque arrived in Pernambuco in 
the year 1535 accompanied by his sister Donna Brites, 
wife of the donee Duarte Coelho, who had arrived be- 
fore to lay the foundations of his new colony. 

The CaheteSy after being routed in 1535, returned more 
than onco to wage war against the conquerors, and at 

the end of 1547 they appeared menacingly in the neigh- 
borhood of Olinda and before Iguarassu. 

Jeronymo de Albuquerque liked Brazil so much that 
he resolved on remaining. In the first years of the existence 
of the capitania of Pernambuco he distinguished him- 
self as a fortunate vanquisher of Indians. He is said to 
have lost an eye in some combat; but on the 2dst of Jan- 
uary, 1548, he had the misfortune to fall a prisoner 
into the hands of the savages, who towards the end 
of 1547 attacked the young colonies of Pernambuco. He 
was condemned to the horrible sacrifice of anthropo- 

It is to be believed that it was not into the hands 
of the fierce CaheUs that he fell, but into those of some 
warlike but less cruel tribe, brought by those from 
the interior as allies; for record says that the daughter of 
Arco Verde, morubixabay or chief of the vanquishers, 
falling in love with Jeronymo de Albuquerque, succeed- 
ed in obtaining from her father, that he who was con- 
demned to minister to the enjoyments of anthropophagy 
in a horrible bapquet of revenge, should be given to her 
as a cherished consort. 

Jeronymo de Albuquerque being the object of the love, 
and king of the heart, of the enamoured daughter oiArco 
Verde, governed through her the savage tribe, and convert- 
ed her to Christianity, she receiving at the baptismal 
font the name of Maria do Espirito Santo. He blessed and 
legitimated tho first fruit of his union, and gave it the 
name of Jeronymo de Albuquerque (he who in 1599 con- 
quered Rio Grande do Norte and in 1614 vanquished the 
French in Maranhao), and finally, he settled Arco Verde 
and his tribe in the neighborhood of Olinda, this chief 
becoming a valuable ally of the Portuguese. 

Being inconstant and sensual Jeronymo de Albuquer- 
que multiplied his love intrigues in such a manner as to 
bring on himself the warnings, and the censure of the 
queen Donna Gatharina, regent of the kingdom during 
the minority of Don Sebastiao, who, at last, informing 
him of the departure of Don Christovao de Mello for 
Pernambuco, advised him to take for his legitimate wife 
one of the daughters of that nobleman. 

Jeronymo de Albuquerque obeyed the queen with pleas- 
ure, and although advanced in age, had by her eleven 
children, leaving altogether twenty-four children, includ- 
ing the legitimate ones, some half-caste like the hero, 
son of Maria do Espirito-Santo, the enamoured Indian girl 
who saved his life, and others born of Portuguese women, 
the whole of which he, at least, legitimated. 

On the death of Duarte Coelho in 1554 Jeronymo de 
Albuquerque became the protector of his widowed sister 
against the Cahetis, who returned and fiercely attacked 
the capitania. 

Old and broken down by the weight of services rendered 
in many and important combats, the progenitor of heroes, 
a Brazilian from the glory, the love, and the children 
which he left to Brazil, Jjeronymo de Albuquerque died 
in Olinda on the 25th of February, 1594, being about 
eighty years of age. 

VOL. I 32 

:k.^:^^x of FEBuxj-A-ii^sr 


— ♦^^ 

Diogo Pinheiro Camarao was of the pure Brazilian In- 
dian race, and a nephew of the famous Don Antonio Fe- 
lippe CamarSo. He either was a native of Rio Grande do 
Norte, or was bom in Pernambuco, as Abreu Lima thinks, 
and says in a valuable manuscript. 

It is probable that he came into the world in the midst 
of the Catholic community, to which his uncle belonged 
since boyhood. His education was very limited, and the 
year in which he commenced to serve in the war against 
the Dutch in Brazil is uncertain ; but it is positive that 
since 1645 he served with distinction and gallantry, 
belonging to the corps of Indians commanded by Don An- 
tonio, the heroic — Poty — of the savages. In 1648 he 
did wonders in the first battle of the Guararapes. 

Such was the reputation for bravery of Diogo Pinheiro, 

that on the death, at the end of the year, of Don An- 
tonio Felippe CamarSo, the governor of the Indians, he 
received the appointment of commander of the regiment 
which his uncle had organized, and commanded. 

In the following year he greatly distinguished himself 
in the second battle of the Guararapes, contributing much 
to the result with his Indians, who rivalled in courage 
the black men of Henrique Dias. 

From that celebrated day Diogo Pinheiro CamarSo was 
numbered among the most intrepid and able chiefs. 

From 1649 to 1654 he still further illustrated his name 
in several combats, from which he never retreated van- 
quished, though he was sometimes considered impetuous 
and imprudent owing to his daring which never led him to 
calculate either on the number or the favorable position of 
the enemy's forces. At the attack and taking of the fort 
of Barreto he confirmed his glory as a chief and as a brave 
and fearless soldier. 

The greatest praise was lavished on Diogo Pinheiro Oa- 
marao by his companions and fellow combatants, who 
proclaimed him the worthy successor of his uncle, whose 
fame he always maintained. 

The day of the death of Diogo Pinheiro GamarSo, the 
brave and heroic Indian of the Dutch war, is unknown. 

His name is here registered arbitrarily on the 26th of 

3k:xvii of febhtj-a^r^st 


The laborious operative, the honest citizen, who from 
a simple compositor in a printing office, gradually raised 
himself by work, by intelligence and by perseverance to 
the position of a praiseworthy member of the family of 
Guttemberg, has here his place of honor. 

The first printing press of the province of Maranhao 
arrived at the capital, S. Luiz, on the 31st of October, 
1821. It was bought by the Conciliador do MaranhOo, 
also the first newspaper published there, which com- 
menced by numerous copies in manuscript on the 18th of 
April of that year on the receipt of the unexpected news 
of the constitutional revolution of 1820 in Portugal. 

Up to 1830 that was the only representative of the 
press in MaranhSo, which after the independence was called 
the Typographia Nacional ItnperiaL Clementino Josd 

— 254 — 

Lisboa, in 1830, founded the Typographia Constitucioml, 
and Jotlo Francisco Lisboa and Mr. Frederico Magno 
d'Abranches, in 1835, established another which shortly 
afterwards became .the property of Major Ignacio Jose 

In 1843 the'printing office oiF. deS. N. Cascaes introduced 
some improvements, and being bought hy Messrs. Fabio 
Alexandrine de Carvalho Reis, A. Theophilo de Carvalho 
Leal, and A. Regoand still further improved and published 
the Progresso, the first daily paper of Maranhuo, as also 
six volumes of romances, and in 1849 the second edition 
of the Annaes histoyneos do eslado do MaranMo, by B. 
P. de Berredo. 

It was in this printing office that Bellarmino de Mattos 
finished liis appronticoship, having for his able master and 
director Antonio Josh da Cruz, tlio foreman of \\\o. 

Bellarmino do Matlos was born at the hamlet of 
Arixa, belonging to the town of Icatii, province of Mara- 
nhiXo, on the 24th of May, 1830, and when six years old 
was taken to the city of S. Luiz by his mother, Donna Sil- 
vina Rosa Ferreira. 

When ten years old, being able to read and write cor- 
rectly, he entered as an apprentice at the Temperan^<i> 
printing office, from which he passed to that of the P^'O- 
gressOy which in 1849 passed into the hands of Antonio Jose 
da Cruz. 

During five years of toil and poverty did Bellarmino 
de Mattos serve his old master with devotedness, and 
employed half of his leisure hours, sometimes joining and 
glueing together sheets of paper for the Progresso when 
paper of the proper size could not be obtained, sometimes 


— 255 — 
composing and printing, he alone, prayers and legends 
of saints, which left him a little profit. 

In 1854 the old A. J. da Cruz, accepted public em- 
ployment and stopped the publication of the Progresso, 
organ of the liberal opposition. But Drs. Carlos F. Ri- 
beiro and J. J. Ferreira Valle, established a printing 
office of their own, the young operatives of the Progresso 
all went to the new office, with Bellarmino de Mattos 
as foreman, displaying, in its organization, so much ap- 
titude, activity and experience, as to surprise everyone. 
It was then that he gave himself up to the ardent and 
intelligent study of the typographical art, becoming in a 
short time thoroughly acquainted with every improve- 
ment, and with all the machinery and apparatus, and an 
enthusiastic lover of the daughter of Guttomborg, whose 
love glorified him. 

But political intolerance, abuse, and violence al tempted 
to silence the opposition press. Typographical operatives 
were menaced, two of them were arrested and forced to 
enlist in the army. The editors of the paper drew up a 
protest, and Bellarmino, taking refuge in the house of Dr. 
Carlos F. Ribeiro, conceived in those days of adversity the 
idea of the Typgoraphical Association of Maranhdo, which 
he installed on the Uth of May of the year 1857, in which 
he sufifered so much. 

After a few years devoted, more to political discussions, 
than to his art, Bellai'mino de Mattos, who belonged to the 
liberal party of his province, being one of its most eloquent 
and able supporters in the press, being a patriotic toiler for 
the advancement of the province and a man of letters, Dr. 
Antonio Henriques Leal, encouraging and advising Bellar- 
mino, and offering him his credit and his name, induced 
him to draw from the Commercial Bank the sums necessary 

— 256 — 

for establishing a printing oflSce of his own, worthy of the 
art of which he was master. 

Bellarmino then established the first printing office of 
Brazil, in which he published thirteen volumes of alma- 
naks, the Postillas gramaticaes of Sotero, the poetic 
loorks of Franco de Sd, the Comedies of Dr. Luiz M. 
Quadros, the Comedies and a short poemof Joaguim Serra, 
and a number of other works and translations by Brazilians, 
serving in this manner not only his own province, but also 
those of Par&, Piauhy, Ceari and Pernambuoo. 

Vienna, Paris, London, Brussels, Lisbon, and New York, 
were all put under contribution for their best type, and 
their most perfect specimens of printing, 

Bellarmino de Mattos obtained one of the first prizes at 
the national exhibition held in Rio de Janeiro in 1867. 

He gained two crowns which the gratitude of his country 
cherishes and perpetuates. Owing to his proficiency and 
probity, his printing office was, and continues to be, noted 
for the neatness and beauty of the work, and the most 
just, and the word must be said, the cheapest in all the 
Empire of Brazil. Thanks to his love of letters and arts, 
Bellarmino de Mattos multiplied editions of old and origi- 
nal works, and of translations, all by Brazilians or 
concerning Brazil ; he thereby gave a strong impulse to 
civilization in his province and in Brazil. 

Despite whatever may be said to the contrary with 
regard to the grateful memory of Paula Brito or to Messrs. 
Laemmert and Gamier, both praiseworthy and commend- 
able editors of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Bellarmino de 
Mattos was the first typographer of Rio de Janeiro ; he was 
the most legitimate, the most clever representative of the 
progress of the typographical art in Brazil. 

-257 - 

For these reasons, the province of Maranhao gave him, 
and all Brazil ought to preserve to him, the name of 
— Firmin Didot of Maranhao. 

In 1866 a crime which stained his honor was imputed to 
him. Envy, and perhaps, political enmity, took him from 
his establishment, where he shone, to the prison, which 
disheartened and dejected him. 

In two successive sessions of the jury, in the court of 
appeal and in the supreme court of justice, his innocence 
was acknowledged. 

But the victim had been wounded to the heart. 

When set at liberty, Bellarmino de Mattos, always labor- 
ious but broken down by misfortune, grieved by the 
injustice of men, he lived discouraged, and never again 
smiled on the world. 

He insisted on living and working only for his aged 

He sickened. On the 26th of February, 1870, he felt that 
he was going to die, and at ten o' clock at night he said to his 
poor desolate mother : 

— Do not cry ; I grieve to leave you so poor ; but my 
brothers remain to support you, and that consoles me. 
Have courage ! I am dying ; but do not cry... 

And he never spoke again. 

At two clock in the morning of the 27th of February 
1870, Bellarmino de Mattos expired. 

Bellarmino de Mattos left a name and a memory which 
belongs to the Pantheon of his country. He came from the 
people, he was an intelligent and laborious operative, a 
loving son, an honest citizen, anartist of great merit, a typo- 
grapher who ardently loved his art, an able master, a pa- 
triot, a civilizing light, and he created the best, the most 
VOL. I 33 

— 258 — 

perfect, the most fertile and most useful printing oflSce of 

Of this praiseworthy citizen, the learned Dr. Antonio 
Henriques Leal, in the second volume otbis Pantheon Mar- 
anhensCj writes an long biographical essay, of which 
this article is a summary. 

n ^e»t« 

•yyviu or rBBRTJ-A.n.^z- 


3os6 de Sd Bitancourt Accioli was born in the town, 
afterwards city, of Caethi, province of Minas Geraes,in the 
year 1752. His parents having removed to the province of 
Bahia, where they had bought an estate, he and his brother 
remained with Donna Maria Isabel de SA Bitancourt, who 
undertook to educate them. 

Bitancourt Accioli took his degree of bachelor of natur- 
al sciences in the University of Goimbra, where he left 
the reputation of a distinguished student. 

On returning to Minas Geraes, the young student was 
delighted at seeing the natural riches of his country. He 
worked the excellent kaolin of CaethS, and smelted iron, 

— 260 — 
sending the results of his labor to some friends and col- 
leagues, with a short descriptive notice of the metal and of 
its abundance in the place. The notice was read amid toasts 
of prosperity to Brazil, at a dinner given a few weeks prior 
to the discovery of the Minas conspiracy of 1789, and the 
arrest of the chief conspirators. 

Hearing that he also was to be arrested, Bitancourt 
Accioli fled to Bahia, intending to emigrate to the United 
States. But the estate of Acarari, where he had taken ref- 
uge, was one night surrounded by three hundred soldiers, 
and he was arrested, taken to the city of S. Salvador, and 
thence sent to Rio de Janeiro where the algaia (criminal 
court) was prosecuting the conspirators. 

Though one hundred and eight years old, the lady Donna 
Maria Isabel did wonders, and displayed so much activity, 
and such good will that she succeeded in presenting docu- 
ments proving the innocence of her nephew, and obtained 
his acquittal by the terrible algada. 

Doubts may well be entertained of the innocence of Bi- 
tancourt Accioli who was in Coimbra at the time when 
many Brazilian students bound themselves to work for the 
independence of their country. 

Being acquitted, Bitancourt Accioli returned to Bahia 
and on the banks of the river das Contas he established a 
cotton plantation. 

In 1799 government charged him with mineralogical 
explorations, and more especially with the inspection of the 
saltpetre mines of Montes Altos. He presented to govern- 
ment a report of his observations, which was printed by 
order of the Academy of Sciences of Lisbon. At the same 
time he founded an establishment at Montes Altos, opened 
a road which connected the establishment with a shipping 

— 281 — 

port, and greatly assisted the colonist who arrived from 
Azores islands. The expense for the conveyance of the 
saltpetre, however, discouraged the government, the war 
in Europe paralyzed the works which depended on costly 
official protection, and the inspector of the Montes Altos 
mines asked for, and obtained, his dismissal, and returned 
to his estate on the river das Gontas. 

There he not only planted himself, but also distrib- 
uted seeds to all his neighbors, and instructed them in 
the cultivation of cotton, and in the respective industry, 
writing instructions on the subject. But suddenly his ado- 
ptive mother calls him. 

Under pretext of her one hundred and twelve years of 
age, the energetic old lady Donna Maria Izabel had been 
declared insane, and had been deprived of the use and ad- 
ministration of her property. Bitancourt Accioli goes to 
Minas Geraes, annuls the iniquitous proceeding, and rein- 
states the old lady in the possession and management 
of her property, and remains to protect her until her death 
but as his adoptive mother made him her heir, he fixes 
his residence in Minas Geraes. 

The revolution of 1820 breaks out in Portugal. 

Bitancourt Accioli hailed it as a liberal, and as a Bra- 
he welcomed it as the forerunner of the Brazilian rev- 
olution of the independence. 

He who had been oppressed and prosecuted, arrested and 
imprisioned from 1789 to 1892, greets 1820 which pre- 
pares 1822. 

On hearing, towards the end of 1821, of the decrees of the 
cdrtes which called the prince Don Pedro from the regency 
of Brazil and ordered him to travel in Europe, he and other 
patriots founded the association which they called Pedro e 

— 262- 

Carolino with the view of sending a representation to the 
Prince begging him not to leave Brazil, and to prepare the 
means for preventing the country from again becoming a 

On hearing that the provisional government established 
at Ouro Pedro, ceding to the impulses of ultra-liberal ex- 
citiment, was opposing the manifestations against thecdrtes 
ofLisbon, and in favor of the then revolutionary regency 
of Don Pedro in Brazil, Bitancourt Accioli, who was a 
colonel of the militia, put himself at the head of his regi- 
ment, proclaimed the regent Don Pedro, called out the 
second regiment of cavalary commanded by a relation of 
his, and marched to the capital of the province, only stop- 
ping when he heard that Don Pedro, without an army, 
had entered the province of Minas, and was only three 
leagues distant from Ouro Pedro ; that the people every 
where applauded him, and offered him the enthusiasm 
of pa triotism as a triumphal car. 

Bitancourt Accioli sent his son, lieutenant-CoronelJosi 
de Si, to assure the Prince of his devotedness and of that 
of the troops under his command. 

The assurance was not merely a ceremony or a simple 


The war of the independence broke out in Bahia . Co- 
lonel Bitancourt Accioli proposed to government that the 
auxiliary corps of the independents should march through 
the interior to Bahia, and being authorized to raise the 
force, he drew from his regiment a batallion of 585 men, 
at the head of which his worthy son, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Jos6 de Si Bitancourt e Camara, marched to Bahia. 

Bitancourt Accioli was then in his seventieth year; aged 
and weak he could not himself command the patriotic 

— 263 — 

expedition ; but avenged himself on his old age and on the 
ailments which prostrated him, by sending in the batallion, 
besides the commander, three other sons ready to fight, and 
to die for the independence of their country. 

Jos^ de Si Bitancourt Accioli has many titles to the na- 
tional gratitude. 

I or IS^A-ROH 


Valentim da Fonseca e Silva, generally known as mes- 
ire Valentim, died on this day of the year 1813, in 
the city of Rio de Janeiro. 

He was born in Minas Geraes. His father was a Por- 
tuguese nobleman, a diamond contractor; his mother 
was a poor Brazilian woman. He was taken to Portugal 
by his father who there commenced to educate him. 

Valentim returned to Brazil when a youth, for his 
father dying, his relations sent him to Rio de Ja- 

Poor and abandoned, but laborious, he yielded to a 

decided inclination, and gave himself up entirely to the 

study of the toreutic art, with the sculptor who cut 

the first ornaments of the third Order of Carmelites, 

VOL. I 34 

— 266 — 
which he partly finished; as he in a very short time 
became a most able artist. 

Mestre Valentim attained celebrity. His diligence was 
only equaled by his facility of invention. All the ar- 
tists of Rio de Janeiro went to him, especially goldsmiths 
and embossers, for designs and models of chandelierSi 
candelabras, lamps, monstrances, altar fronts, trays 
and every object required by luxury or taste. The 
silver lamps even now admired in the churches of 
S. Bento, Carrao, and Santa Rita, were designed and 
modeled by him. All the sculptured work of the Cruz 
church, the ornaments of the sachristy of that of S. 
Francisco de Paula and others of the same kind are all 
due to the inspired artist. 

The viceroy, Luiz de Vasconcellos, used to say that Mes- 
tre Valentim was his right arm in the works which he had 
to execute. 

The fountain which to this day is to be seen in Don Pedro I 
(formerly Palace) Square, was the work of Mestre Val- 

On the night of the 24th of August, 1789, the Asylum 
do Porto was burnt down, and Valentim rebuilt it in three 
months and seventeen days, thus giving admirable proofs 
of activity and intelligence, though he protested against 
the design of the old building, which he was obliged to 

Luiz de Vasconcellos owed him more than these two 
works, and he also owed something to Vasconcellos with 
Public Gardens of Rio de Janeiro, for the glory of this work 
was divided between the founder and the architect. 

By order of the viceroy a lagoon (called do Boqueirdo) 
was filled in with the earth from a hill called das Man- 
gueias.r On the site of the hill is now to be seen the stree 

- 267 — 

which preserves that name ; and on the artificial ground of 
the lagoon the Public Gardens were laid out, with the spa- 
cious terrace overlooking the bay, which is still in exis- 

Valentim gave the designs and the models for all the 
architectural work and for the ornaments, and in the 
small cascade between the two central flights of steps he 
placed the two alligators which were cast under his per- 
sonal inspection. In the almost complete and tasteful trans- 
formation which the Public Gardens suffered under the 
plans and execution of the able Mr. Glaziou, the cascade 
and the alligators were respected, and are preserved as 
being of artistic value. 

Valentim finished the Public Garden in lour years, 
and nearly at the same time, the Marrecas fountain, 
with the statues of Echo and Narcissus, which appear 
to be there as sentinels to guard it. 

Besides many other fine works Valentim designed the 
models for two porcelaine services manufactured by Joao 
Manso, called the chemist, with the kaolin of the 
Governador island, which were much praised in Lisbon. 

A most competent authority, Mr. Manoel de Araujo 
Porto Alegre, now Baron of Santo Angelo, emitted the 
following opinion respecting Valentim : 

« He was a great artist, an extraordinary man for 
Brazil of that time and of to-day, and his name deserves 

TI 0"P :L^A.£iCZZ 

mi mm da silya 

Jose CorrSa da Silva was born in Pernambuco in 1746, 
and was destined by his parents for a military career. 

In 1777 he was ensign in the infantry regiment of 
Recife, which was serving at the island of Santa Gatharina, 
when, on the 27th of February, the governor, Antonio 
Carlos Furtado de Mendon^a, infamously capitulated and 
delivered the place to the Spanish general, Don Pedro 

The ensign, Jase CorrSa, runs to the barracks, takes 
the flag of his regiment, ties it round his person, suc- 
ceeds in passing from the islaud to the continent, hides 
himself there for two days, awaitinjg thejconsequences of 
the capitulation, and ascertaining at last that the island 
had fallen into the hands of the Spaniards, on the 2d 

— 270 — 
of March undertakes an extraordinary long journey on 
foot in order to take to Pernambuco the flag glorified 
by him, having to cross the interior of the provinces of 
S. Paulo and Minas Geraes, a feat which he realized. 

The governor, Jos6 Cesar de Menezes, promoted him to the 
rank of lieutenant and shortly after made him adjutant of 
the regiment of grenadiers, and as Jos6 Correa was very 
intelligent, and wrote an admirable hand he was entrusted 
with the statistical tables which were sent to Lisbon and 
were recommended for their precision, clearness, and im- 
portance, as well as by the careful caligraphy. 

The same captain general, Jos^Cezarde Menezes, promot- 
ed Jos6 Correa to the rank of captain, gave him the com- 
mand of the sea fort, and in 1787 entrusted him with the 
police of the town and district of Recife. 

This last was a most arduous task. Thieves and assassins 
abounded, in Recife and its suburbs ; the nights were full of 
danger and apprehensions ; Jos6 CorrSa who did not recom- 
mend himself for the legality of his acts, and who used 
arbitrarily to arrest, and to set free or send to theisl and of 
Fernando de Noronho wellknown ruffians, and suspicious 
charracteres, and with these, perhaps, some innocent 
persons, displayed so much energy, that at the end of one 
year of his official absolutism, the inhabitants of Recife could 
sleep quietly, without the fear of being disturbed, or of 
neglect in fastening the doors. 

Jos6 Correa, during the administration of four governors, 
directed, during twenty years, to the general satisfaction, 
the police of the district of Recife. Sometimes arbitrary, 
but always well ntentioned, he was the cherished guaran- 
tee of life and property, and for that reason a civilizing 
element for thse times. 

Jos6 Corrfia da SilvjBt died in Pernambuco in the year 

— 271 — 

1810, shortly after being promoted to the rank of lieu- 
tenant colonel, at the age of sixty four , haying rendered 
important services during fifty years. 

In the modest sphere of his life he distinguished himself 
so much as to deserve to be honorably mentioned in the 
history of his country. 


HI OF :M:Aitoi3[ 


On the 4th of March, 1853, a numerous funeral proces- 
sion followed the cofSn containing the mortal remains of a 
man by many titles illustrious. The most impressive part of 
the funeral, however, was the train of more than a hun- 
dred boys, many shedding tears, and all sorrowful. 

It was a simple and eloquent picture ; canon Marinho was 
being conveyed to his last resting place, having died on the 
3d of March, 1853. 

Jos6 Antonio Marinho, the legitimate son of Antonio 
Jos^ Marinho and his wife, whose name has been forgotten, 
was born on the 7th of October, 1803, at the port of Sal- 
gado, a small hamlet a quarter of a league distant from 
the river S. Francisco. 

The boy Marinho had against him the poverty of his par- 
voL. 1 35 

-. 274 — 
ents, which was like the negation of a hopeful future, and 
the accident of color, which degraded him in the eyes of 
not a few foolish and vain persons. God, however, had 
bestowed on him that flame, which is of more value than 
mines of gold, and which is neither white, nor brown, nor 
black — the flame of intelligence. 

Marinho received primary education at the Salgado 
school ; he surprised his master, but could go no further. 
Either from vocation or as a resource he in vain desired to 
learn Latin and be a priest : it was a fruitless wish. 

Providence is sometimes called chance. Chance came to 
the assistance of Marinho when a youth. 

There was to be a religious ieeistdit Salgado' s, and besides 
the feast in the church, private theatricals ; but on the 
eve of the representation, the person to whom the principal 
part of the comedy had been assigned, fell sick. It was a 
great misfortune ; Marinho, however, comes forward says, 
that he had attended the rehearsals, and knew the part by 
heart. He is accepted, as a sorry substitute. 

The comedy is acted, and Marinho exceeds every expecta- 
tion, he is highly applauded, and gains the honors of the 
theatrical representation. 

Shortly after a planter sends him to Pernambuco, to 
which diocese Salgado then belonged, that he might re- 
ceive the necessary instruction and take sacred orders, 
and with this recommendation the bishop takes him as a 

But the revolution of 1817 breaks out in Pernambuco 
and the student Marinho, the famulist, takes up arms, be- 
came compromised, and fleeing from the royal troops, crosses 
immense solitudes alone and completely destitute of pecu- 
niary means. Being generously received at the town of 

— 275 — 
Barra by a family residing there, he undertook the educa- 
tion of the children and remained some time in the town. 
His protector, however, again coming to his assistance, he 
entered the Caraga seminary ; there he finishes his studies, 
and after overcoming some difficulties takes sacred orders 
in 1829. 

In 1831 he, after a competitive examination, obtained 
the chair of professor of rational and moral philosophy in 
the city of Ouro Preto, lecturing soon after on the same 
subject at the city of S. Joao d'El Rei. 

He became a distinguished preacher ; and in 1839 obtained 
the appointment of preacher at the Imperial Chapel. On 
the 9th of September, 1840, he was named honorary, and 
shortly after effective, canon of the same chapel, and su- 
pernumerary secret chamberlain to His Holiness, with 
the honors of monseigneur on the 11th of November, 1847. 

In the same year he entered at the competitive examina- 
tion for the curacy of the church of the Most Holy Sacra- 
ment of the city of Rio de Janeiro. His papers were most 
brilliant ; on the 8th of May the papers were presented to 
government, and three days after he was presented with 
the living. 

Politics, however, occupied a great portion of the life of 
the illustrious priest. 

Being an ardent liberal, he was a strong oppositionist in 
Minas Geraes during the last years of the reign of the first 
Emperor. In 1835he took his seat with Vascon cellos, Theo- 
philo Ottoni and others in the first provincial assembly of 
Minas, and in 1837 he was a member of the chamber of de- 
puties, and immediately became distinguished as an orator 
and as an inspired impromptu speaker. 

In 1842 he joined the liberal party of Minas in the revolt 
which was quashed with the defeat of Santa Luzia. Whilst 

— 276 — 
a refugee at the plantation of S. Gongalo, in the district of 
Queluz, he wrote his Historia da revolugdo de Minos, and 
after the province had been completely pacified, he deliv- 
ered himself up to justice, and was absolved by the jury 
of the town of Piranga. 

In 1844 the Emperor granted an amnesty to all those 
who had been implicated in the revolts of 1842. 

Marinho is again returned a deputy to the general assem- 
bly in 1845, and is re-elected in the following legislature, 
but the chamber was dissolved in 1849. 

In the political press he edited a short-lived paper in 
S. Joao d'El Rei, the liberal party entrusting him 1847 
with the chief editorship of the GorreU) MercantU. 

Neither in the Caraga seminary nor for many years after 
was he distinguished as studious or diligent ; but with 
his wonderful intelligence he, in a few hours, did more 
than others in many days of study. As a parliamentary 
speaker he was surprising in his triumphs of eloquence and 
specially in his impromptu speeches. 

After 1845 he became a meditative and reading man, and 
in a short time acquired much learning. 

Having abandoned politics, he, in 1849, established in 
the capital of the Empire a boarding school, which preserved 
his name for many years after his death. 

As director and head-master of the Collegia Marinho, he 
devoted himself entirely to tuition and applied to secondary 
instruction the best methods, which he modified according 
to his clear judgment. 

In this profession nothing gave him so little care as 
profit ; in the Collegio Marinho there were a number of 
gratuitous students specially from Minas and from the 
capital of the Empire. 

— 277 — 

The school became famous and the pupils loved Mon- 
seigneur Marinho as a father. 

Death too soon, on the 3d of March, 1853, cut the 
thread of life of Monseigneur Jos6 Antonio Marinho, when 
only fifty years of age, and when for more than twenty- 
five years he had been a constant source of civilization. 



mt mm carmo de campos 



The venerable Brazilian whose name and title are at 
the head of this chapter, was born on this day of the year 
1768 in the city of S. Salvador da Bahia. His parents, Jos6 
Carneiro de Campos and Donna Custodia Maria do Sacra- 
mento, had destined him for the priesthood. 

In Coimbra, Carneiro de Campos, after the course of 
physical and mathematical sciences, took his degree in 
theology ; but, overcoming the wishes of his family which 
were opposed to his own, he took his degree as doctor of 
civil law. 

Famous for his talents, for his brilliant studies, and for 
his examplary conduct, he commenced by undertaking in 

— 280- 
Lisbon the education of the children of Don Rodrigo de 
Souza Coutinho, afterwards Count of Linhares, the cele- 
brated minister, who, having Brazilian maternal progeni- 
tors, was the friend and protector of Brazilians. 

Having shortly after obtained an appointment in the 
finance department, Carneiro de Campos came to Rio de 
Janeiro in 1807 with the royal family. In 1808 he was an 
officer in the department of home affairs, becoming after- 
wards the chief officer, working zealously and being 
recompensed until 1820 ; but in the shadow of the admin- 
istrative system which gives to the ministers the glory of 
the initiative, and of the toil of the subordinate chief. 

He was made a commander of the Order of Christ on the 
17th of December, 1814, of the Order of the Iron Crown of 
Austria in 1817, a chevalier of the Order of Nossa Senhora 
da Conceigao in 1820, and was appointed secretary to the 
new foundation of studies at the University of Coimbra in 
1816. This attests the worth of Carneiro de Campos. 

In 1821 he was one of the members of the committee 
appointed to examine the treasury. 

In 1823 he was elected a member of the Brazilian 
constituinte assembly by the province of Rio de Janeiro , 
he entered the ministry which succeeded that of the 
Andradas, and being a moderate liberal and of rigid probity, 
he was respected by the Andrada opposition, and wisely 
resigned office on the eve of the dissolution of the constituinte, 
a fatal stroke of policy which he strenuously opposed. 

Being a minister in 1823 he rejected the last proposal 
brought by the Count of Rio Maior, for the union of Brazil 
with Portugal. 

Being a man of moderate opinions, of liberal principles, 
but not linked to any party, Carneiro de Campos was one 
of the ten councilors named to draw up the political 

— 281 - 

constitution of the Empire, and to him are chiefly due the 
liberal principles which it contains. 

In 1826 he was chosen senator for Bahia. On the 12th of 
October of the previous year he had been created Viscount 
of Caravellas, being shortly after made a marquis. He was 
minister of justice and of the Empire, ad interim, from 
1826 to 1827 ; again minister of the Empire from the 4th of 
November, 1829, to the end of 1830. The Marquis of Cara- 
vellas was a singular exception, never having lost the 
public confidence. 

After the dissolution of the Brazilian constituinte, almost 
all the ministers of Don Pedro I became objects of public 
disapprobation, and were strongly opposed by the liberal 

The Marquis of Caravellas was three times minister in 
the reign of Don Pedro I, and during his three admin- 
istrations he was always spared and respected by the 

Notwithstanding there never was a minister more faith- 
ful and loyal to the Emperor. 

At daybreak of the 7th of April, 1831, Don Pedro I 
abdicates the throne in his son Don Pedro II, a minor ; 
the liberal party, in arms in the capital of the Empire 
triumphs. In order to maintain peace, and organize a 
government for the nation, the senators and deputies who 
were in the city of Rio de Janeiro, meet in the house of 
the senate and, though not in number, elect a provisional 
regency. One of the three regents, elected by a large ma- 
jority, was the Marquis of Caravellas, who had been 
three times minister, and was one of the councilors of 
state of the ex-emperor, Don Pedro I !... 

On the 7th of April, 1831, the liberal party triumphing 
VOL. I 36 

— 282 - 

in the revolution, raised the learned statesman, Marquis of 
Caravellas, to the highest honor. 

Jos6 Joaquim Carneiro de Campos, Marquis of Caravel- 
las, died poor on the 8th of September, 1836, having been 
a senator of the Empire, a councilor of state, a minister 
three times, and a member of the regency elected in the 
ardor of a revolutionary triumph. He was a moderate 
liberal, just and conciliating, a remarkable stateman, 
learned and honorable. He never was a chief nor a fol- 
lower of any political party, but always deserved the 
esteem and respect of all political parties. 

-^ OF 2S^EA."ROH 


Manoel Ferreira de Araujo Guamaraes was the son of 
a merchant named Manoel Ferreira de Araujo and of his 
wife Donna Maria do CoragEo de Jesus. He was born in 
Bahia on the 5th of March, 1777. 

After receiving primary education and studying Latin 
in Bahia, the young Brazilian went to Lisbon, where he 
completed the course of humanities in a brilliant manner, 
and being unable to enter at the University of Coimbra 
for want of pecuniary means, he, in 1798, matriculated at 
the Royal Naval Academy, and in the following year 
presented to the minister of marine, who was then Don 
llodrigo de Souza Coutinho (afterwards Count of Linhares), 
a translation of the part of the course of mathematics by 
the Abb6 Marie, which comprehends arithmetics and the ele- 

- 284 — 
ments of algebra, which being examined by the Academy 
deserved much praise. 

At the examinations at the end of the year he received 
a prize, and in the following year obtained from the Admir- 
alty council the appointment of aspirante de piloto. 

Such was his poverty, and so well proved was his merit, 
that in 1799 government granted him a pension of fifty 
mil reis a year as long as he continued to study in the 
Royal Naval Academy. 

Having finished the academical course, on presenting 
the respective documents to the minister, he was im- 
mediately appointed assistant professor of the same aca- 
demy, and was promised promotion to the rank of first- 
lieutenant in the navy, the same favor having been granted 
to the assistant professors who had preceded him; but 
a new minister of marine taking office, refused to sign the 
decree regarding his promotion, thus causing this distin- 
guished Brazilian a loss of seven years and a half in his 
military career. 

Manoel Ferreira lectured the second and third years of 
the course, worked at the military society of which he was 
a member, published a translation of the Analyse de Cou- 
sin', always wrestling with poverty. He obtained leave 
of absence and went to Bahia, where the Count of Ponte, 
governor and captain-general, received him in his house and 
took him under his protection. In vain, however, did he beg 
for a prolongation of his leave, until the transmigration of 
the royal family of Portugal to Brazil and the great in- 
fluence of the Count of Linhares ameliorated the condition 
of the illustrious Brazilian. 

In Rio de Janeiro, to where Manoel Ferreira had passed, 
he was made captain of the corps of engineers, and was 

- 285- 

charged by the Military Academy with the translation and 
publication of Legendre's geometry. 

After some literary labors in the Naval Academy, he 
opened the course of this school on the 1st of March, 1809. 
In 1811 he was passed to the Military Academy, for 
which, he wrote the compendium of astronomy and geo- 

In 1812 he lost his friend and protector, the Count 
of Linhares, in whose honor he composed an epicedium 
which was printed and deserved much praise. 

In 1813 he was promoted to the rank of major, and in 
the same year commenced to edit the Gazeta do Rio de 
Janeiro, and the Patriota, a most interesting periodical 
now much sought, but extremely rare. 

In 1821 her was a brevet-colonel, and obtained his super- 
annuation in the Military Academy. In the same year he 
abandoned the G^a^eto, and, being devoted to the cause of 
the independence, he commenced to publish, in October, 1822 
the ^eriodicsil Espelho, advising and encouraging resistance 
against the Portuguese troops. 

When General Jorge de Avilez was at Praia-Grande 
with the corps under his command, Manoel Ferreira had 
published a pamphlet with the title Urn cidaddo do Rio 
de Janeiro d divisdo auxUiadora Luzitana, which pro- 
duced considerable effect. 

In 1823 he took his seat in the Brazilian constituinte 
assembly as deputy for Bahia, and served in the army and 
navy committee. 

That the importance of the services which he rendered 
his country may be estimated, it is suflScient to mention 
the other duties and tasks entrusted to him. 

In 1823 he was appointed deputy to the junta of direc- 
tors of the Military Academy; in 1824 he served in the 

junta of inspection of the National printing office ; in 1826 
he again took up the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, which 
he had left in April, 1830. 

He had gradually been promoted to the rank of brevet- 
brigadier in the corps of engineers, and went on half pay 
with that rank, and leave to reside in his province in Jan- 
uary, 1831. He was a chevalier of the Imperial Order 
of the Cruzeiro, and a commander of that of S. Bento de 

In Bahiahe did not rest. On the 4th of March, 1834, the 
provincial government obliged him to accept the appoint- 
ment of professor of geometry and mechanics applied to 
arts, a class annexed to the naval arsenal, for which he 
immediately translated the Geometry and mechanies ap^ 
plied to the arts, of Baron Dupin. 

He was a working and distinguished member of the first 
provincial assembly of Bahia. 

A most cruel blow, however, had been reserved for his 
old age. 

On the 7th of November, 1837, the republican revolt, which 
was crushed in March of the following year, broke out in 
Bahia. Brigadier Manoel Ferreira continued faithful to the 
legal government ; but his son. Major Innocencio Eustaquio, 
unfortunately was induced to become involved in the revolt, 
the crime being enhanced by the fact of his belonging to 
the army. 

Major Innocencio was tried by a court-martial on the 23d 
of June, 1838, for the defense appeared his old father, Brig- 
gadier Manoel Ferreira. 

The defense was most eloquent : sciencie argued and 
nature inspired ; the judges themselves shed tears. 

— 287 — 

At last the father stopped extenuated and in tears. 

But.... Major Innocencio was condemned. 

Brigadier Manoel Ferreira de Araujo Guiraaraes could 
no longer support life, and after some months of suffering 
died on the 24th of October of the same year, 1838. 

^^I OF :b^aLAJElCfH, 



Don Francisco de Assis Mascarenhas was born in Lisbon 
on the 30th of September, 1779. He was the legitimate son 
ofDonJosdde Assis Mascarenhas, Count of Olinda, Sabu- 
gal and Palma, and of Dona Helena de Lima, the countess, 
daughter of the Marquis and Marchioness of Ponte de 

Favoring his natural inclination, his parents sent him to 
Coimbra, where after finishing the study of humanities^ he 
matriculated in the faculty of law, which he attended dur- 
ing two years, being taken from the University to enter 
immediately the king's service. 

In 1804, at the age of twenty-five, Don Francisco was 
VOL. I 37 

— 290 — 
appointed governor and captain-general of the capitania of 
Goyaz, which he administered with prudence and tact, 
calming the minds of the inhabitants who were excited and 
distrusful. He economized the public monies, reducing the 
expenses of the administration ; he encouraged commerce 
with Par4 through the river Aruguaya, and proposed and 
obtained the creation of a new circuit, thatofS. JoSo das 
Duas Barras. 

In November, 1808, he left Goyaz to take charge of the 
government of the capitania of Minas Geraes, of which 
he was governor and captain-general till tlie 11th of 
April, 1814. He there organized presidial colonies to pre- 
vent the attacks of the savages on the inhabitants of 
the interior, and also to invite the Indians to civilized 

As a reward for his services the prince regent, Don 
Jo3o, created him Count of Palma. 

In the same year, 1814, the Count of Palma, in the 
capacity of governor and captain-general, went to admin- 
ister the capitania of S. Paulo, and in 1818 that of 
Bahia. His administration, was every-where mild and ben- 
eficial, especially in Bahia where he bettered the con- 
dition of those who had been imprisoned in consequence 
of the republican revolt of Pernambuco in 1817, and who 
were by him allowed to receive assistance and consolation 
from their families. 

On the 10th of February, 1821, the action of the troops 
and the people in favor of the revolution of Portugal was 
the cause of the creation of the first junta of the provis- 
ional government of Bahia. But the Count of Palma was so 
much esteemed that he was named president of the junta, 
a post which he refused, retiring shortly after to Rio 
de Janeiro. 

- 291 - 

King Don JoSo VI, who did not succeed in making him 
accept the post of viceroy of the Portuguese Indies, 
gave him the grand cross of the Order of Christ and 
named him president of the Dezembargo do Pago, Rer 
gedor da ji^tiga, and a councilor of state. 

In 1822 the Count of Palma adhered to the cause of 
Brazil, and was present, as constable, at the coronation 
of the Emperor Don Pedro I, who created him Marquis 
of S. JoSio da Palma, and named him his grand cham- 

At the elections for the first senators in 1826 his 
name was presented by four provinces, and the Emperor 
chose him for that of S. Paulo. 

In 1829 he was sent to Europe on a special mission; 
•and having fulfilled it returned to Brazil, but abstained 
from taking any active part in public affairs, being grieved 
by the abdication of Don Pedro I, whose friend 
he was. 

He was generally esteemed for his benevolence, gen- 
erosity, great loyalty and disinterestedness. He died in the 
city of Rio de Janeiro on the 6th of March, 1843. 

"vn OF is^A.:Rai^ 



The fourth in the very irregular order of the first 
viceroys of Brazil, Vasco Fernandes Ge2ar de Menezes, 
afterwards Count of Sabugoza, after having governed India, 
arrived at the city of S. Salvador da Bahia, and governed 
the principality of Brazil from the 23d of November, 1720, 
to the 11th of May, 1735, when he was relieved. 

In his administration he had to overcome, in the city and 
capitania of Bahia, two scourges of adifierent nature. After 
a slight earthquake which lasted two or three seconds on 
the 4th of January, 1724, a disastrous drought which lasted 
four years, was immediately succeeded by an extraor- 

*- 294 — 
dinary winter {rainy season) which lasted the same time. It 
is not therefore surprising that that viceroy should not have 
left a na'ne renowned for great works and improvements. 
The capital of Brazil, however, owed him some protection 
vouchsafed to the few cultivators of letters which then 
existed there, and the first essay to propagate literature in 
Portuguese America. 

Nearly two centuries had passed since the Academia dos 
Humidos had been initiated in Florence, having been suc- 
cessively imitated in France, in England, in Spain, and in 
Portugal with regard to the extravagance and bad taste of 
the pseudonyms, when the viceroy, Vasco FernandesCezar, 
de Menezes, established in the city of S. Salvador an academy 
of the same pedantic nature. But bad as it was, there was 
no better, nor even its equal in Brazil, which till then had 
never had any. 

Vasco Fernandes established the literary society in his 
palace on the afternoon of the 7th of March, 1724, with 
seven members invited by him, who, with his consent, 
chose the sun for their emblem with the motto : Sol oriens 
in occiduOj and named the society the Academia dos Es- 

The seven academic founders were (their names are given 
with the pseuponyms they were bound to take) : Father 
Gongalo Soares de Franca — Obliging ; the judge of the court 
of appeal, Caetano de Brito e Figueiredo — Nubilose ; the 
civil judge, Luiz de Siqueira Gama — Occupied ; the judge 
Dr. Ignacio Barboza Machado -Laborious; Colonel Sebastiao 
da Rocha Pitta ^Vague ; Captain Joao de Brito Lima— 
Unhappy ; and Jos6 da CunhaCardozo Fortunate. 

The Academia dos Esquecidos held several sessions in 
which poetical pieces in Portuguezes and Latin, and dis- 

- 295 — 
courses on different subjects abounded, as well as lyrical 
challenges, sometimes on the most extravagant subjects. 

As may be supposed the viceroy was the constant object 
of the flattery of the academics : Sol oriens in occidtco. 

The Academia dos Esquecidos appears not to have 
lasted more than a year. There exists no notice of it after its 
eighteenth conference on the 4th of February, 1725. 

The instructive paper on this Academy presented to the 
Historical Institute of Brazil by its first secretary, Canon 
Dr. J. Fernandes Pinheiro, from which this information 
is summarized, concludesd with this just appreciation : 

** Being a lineal descendant of the Italian, Spanish, and 
Portuguese academies, the Academia Brazilicados Esque-- 
cidos was the legitimate representative of the futile spiiit 
and of the tropological incontinence which so much 
harmed its predecessors. The men, however, who conse- 
crated their leisure to the cultivation of the intellect, 
though wrongly directed, at a time when so few aspira- 
tions were left to letters, deserve the applause of the 
country, and their memory ought to be religiously kept in 
the urn of the respect and veneration of prosterity. " 




Fifteen years have passed since a corpse was interred, 
the passions have been allayed, and it is time to do justice 
to the memorj'^ of a praiseworthy citizen and to examine it 
free from the bias of political storms. 

Francisco Jos6 Scares de Andrea, Baron of Cagapava, a 
marshal in the army, councilor of state and of war, grand 
cross of the Order of S. Bento de Aviz, an officer of the Im- 
perial Order of the Cruzeiro, and a commander of that of the 
Rose, was born in Lisbon on the 29th of January, 1781. 
Being destined to a military career he enlisted in the second 
regiment of infantry on the 14th of December, 1796, and 
VOL. I 38 

— 298 — 

on the 18th of February of the following year he was a 
cadet. He distinguished himself in the course of engineering 
and navigation, which he completed. He served through 
the campaign of 1801 in the artillery and was promoted to 
the rank of ensign in 1805. He came in the same ship 0{ 
war which conveyed to Brazil the prince regent, afterwards 
King Don Jo5o VI, and arrived in Rio de Janeiro on the 7th 
of March, 1808, being made a lieutenant on the follow- 
ing day. 

The 8th of March, 1808, the day on which he landed at 
the capital of the new empire, that of his promotion, that 
of his auspicious future in Brazil, which he adopted for his 
country, deserves to be chosen as the date for heading his 
biography necessarily summarized here. 

From 1808 to 1817 he was employed in the military 
archives, and afterwards as engineer in the surveys of th9 
road projected from the city of Rio de Janeiro to Rio Preto, 
in levelling the same capital, in draining the swamps of 
the quinta of Boa Vista and in other works. 

In 1817 he served in the expedition of General Luiz do 
Rego against the republican revolution of Pernambuco, 
being secretary of the government and charged with the 
organization of the military division of that capitania. He 
there rendered valuable administrative services, and had 
the honor of displeasing the cruel algada, by interfering 
more than once in favor of victims destined for punish- 

In July, 1822, he was charged with the fortification of 
the island of Santa Catharina. In the same year he adhered 
to the independence of Brazil. On returning to Rio de Ja- 
neiro, the government ordered him to construct several 
fortifications and to finish the light-house at Raza island, 
which had been commenced. 

— 299 — 

On the 12th of October, 1826, he was promoted to the 
rank of brevet-brigadier. He served in the Cisplatine war, 
and was present at the battle of Ituzaingo on the 20th of 
February, 1827, as adjutant-general of the army. 

In 1828 he fortified tho town, afterwards city of Rio 
Grande, and the bar of the port, where he projected and 
built a light-house. 

He then went to Montevideo as military commandant, 
and remained there till the place was surrendered. Thence 
he passed in the same post to the province of Santa Cathar- 
ina, and afterwards to that of Pari, where on the 22d of 
May, 1831, he received the news of the abdication of 
Don Pedro I, exercising the military command, despite the 
irritation of the liberals who exacted his deposition, until 
the 16th of July, when the new president and the military 
commandant, named by the provisional regency of the Em- 
pire, arrived. 

The events ofthe month of March, 1831, when the unheard 
of insolence of a great number of Portuguese, on the nights 
called das garrafadas, inflamed the national pride and 
greatly compromised the Emperor, Don Pedro I, rekindled 
international antagonism and injured General Andrea who 
had been born in Portugal, and being a severe disciplinar- 
ian, had always been addicted to the Emperor's cause. 

Andrea arrived from Pari, and being distrusted by the 
party in power, remained unemployed. 

Andrea became still more suspected as he was an influen- 
tial member of the Sociedade Militar, which frankly op- 
posed the opinions of the government of the 7th of April, 
and he was accused of conspiring for the restoration of Don 
Pedro I. 

General Andr6a was persecuted; he had to appear before 
a court-martial for ordering the arrest of a lieutenant of 

— 300 — 
militia in Pari. He was absolved, but, in virtue of a sen- 
tence of the supreme military court, a new prosecution 
was commenced but was not proceeded with. 

The government wanted to have him away from the 
capital, where he was feared as one of the (real or sup- 
posed) chiefs of the caramuru or restoration party, and 
finding him disobedient, ordered him to be arrested at day- 
break of the 14th of December, 1833, and sent him on the 
27th of the same month to the province of S. Pedro do Rio 
Grande do Sul, where he was charged with difi*erent mil- 
itary works. On the 25th of January of the following 
year General Andrea was relieved from that commission, 
and on the 17th of February he was sent to S. Jos6 do Norte 
to remain there till he received further orders from the 

These violent measures were of a political character, 
and evidently the consequence of those popular riots, tol- 
erated by government, which broke out in the capital ; 
the rioters attacking the house of the Sociedade Militar, 
and some opposition printing offices. 

In Rio Grande General Andrda spontaneously rendered 
services as an engineer, and being set at liberty by the 
president of the province on the 17 th of November, 1824, 
he undertook other works until he was recalled to the 
capital in March 1834, being, in November of the same 
year, named president and military commandant of Pari, 
which since 1832 had been wrestling with a terrible revolt, 
and which, having lost its political character, was bur- 
ning with ferocious instincts. 

The capital and nearly all the province were in the 
power of the rebels. General Andrea took the capital, and 
reconquered the province. In the great work of re- 
establishing order he was sometimes arbitrary, and in sub- 

— 301 — 
duing resistance or punishing acts of atrocity he beaame 
dreaded for his rigor. 

In 1839 he left the government of Pari, and taking 
his seat in the chamber as a deputy, he was accused of 
abuses and of committing crimes which had made him the 
terrible Verres of that province. 

The general defended himself completely. He did not 
deny ; but shewed the necessity of rigor, and of the acts 
for which he was most severely censured. 

The rebels of Rio-Grande do Sul had invaded the pro- 
vince of Santa Catharina, and had taken the town of 
Laguna in order to have a sea-port. 

In that same year Andrea received the appointment 
of president and military commandant of the province of 
Santa Catharina. 

He arrived at the city of Desterro in August, 1839. The 
rebels being defeated retired from Laguna, and evacu- 
ated the province which they had invaded. 

In 1840 General Andrea is president and military com- 
mandant of Rio Grande do Sul. There he operates with 
prudence for want of forces, and employs able strategy 
against the rebels ; but at the end of four months, in con- 
sequence of the poiitical opinions of the first cabinet (lib- 
eral^ of the Emperor, declared of age, he was substituted 
by another president and military commandant. 

In 1841 he was commissioned to draw up the project for 
the organization of the army, and was appointed to the 
command of the corps of engineers in 1842, in which 
year he also took his seat in the chamber as a deputy 
for Rio de Janeiro. 

In 1843 he was president of the province of Minas Ge- 
raes, just after the great revolt, and conducted himself 
in a manner that, whilst he did not displease the party 

— 302 — 
which had triumphed and was in power, he acquired the 
gratitude of the vanquished. 

In December 1845 he was appointed president of the prov- 
ince of Bahia, which he ably administered till the 27th 
of July, 1846. 

In 1848 he was named president and military comman- 
dant of the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, 
which was in a delicate position owing to what was pass- 
ing in the Republic of Uruguay, where Oribe, a creature 
of Rozas, the dictator of Buenos-Ayres, was besieging 
the city of Montevideo, and as he commanded all the in- 
terior of the Republic, permitted his followers often to 
cross the frontiers of the empire. 

Awaiting the possibility of a war, General Andrea de- 
termined the position for the encampment of large forces ; 
he designed Ca^apava as the depot for the necessary ma- 
terial for twenty thousand men, and took other measures 
as an able strategist and as a consummate administrator. 

Whilst employed in these and other important works, 
his successor was sent to Rio Grande do Sul. 

On returning to the capital other commissions were 
entrusted to him; but being nearly seventy years of age 
he requested to be put on the half-pay list with the rank 
of a marshal of the army. 

War breaks out, Rozas is defeated and exiled, the Re- 
public of Uruguay is saved, the Argentine Confederation 
is liberated, and Brazil, the generous conqueror, signs a 
treaty of limits with the Republic of Uruguay, and it 
became necessary to mark them. 

The old marshal, Andr6a, was the chief of the committee 
of limits, and in that post he displayed the force of his 
enlightened intelligence, his respect for equity, and his 
energy as a zealous patriot. 

— 303 - 

The news of the serious illness of his consort called 
Marshal Andrea suddenly to the capital. 

The heart has also its rights. The old marshal arrived 
in time to receive the last sigh of his companion of nearly 
half a century. 

The Emperor at that time created him Baron of Ca- 

Covered with mourning, and afflicted by his loss, the 
Baron of Ca^apava returns to his duty on the prairies of 
the south. 

The limits were marked out; a few accessories and some 
unimportant questions had yet to be resolved, when the 
angel of death said— enough ! 

The Baron of Cagapava became dejected, he felt that his 
end was drawing near, and contrite, calm and serene he 
died on the 2d of October, 1858. 

At the age of seventy-five he died in the service of the 
country which he had adopted. 

ix: OF i^-ca-hoh: 


Antonio Ferreira FranQa was born on the 14th of Jan- 
uary, 1771, in the city of S. Salvador da Bahia. He was 
the legitimate son of Joaquim Ferreira Franca, a Portu- 
guese, and of Donna Anna Ignacia de Jesus Franca, a native- 
of Minas Geraes. He was piously and carefully educated by 
his parents. 

Antonio Ferreira Franga studied humanities in Bahia, 
displaying great comprehension and remarkable intelli- 
gence. He was, besides, of an excellent disposition, and 
very good-hearted; but he also revealed that strong will, 
that independence of character, and that openness of sen- 
timents, of which all through life he gave proofs, simply 
and without ostentation. 

VOL. I 30 

— 306 — 

He wished to go to Coimbra, and as his father opposed 
him in this, he one day got on board a vessel leaving for 
Lisbon. He had neither a passport, nor letters of intro- 
duction, neither leave from his family, nor money ! The cap- 
tain, who had no idea that such a passenger was on board, 
and only discovered him after leaving the port, put back 
and landed him again. 

This fact can not be explained as a youthful extrava- 
gance, neither was it considered as disrespectful to paternal 
authority. There was in the student a certain natural 
originality which impelled him to do firmly and resolutelv 
what he thought was good and just, without taking the 
consequences into consideration. 

He insisted on going to Coimbra; his mother and his god- 
mother, good honest ladies, entered into a most laudable 
and fortunate, domestic, and loving conspiracy. They 
joined, and made him up the sum requisite for his journey, 
and having kissed him and seen him depart, they returned 
to announce to the husband and gossips what they 
had done. Joaquim Ferreira, instead of reproving the act, 
immediately ordered an allowance to be given to his son 
and afterwards sent him another of his sons, Glemente 
Ferreira Franga (afterwards Marquis of Nazareth), as a 
companion at the University. 

Antonio Ferreira Franga was a wonderful student in 
Coimbra. He studied the courses of philosophy, mathema- 
tics and medicine, taking prizes every year of the three 
courses!... He gained the affection of his professors, one 
of whom, the celebrated mathematician Jose Monteiro da 
Rocha, when the celebrated student had to study astron- 
omy, opened his class for him who was his only pupil. 

Having taken his degree. Dr. Franga was offered a pro- 

- 307 — 
fessor's chair at the University. He, however answered 
that his services belonged by right to Brazil. 

He left Goimbra with the reputation of a young man of 
irreprehensible conduct, and profound in science, but he 
brought from Coimbra that same originality which he 
had taken with him. His enlightened spirit being always 
occupied, he only cared for the scrupulous cleanliness of 
his body; being an absolute stranger to fashion or to the 
skill of tailors in dress. 

Whenever he spoke it was like a man of science, with 
precision and profoundness; with no ornaments of eloquence 
but with the greatest clearness. He was the Cicero of 
oratorial simplicity. 

He married in Coimbra a most virtuous lady, who was 
his best treasure in life. He was appointed professor of 
geometry in the capital of Bahia, where he also for many 
years occupied the post of physician at the Santa Casa da 
Misericordia and at the military hospital. As a professor 
he was idolized by his pupils, who were captivated by his 
mildness, and charmed by his learning full of modesty. 
As a practitioner he was an angel of charity. 

When the first school of medicine was organized in 
Bahia, Dr. Franca was appointed professor, and became 
professor of the academy of medicine when a reform estab- 
lished a new plan of studies. This post he occupied until 
he was superannuated. 

Dr. Franca was a member of the municipal council of 
the city of Bahia when the conflicts took place between 
the patriots on one side, and General Madeira and the Por- 
tuguese troops on the other ; and, whilst every one trem- 
bled, and fighting was going on, whilst the Bahia patriots 
retired to the interior, he being devoted to the indepen- 
dence of his country and zealous of his duties as a 

- 306 - 


member of the municipal council, was always at his 
post regardless of the Portuguese bayonets, which, how- 
ever, always respected him. 

He was a peaceful man, always opposed to disorders and 
to appeals to arms. But he was a firm patriot, deaf to the 
clang of arms, indifferent to danger, and, firmly and un- 
moved, did his duty with sublime serenity. 

In 1823 he was elected a deputy to the Brazilian consti- 
tuinte assembly by his provi nee, which again from 1826 to 
1837 elected him three times a member of the general as- 

In the constituinte he pr esented the project of the feder- 
ation of the provinces. In the ordinary sessions he offered 
projects on public education, for the gradual abolition of 
slavery, and a remarkable one, that serious international 
questions should be decided by a congress of the powers. 
He was, and always show ed himself frankly, a republican; 
but a peaceful republican who only appealed to the con- 
quests of intelligence and civilization. In 1833 when the 
project for the banishment of the ex-Emperor Don Pedro 1 
was being discussed, he, the republican, said in parliament : 
« If Don Pedro, the founder of the Empire, come to Brazil, 
I shall be the first to open the doors for him. » 

In the second ^ordinary legislature one of his sons sat in 
parliament with him, the illustrious and upright Ernesto 
Ferreira Fran^. In the secon d legislature he had as col- 
leagues, besides this one, anot her of bis sons. Councilor 
Cornelio Ferreira Franca, who fortunately is still living- 

Dr. Antonio Ferreira Fr anga, enjoyed immense popular- 
ity as a deputy. He was distinguished for his courage in 
emitting frankly his most advanced liberal opinions, for 
the eloquent simplicity of his speeches, and for his eccen- 
tric ways. 

— 309 - 

He was short and thin, but his clothes would fit a tall and 
stout man ; he used to tie his neckcloth so loosely that he 
could hide his face up to his nose in it. The people, by whom 
he was loved, used to call him Francinhay little Fran^. 

Though of ardent opinions, Dr. Ferreira Franga could 
curb himself in discussion ; but none exceeded him in se- 
rene courage. When the impeachment of the minister of 
war, Oliveira Alvares, was under discussion in the chamber, 
he was hooted and insulted by the military men who occu- 
pied one of the galleries, but he, cool, in the same tone, 
and with the most perfect indifference, being twice inter- 
rupted by shouts and menaces, repeated three times, with 
the greatest calmness, the proposition which had provoked 
the violent and inordinate outbreak. 

Nevertheless, when his son Ernest spoke, and as a young 
liberal became excited in his attacks on the government, 
old Dr. Franga used to pull the tail of his coat, and say : 
< Prudence, Mr. Ernest ! » 

He sometimes uttered most witty epigrams and sar- 

A deputy attacked the creation of a class of Greek as 
useless and as a burthen on the treasury. Dr. Franga rose 
and begged leave of the president of the chamber to ask 
the deputy a question. On leave being granted, hea^ked : 

« Does Y. E. know Greek, or did Y. E. ever study or 
attempt to learn the Greek language ? > 

« No ; » replied his colleague. 

« Mr. President ! > said Dr. Franga, « I have answered the 
noble deputy's speech. » 

And he sat down amidst the laughter of the chamber, 
which voted the 6l*eation of the Greek class. 

Dr. Antonio Ferreira Franga was for some time physician 
to the Emperor, and in the palace he was always the same 

— 310 — 
man of science and witty eccentricity. On one occasion, 
being at the bedside of the Emperor Don Pedro I who was 
ill, H. M. asked for a glass of water. He rose to go for it. 
but the chamberlain in waiting immediately took the glass 
from his hand, saying that the honor of that service did not 
belong to him. Dr. Franga immediately begged his pardon, 
confessing his utter ignorance of court etiquette. On the 
following day, when alone with his august patient, the 
Emperor expressed the desire to make water. Dr. Franca, 
instead of assisting him, to obey a call of nature ran to the 
door of the room and began calling in aloud voice : « Where 
is the gentleman of the chamber pot?... let the gentleman of 
the chamber pot appear !... 

The Emperor burst out laughing. 

Dr. Antonio Ferreira Franga, was more than once includ- 
ed in triple lists for senator, but was never chosen. 
Losing his seat in parliament in the fourth legislature, he 
retired from politics. But in his province he occupied the 
professor's chair of Greek, and of Director of the Bahia Ly- 
ceum, in the former of which he displayed great capa- 

He died surrounded by his children and virtuous consort 
on the 9th of March, 1848. 

OF ls^£A.TiajEI. 


Like many other illustrious Brazilians, who flourished in 
the first two centuries of the existence of colonial Brazil 
and even in the eighteenth century, Jos6 Pires de Carva- 
Iho Albuquerque barely escaped the oblivion in which the 
memory of many was buried. 

It is known that Jos6 Pires was bom in 1701 in Bahia, 
and that his family belonged to the nobility of the capital 
of Brazil. 

In his time he was considered a remarkable poet, and a«s 
such he distinguished himself. 

In 1757 Josd Pires de Carvalho Albuquerque published a 
poem, Conceigdo de Nossa Senhora. 

His name is here registered arbitrarily under the date 
10th of March, for lack of a precise and known date. 

OF i^ATi.aja: 

B. JOSE imm JlISriNIANO mascarems castello branco 

Jos^ Joaquim Justiniano Mascarenhas Castello Branco, 
the legitimate son of JoEo de Mascarenhas Castello Branco 
and of Donna Anna Theodora, was born on the 23d of Au- 
gust, 1731, in the city of S. Sebastiao do Rio de Janeiro, and 
there received primary education, and studied humanities 
in the classes of the society of Jesuits. In 1750 he went 
to Coimbra assisted by his uncle. Father Ignacio Manoel da 
Costa Mascarenhas, vicar of the parish of Candelaria. 

In the University he took the degree of licentiate in the 
faculty of canons, and in 1754 he took orders of presbyter 
in Lisbon. 

His enlightened intelligonce and his acknowledged virtues 
proved his merit in ecclesiastical charges and benefices. He 
was appointed deputy of the inquisition in Evora, and short- 
ly after accuser in the same court. In 1765 he obtained 
VOL. I 40 

— 314 - 

the decanal dignity in the See of Rio de Janeiro, and there 
occupied the second chair of the inquisition till 1769, when 
he went to Lisbon in the same capacity. 

In 1773 he was appointed coadjutor and future successor 
to the bishopric of Rio de Janeiro, confirmed by the bull 
of Clement XIV of the 20th of December of the same year, 
being consecrated in the chapel of the regent cardinal Don 
Joto da Gunha. 

Don Josd Joaquim Justiniano Mascarenhas Gastello Bran- 
CO entered the port of Rio de Janeiro on the 15th of April, 
1774, and landed on the following day as proprietor of the 
mitre of Rio de Janeiro, Friar Don Antonio do Desterro 
having died on the 5th of December of the previous 

The new bishop by a pastoral of the 11th of March, 1775, 
convoked the clergy, both secular and regular, to be exam- 
ined in moral theology, and had to overcome the disobe- 
dience of the religious corporations, especially of the 
Capuchins, who maintained that they enjoyed privileges 
granted by the sovereign Pontiffs to their Order, and only 
obeyed when menaced with the greater excommunication. 

The great end of the venerable pastor was to instruct 
and moralize the clergy ; and to this end he instituted 
lectures for the benefit of the old and the irew ecclesiastics, 
under the direction of the Franciscan friar, JoEo Capistrano 
de S. Bento, and forbade that any priest should be admitted 
to be examined as confessor who did not present certificates 
of attendance at the classes of moral. He also established, 
in the seminary of S. Jos6, classes of rhetoric, philosophy, 
geography, cosmology, and natural history, and in the 
same seminary and in that of S. Joaquim classes of music, 
which produced most able chanters. 

As a result of these measures the clergy of the diocese 

— 315 — 

of the bishop was worthy of the service of God, and very 
useful to the civilization of the country . 

In 1784 he was appointed Visitor-General and Apostolic 
Reformer of the Carmelite monks of the province of Rio 
de Janeiro. During the six years in which he exercised 
these functions he corrected lamentable abuses, paid many 
debts, and, if the Carmelites found him severe, they never 
had reason to tax him with injustice. 

On his visits to the parishes of his diocese, this bishop 
never allowed the parishioners to bear the expenses of 
his passing residence, and still less did he receive hospi- 
tality from any of them. 

Besides ably governing his diocese he rendered other 
services which deserve to be remembered. He used every 
means to promote the culture of indigo, which prospered 
remarkably, and contributed to the propagation of the 
then nascent culture of the coffee tree, receiving seed 
from the Italian Capuchins, which he distributed, with 
minute instructions, to Fathers JoSo Lopes and Couto, the 
former in the parish of S. Gongalo, and the latter on 
the road to Rezende, where he had an estate, from which 
came the seed and the plants which have produced such 
immense wealth. 

The 28th day of February, 1805, marks the last day of 
the life of Bishop Don Josd Joaquim Justiniano Masca- 
renhas Castello Branco, who was interred in the tomb 
which he himself had had prepared in the chapel of the 
episcopal palace. On the stone which coversd his mortal 
remains, we read : 

« Santa Maria, ora pro nobis. » 

ZS.1X o-p a^^Aitoia: 


It was Friar Henrique, a Franciscan who accompanied 
Pedro Alvares Gabral, who celebrated the first masses in 
Brazil, on the 26th of April and on the 1st of May, 1500. 

The Society of Jesus entered Brazil by sending with the 
governor-general, Thom6 de Souza in 1549, its first mission- 
aries to this country. 

In 1558 a Franciscan, friar, Pedro de Palacios on arriv- 
ing at the capitania of Espiri to Santo, with the assistance 
of the colonists raised a chapel consecrated to Nossa Se- 
nhora dos Prazeres, which many years later served as 
the basis for establishing a convent. 

In the year 1584, the religious orders of the Benedic- 
tines and of the Carmelites founded their first convents, 
those of the cities of S. Salvador and of Olinda. 

Though civilization in the Portuguese colony of America 

- 318 — 
progressed but slowly, it owed much to those religious 
communities , which were its fountains of light, and of 
which that of the Franciscans was not the least civilizing. 

The (religious) province of Santo Antonio of Brazil pro- 
duced, since the seventeenth century, great sacred orators, 
poets, and men of profound learning. 

Among these Friar Francisco Xavier de Santa Thereza 
must be remembered. He was bcrn in Bahia on the 12th 
of March, 1686. 

He was a Franciscan monk of the above-mentioned 
province, becoming afterwards incorporated in that of Por- 
tugal to where he passed. 

In traveling through (different countries of Europe he 
enriched his intellect by study and observation. 

He embarked in the fleet which the King Don Joao V 
sent to assist the pope, Clement XI, in reconquering the 
isle of Corfu which was in the hands of the Turks. In 
1717 he was severely wounded in the battle of Passavi, 
and had to undergo the amputation of his left leg. 

He was lecturer on theology, and penitentiary general to 
the Seraphic Order, and a member of the Royal Academy 
of History. He cultivated letters and poetry, wrote Latin 
prose and verse, and was a member of the Arcadia Ro- 

He appears to have been a distinguished preacher ; hav- 
ing been often chosen to preach at the funeral of impor- 
tant persons, as may be seen in the list of his works given 
by the Bib : of Barboza, and by Mr. Innocencio Francisco 
da Silva in his Diccionario Bibliographico Portuguez. 

The date of the death of Friar Francisco Xavier de Santa 
Thereza is unknown. 

■ MH N4I8M 



Jos6 Martins Pereira de Alencastre was born in the parish 
ofRioFundo, province of Bahia, on the 19th of March, 1831 ; 
he was nursed in poverty, but even so he succeeded in 
obtaining, in the city of S. Salvador, besides primary 
education, some preparatory training. 

He was talented and diligent, but for want of means he 
was obliged to interrupt his regular course of studies, being 
forced to work for his daily bread. 

Nevertheless he continued, to study in the solitude of 
his chamber. 

In the province of Piauhy, to which he had to pass, 
advantage was immediately taken of his habilities, and 
Alencastre served successively as crown lawyer, ad inter- 
im, in Oeiras, as fiscal attorney of the treasury, as super- 
numerary clerk of the provincial government, and finally. 

— 320 — 
as public professor of the Portuguese language at the 
Lyceum of the capital. 

Longing for a wider sphere for the flights of his talent, he 
came to Rio de Janeiro in August, 1857, and in October of 
the same year he obtained the appointment as officer of 
the naval Intendancy. He, however, had hardly commenced 
his duties when he was appointed secretary to the govern- 
ment of the province of ParanA, where on the following 
year he received the decree which named him a second 
officer in the naval council which had been then created. 

He served as secretary to the government of the province 
of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul from April, 1859, till the 
end of January, 1861, when he was entrusted with a more 
important commission by the imperial government, being 
sent as president to the province of Goyaz, and two months 
later, though absent, being appointed chief of section in 
the department of Agriculture, Commerce and Public Works, 
which had been created that year. 

Being relieved, at his own request, of the presidency of 
the province of Goyaz, he devoted himself with zeal to his 
new employment, until in 1866 he was again called 
away to preside the province of Alag6as, which during 
his administration had the glory of sending to the Para- 
guayan war two corps with 116 men, besides 60 others for 
the imperial navy. A year after Alencastre returned to 
the capital of the Empire and, as a reward for his services, 
was made a commander of the Order of Christ. 

From 1867 forward Alencastre devoted himself exclu- 
sively to his duties, which he scrupulously discharged as a 
public functionary, and to study and important labors, 
which undoubtedly hastened his death. 

He left his compatriots a most useful and eloquent exam- 
ple of the triumph of application, diligence, and activity. 

— 321 — 

The history of his life is a voice which teaches, and to those 
who are discouraged by poverty or by the humility of their 
birth, it cry s : « Work !... Aspire!... and you will rise 
through merit. > 

It was convinced of this truth that Alencastre worked, 
aspired, and rose. Of a weak complexion, sickly, but of en- 
ergetic will, his spirit reacted against the weakness of the 
body, triumphed, gained the laurels of victory, and became 
excited ; but spent his life too fast... 

A year before his demise, death, at a more or less remote 
period, was apparent in an incurable and fatally progres- 
sive disease, and the condemned man, with the precipita- 
tion of one who knows that he has but little time left, made 
no question of a few months, and did double work. 

Death appears, in its way, to have pitied the martyr of 
work, and on the 13th of March, 1866, his mortal remains 
were interred. 

Jo86 Martins Pereira de Alencastre left the following 
works published : 

Lagrimas e Saudades — poetic pieces — Bahia, 1852 — 1 
vol., large 8vo. 

Memoria chronological historica e coreographica da 
provincia de Piauhy — published in the Review of the Bra- 
zilian Historical and Geographical Institute — vol. XX. 

VOL. I 41 

3CIV O^P ^/LA.JEi.Clc^ 



Eusebio de Mattos, the son of Gregorio de Mattos and 
of his wife, Donna Maria da Guerra, and brother of the in- 
corrigible satyrical poet Gregorio de Mattos Guerra, was born 
in Bahia in the year 1629. He was gifted with most won- 
derful talent and was early attracted to, and taken by, the 
Jesuits, who in the cleverness and admirable comprehension 
of the boy, gu )ssed the genius of the man, by observing him 
in his fii st lessons. 

The 1 ith of March, 1644, marks the date of his eutrauce 
i to the Society. 

Brother Eusebio made extraordinary progress in the 
study of humanitijs. He had for his professor in philos- 
ophy, the celebrated Father Antonio Vieira, whom he af- 
terwads succeeded in the chair, in which he distinguished 
himself. Father Manoel de S4, a most competent authority, 

said that not only was he profound in other branches of 
learning, but was also an excellent Latin scholar, and 
a good poet. 

In the pulpit in Bahia father Eusebio was a rival of 
Vieira, and of Antonio de Si, which is saying a great 

Grieved and offended, at the end of some years he ex- 
changed the tunic for the carmelite frock, taking the name 
of friar Eusebio da Soledade. 

Father Antonio Vieira, on returning to Bahia in 1861, 
found friar Eusebio a carmelite, and knowing that the 
priests of the society were the cause of this, exclaimed, 
in the style of his times;* So ill have they done, that 
it will be long before other Mattos (forests) witl grow 
for the society!... » They replied that Mattos had love 
intrigues and had a son, and that it had been necassary to 
punish the scandal ; but Vieira replied : «I believe this to 
be a plot, but were it not so, father Eusebio is a man of 
so much merit, that it would be better for the society 
to keep him with his children than to lose so important a 
soldier. » 

Brother Eusebio da Soledade, or Eusebio de Mattos was 
a prodigy : nature had lavished on him its most precious gifts 
with a prodig al hand. 

Brother Eusebio was every thing he wished to be in 
letters and fine arts. 

In literature he equalled the most conspicuous men 
of his time; he was destinguished in ecclesiastical science^; 
in the pulpit he rivalled Vieira, considered the first 
preacher in Portugal ; as a poet, his contemporaries con- 
sidered him inspired. 

He was a great musician and composed religious hymns, 
and melodious profane music to verses of h^s own ; he 

— 325 — 

played the harp, and still better the guitar ; he drew 
beautifully, and perfectly imitated ingravings. 

Of the works of this great and illustrious Brazilian 
the greater part were lost, only the following remai- 

Ecce HomOy that is, his sermons on the Thorns, the 
Purple, the Ropes, the Cane, the Wounds, and the 
Title of Man, a monument of style and a fount of 

Funeral oration, recited on the 15th of June 1672, on 
the bishop, Don EstevSo dos Santos. 

Sermon of the Soledade, printed during his life. 

Sermons (fifteen) posthumous forming the first volume 
of the collection which his colleague friar Jo9o de Santa 
Maria, intended to publish, from the fragments found in 
his cell, but did not continue. 

The poetic pieces of Eusebio de Mattos have almost 
all disappeared. Some of them are perhaps attributed to 
his brother Gregorio de Mattos being found among his 
disordered papers. He however had a copious muse ; though 
a Carmelite, having been a Jesuit, he was also a profane 
poet, and sometimes a witty one. 

Mr. Varnhagen, now Viscount of Porto Seguro, con- 
siders as authentic the parody of ten stanzas of octave 
rhyme, addressed by Gregorio de Mattos to his cherished 
Donna Brites, in ten other stanzas which Eusebio de Mattos 
composed, preserving the last word of each verse paro- 

No other proof is required of the poetic talent of Eusebio 
de Mattos ; this effort of art, gives at least an idea of 
the capacity of the poet in the free and ample flights 
of his genius. 

^V OF 2«<d:^XlCXX 


^On this day of the year 1816, Antonio 4a Costa was 
born in the city of Rio de Janeiro. He was the legiti* 
mate son of a surgeon of the same name, and of Donna Ger- 
trudes Mathilde da Silva e S&. 

He studied humanities in the city of his births and 
having a decided inclination for his fathir*s honorable 
profession, he matriculated in 1831 at the old medico- 
surgical school of Rio de Janeiro, in which the celebrated 
Dr. Marques was professor of anatomy, he who taught so 
many who afterwards became professors. 

In 1833 Antonio da Gosta went to France, he com- 
menced to s'udy in Paris, but, for the benefit of his health, 
hft went to Montpellier, where in 1837 he graduated as 
Doctor of medicine; returning to ?aris he passed some 

months attending the hospitals and the practise of the 
most celebrated operators. 

On the 6th of February, 1838, he returns from France 
to his mother country, on the following year he defends 
theses at the Faculty of medicine of Rio de Janeiro, and 
commencing to exercice his profession he is discovered to 
be not only an able physician but a most skilful surgi- 
cal operator. 

To the perfect knowledge which he had of the human 
body, in which he could read as a good geographer on 
a carefully drawn up toopographical map of a well stu- 
died and known country, he joined perfect imperturbabi- 
lity, firmness of hand, rapidity in his movements, and the 
clear appreciation of the consequences of his operations. In 
a short time he obtained the confidence of the public, and 
gained laurels in the city where flourished Manoel Feli- 
ciano Pereira de Garvalho, the great and illustrious, Brazil 
ian surgeon. 

To shine at the side of Manoel Feliciano he must needs 
have been a luciferous planet. 

After seventeen years of surgical triumps Dr. Antonio 
da Costa, returns to Europe, presents several important 
papers to the Academy of medical sciences of Lisbon, and 
afterwards to the Imperial medical academy of Paris, the 
most important of which was a memoir written in French, 
entitled — Siooteen years of surgical practise in Brazil, 
in which he related numerous, and some very curious, 
observations, and facts of his practise as surgeon, and 
described the progress and the state of surgery in Brazil, 
with its history sinre 1808. 

Having been connected with the surgical celebrities of 
Paris, enriched by fresh knowledge acquired, leaving a 
good reputation in the proud capital of France, Dr. Anto- 

— 329 — 
nio da Costa returned to bis country and devoted himself 
to his large and most difficult practice, with which he 
was exclusively occupied from 1856 forward. 

Jealous of the credit of his name, and of that of his 
country, he frequently sent observations to the medical 
publications and to the medical academy of Paris. 

At the age of forty four, in the vigor of manhood, and 
whilst going the rounds of the infirmaries in the hospital 
of the Santa Casa da Misericordia of Rio de Janeiro, 
Dr. Antonio da Costa felt unwell. The generous warrior 
had been mortally struck in the field of the most holy 
battles. The conqueror in a thousand bloody, but humani- 
tarian, charitable and pious campaigns, retired badly 

The utmost efforts of science, the most tender care of 
his family were of no avail, they could not arrest the im- 
placable and progressive development of the desease. 

Dr. Antonio da Costa died on the 7th of July, 1860. 

He was a doctor of medicine by the faculties of Mont- 
pellier and Rio de Janeiro, honorary surgeon to H. M. 
the Emperor of Brazil, a commander of the order of Christ, 
and chevalier of the Imperial Oi*der of the Rose of Brazil; a 
chevalier of the orders of Christ and ConceigEo of Portu- 
gal, and of the order of the legion of honor of France, a 
surgeon of the hospitals of the Santa Casa da Misericordia, 
of the third order of Mount Carmel, and of Providencia 
of Rio de Janeiro. He was medical attendant of the French 
Benevolent Society, and of the French legation in the 
capital; member of the Historical and Geographical Ins- 
titute of Brazil, of the anatomical society of Paris, of 
the society of medical sciences of Lisbon, and others. 

Besides all these titles flattering to man on earth, let 
VOL. I 42 

— 380 - 
no one forget the most noble of his titles, that which 
recommended him most in heaven before God. 

Dr. Antonio da Costa was a serviceable and charitable 
benefactor of mankind. 

His name shines among those of the most skilful and 
able Brazilian surgeons and operators. 

His memory is worthy of the gratitude of his country 
which he honored. 



The grant of one league of land along the sea-shore, 
with a depth of two leagues towards the interior, made to 
Martin Aflfonso de Souza, the famous Indian Ararigboia, is 
dated this day of the year 1568. The grant was on the 
other side of the bay, in front of the new city of S. Sebas- 
tiSo do Rio de Janeiro. 

Ararigboia was a praiseworthy savage. 

In 1555 an expedition of French calvinists commanded 
by Nicolas Durand Villegaignon, a chevalier of Malta, and 
vice-admiral of Britany, settled in the bay of Rio de Janei- 
ro, and commenced by occupying and fortifying the small 
island to which they gave the name of the admiral their 
protector in France — Coligny, but which took and preser- 
ves that of — Villegaignon. 

— 332 — 

Religious quarrels induced the chief of the expedition to 
return to France in 1558. 

Yillegaignon deserted the calvinists and embraced the 
cause of the Duke of Guise. 

But the French colony in Rio de Janeiro had received 
reinforcements and they were so sure of the future, that 
they had adopted the name of Antarctic France for their 
dominions in Brazil, and that of Henriville for the capital 
they intended to found. 

In 1560 Mem de S& third governor general of Brazil left 
the city of S. Salvador with a small force which he 
collected, and entering the bay of Rio de Janeiro routed 
the French who fled from the island and took refuge on 
the continent, where the Tamoyo Indians their allies, 
received them in the forests ; as however the governor had 
not a sufficient force to leave on the island permanently 
established, the vanquished returned to the island as soon 
at the conquerors retired. 

In 1565 Estacio de SA arrived from Portugal having been 
commissioned to expel the French from Rio de Janeiro and 
found there a city : from his uncle, the governor Mem de 
Sa, he received the auxiliaries he could get, and arriving 
at the capitania of Espirito Santo he succeeded in obtaining 
the assistance of the morubixaba or ch»ef Ararigboia, and 
his tribe of Tupimind Indians. 

The name which he had adopted Ararigboia (fierce 
serpent) describes what this chief was in battle. 

Estacio de S& entered the bay of Rio de Janeiro, landed, 
and taking up a position between the PSo d'Assucar and 
the Praia Vermelha, there laid the foundations of the city, 
to which he gave the name of S. SebastiSo; because Sebas- 
tiSo was the name of the king of Portugal. 

The French had also raised fortifications on the conti- 


nent, assisted by a large number of Tamoyos, but neither 
could they rout the Portuguese, nor could these rout the 

The year 1556 was spent in partial and sterile combats, 
in which Ararigboya displayed admirable skill and 

On the 18th of January of the following year Mem de 
S4 arrived to aid his nephew, on the 20th S. Sebastian's 
day, he gave battle, and at the first attack, of Urucumi" 
rim, Ararigboia, the enemy of the Tamoyos, astonishes 
every one by his daring and horrifies by the slaughter he 
inflicts in the ranks of those savages ; in that, and in the 
following combats, half the honor of the victories belongs 
to him. The Fierce Serpent was worthy of his name. 

There are no longer any French or Tamoyos on the 
island or on the continent of Rio de Janeiro ; those who 
could escape fled terrorstriken. 

Estacio de Si dies in consequence of an arrow wound in 
the face. Mem de S& transfers the seat of Sebastianspolis 
to the hill called do Castello, from which it descended 
occupying its present vast and picturesque situation. 

In the foundation of the city Ararigboia was of great 
assistance to Mem de Si, who by friendly solicitations 
succeeded in making him remain there, as a herculean 
arm on which he could depend to aid his other nephew 
Salvador Corr^a de S4 who he leaves as governor of the 
new administrative capitania of Rio de Janeiro. 

Martin Afibnso de Souza, Ararigboia, settled with his 
Indians on a hill which was aftewards called S. Lourengo, 
a historical place, now almost forgotten, in the city of Nic- 
theroy, an eminence which commands a beautiful pano- 

Ararigboia leaves this place on one occasion to assist 

— 834 - 

Salvador Correa de Si in attacking the French who had 
arrived at Cabo Frio and were attempting to form an alli- 
ance with the Tamoyos ; a fight takes place in ca- 
noes and other small craft ; Salvador Correa falls into the 
sea, and Ararigboia saves him, catching him by the waist 
and snatching him from the waves which were about to 
swallow him. Victory crowns the efforts and the bravery 
of the savage chief. 

Later on the Tamoyos and the French, thirsting for re- 
venge, attack the settlement of the Tupiminos chief ; Sal- 
vador Correa sends him thirty five soldiers, and Ararigboia, 
despizing the resources of a defensive war, descends from 
his hill and attacks the unsuspecting enemy who had lan- 
ded ; the flght took place during the night, and at day 
break Ararigboia covered with the blood of the French 
and of the Tamoyos. proudly sees flying at a distance the 
canoes and craft carrying the rest of his enemies, those who 
had escaped his savage fury. 

From that day forward neither French nor Tamoyos again 
dared to attack the Fierce Serpent. 

The king Don SebastiSo as a proof of the value ;he set on 
his exploits sent Martin Affonso de Souza — Ararigboia a 
present of a complete suit of clothes of his own use, ap- 
pointed him capit^o m6r of his settemement with an an- 
nity of twelve mil r6is, and created him chevalier of the 
order of Christ. 

From these titles and rewards an idea may be formed 
of the services rendered by the intrepid and famous In- 

Martin Affonso de Souza met with a disastrous death, 
being drowned near the island of MocanguS-mirim. 

The light of his glory was extinguished in the sea, 
and in the ungrateful indifferance of several generations ; 

- 335 — 

but revives and shines in history, which ought to perpe- 
tuate his exploits. 

Ararigboia {Fierce Serpent) has iu his life one only 
dark spot : the fleree rage, the sanguinary revengefulness 
the tigrish fury which in combat empelled him to give 
no quarter to his enemies ; he, however, was a savage, he 
was a fierce serpent ; he was a heroe from the forest, a 
man of the woods, and it oould not be expected that he, 
Ararigboia should be a heroe nursed by civilization. 

It is enough for his greater renown that he should have 
abandoned canibalism, a habit of his brother savages in 
the impetus of atrocious revenge. 



Jos6 da Natividade was born in the city of Rio de Ja- 
neiro on the 19th of March 1669; he became a Benedictine 
monk and in the respective monastery acquired profound 
learning not only in theology but in philosophy and in 
literature ; he was an eloquent preacher, and in reasoning 
he displayed such resources, so much tact and hability 
that he was nicknamed o subtil (the snbtle). 

He was already known, and admired when he went to 
Portugal and took his degree as doctor of theology at the 
tfniversity of Coimbra. 

On returning to Brazil he became abbot of the Bahia 
monastery, and aftewards provincial. 

He was often consulted on ecclesiastical subjects, and 
his opinions were received with the highest conside- 

VOL. I 43 

* 338 ' 

He died on the 9th of April 1715, at the monastery of 
S. Bento, whilst serving as provincial. His funeral pa- 
negyric wBs recited by friar Matheus da Encarna^ao, who 
will be mentioned in another article. 

Frias Jos^ da Natividade, though a great and celebrated 
preacher, only printed three of his sermons. 

He left a book in-folio of canonical regular, and moral 

xrvni OF i^JijRan 

ml mm n mm 

Up to the end of the last century the noblest and most 
wealthy families both of Brazil and Portugal, considered 
it an honor to dedicate to the priesthood some of their 
members, and the most modest and poor made sacrifices 
to have a son, or some relation, a priest. 

Jos6 Borges de Barros, son of captain JoSo Borges, 
who distinguished himself in the war against the Dutch, 
and of Maria de Barros, was born in the city of S. Salvador 
da Bahia on the 18th of March, 1657. He was the eldest 
son, and wished to enter the Society of Jesus; but six years 
experience proved that his weak health, and his infirmi- 
ties would not allow his observance of the Religious Insti- 
tute; on leaving it, however, he went to the university of 
Coimbra, in which he took the degree of master of arts 
and batchelor of sacred canons. 

- 340 — 
' In Brazil he was school master of the cathedral of 
Bahia, judge of the ecclesiastical court of appeal, vicar 
general, and judge of the probate court, and on returning 
to Goimbra occupied there the post of provisor and vicar 
general, and prior of the orders of Santa Maria de Arezede, 
and of S. JoSo de Almedina, and of archdeacon of C^a. Ha- 
ving defended the jurisdiction of the prelate of the diocese 
of Goimbra, whose conduct had displeased the king Don 
Pedro II, he had to go to Lisbon where the arch-bishop of 
Evora Don SimSo da Gama named him his provisor and 
vicar general; as a reward for his services he afterwards 
obtained a canonicate in the cathedral of Evora. 

In order to receive the cowl, Jos6 Borges retired to the 
oratory of S. Felippe Nery, of the town of Estremoz, anp 
died on the 10th of March, 1719, with signs of predestina- 
tion, according to the Bibliotheca LuzitanUy whence this 
information is taken. 

This illustrious Brazilian shone as paofessor, teaching 
theology and philosophy, and in the pulpit as an elegant 
evangelical orator in Bahia, in Goimbra, in Evora, and 
in Lisbon; in his works he left the proofs of an excellent 

He was endowed with a prodigious memory: after hea- 
ring a sermon, he would go home, and at the end of a few 
hours he would send it written out to the person who 
had preached it. Hearing a thousand words recited, he 
would recite them in their proper order, or backwards. 

His hand-writing was admirable, not only on account of 
the beauty and perfection of the characters, but because 
he imitated with astonishing perfection the best and 
worst writing. 

He sometimes amused himself writing with two pens in 
one hand two lines, unlike one another. 

— 341 — 

He modestly cultivated poetry. 

He was a man of graceful presence, of a jovial disposi- 
tion, and of recognized virtues. 

He left the following works. 

Tractatus de Prceceptis Decatogi, 4**, M. S. 

Pratica judical como o FormiUario do provisor eviga- 
rio geral, Fol, M. S. 

Tratado pratico das materias heraficiaes, 4^. 

Sermdes variosy 2 vols, 4'. 

Arte de memoria illi^trada. 

A Constancia como triumpho, comedy. 

Concltisoes amorosas, M. S. 

:xxx OF i^^A^ncia: 



The worthy baron of Antonina expired on the 19th of 
March, 1875, at the age of eighty six. 

JoSo da Silva Machado was his baptismal name, and 
that of his family ; he was born in the province of S. 
Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul in 1782; his cradle was 
humble and poor. His life was honored by labor, by 
probity, and by many years of services. 

Silva Machado commenced as an active dealer in cattle, 
mules, and horses which he sold in the province of S. 
Paulo ; being laborious and economical, and enjoying 
credit owing to his probity, he succeeded in forming a 

— 344 — 

capital with which he enlarged his business; he had 
already same means when he married a lady of consi- 
derable fortune, in the district which afterwards become 
the province of Parani ; by his marriage he not only 
aquired considerable wealth, but also domestic happiness. 

The man of toil then became the element of progress, 
and his important services deserve the graatitude of his 
country. At his own expense he opened long roads, ex- 
plored the solitudes of the rivers Tibagy and Parana- 
panema, established two Indian settlements, one on the 
banks of the river Verde and another on those of the 
ltarar6; he became a guide to civilization, though he 
had not the science whfch is aquired in academies. 

Being an intelligent man, he cultivated his spirit by 
select realing, and in the society of learned men ; he 
possessed the treasure of good sense in a high degree. 

For many years the province of S. Paulo elected him 
member of its provincial assembly, and and of the cham- 
ber of deputies. H. M. created him Baron of Antonina 
as a reward for the services rendered during the S. 
Paulo revolution in 1842. 

The province of Parani having been created. Baron 
of Antonina was elected in the first triple list for se- 
nators offered by the province to the crown, whose choice 
fell upon this worthy citizen on the 13th of July, 1854. 

The Baron of Antonina was a grandee of the em- 
pire, a senator, major dono to H. M. the Empress, a 
grand dignitary of the imperial order of the Rosa, a che- 
valier of that of the Cruzeiro, and colonel and superior 
commander of the nacional guard. 



this day does not rememorate any of those proud 
spartan like and rude half caste women of S. Paulo, 
mothers and wives of the war-like back-woodsmen, of 
whom tradition says that, in 1708, they refused to 
receive the sons and husbands routed in Minas Geraes 
by the emboaba or foreigners (Portuguese, their rivals 
in the exploration of mines), telling them, with one accord, 
<return and revenge yourselves, and, as conquerors, and 
revenged, we will receive you*. 

This day rememorates, and on it the memory of a young 
and delicate, but heroic, lady of S. Paulo, aught to be 

Rosa Maria de Siqueira was born in the town, aftervards 
city, ofS. Paulo, in the year 1690; she was cradled in 
silk and gold; her parents Francisco Luiz Castello Branco, 
VOL. I 44 

— 346 - 
and Donna Isabel Costa e Siqueira were rich, and of noble 
families, and employed every means to give her the best 
education then possible in the colony. 

Beautiful, distinguished, and fortunate D. Maria de Si- 
queira married desembargador Antonio da Cunha Souto 
Maior, who took her to the city of S. Salvador da Bahia, 
and thence in December 1714 they took their passages for 
Lisbon on board the ship of war Nossa SenJiora do Carmo 
e S. Elias. 

The ship carried twenty eight guns, and had on board, 
besides the crew, one hundred and nineteen persons, in- 
cluding men, women and children, and some unfortunate 
jews sent to the court of the inquisition. 

The force of the ship is remarkable ; but at that time 
the Algerine pirates infested the ocean, taking vessels, 
robbing the cargoes, and carrying the men and the women 
to the moorish slave markets. 

On the 20th of March, 1714, 15 leages to seaward of 
the Berlengas, on the coast of Lisbon, three Angeline 
ships were seen bearing down upon the Portuguese ship; 
it was three to one, the smallest of the three carried 
twenty six guns, the nesxt forty four, and the lasgest, 
the lag ship, fifty two. 

At seven o' clock in the morning commenced a most 
unequal combat, and when as its height the jews who 
preferred captivity ander the Argelines, to the tortures 
of the inquisition, commenced to cry out against the 
temerity of the captain, who was provoking the revenge 
of the conquerors thus discouraging seamen and soldiers. 

It was then that, ardent and sublime, Rosa ]\Iaria de Si- 
queira appeared. 

Young (she was only twenty four years old), delicate, 
beautiful and mild, tender in appearance and in manners, 

- 347 — 

she rose in the midst of the combatants, crying: viva 
a fe de Christo ( hurrah for the Christian faith). 

And completely exposed to the fire of the enemies 
ships, running from the crew of one gun to that of ano- 
ther, carrying powder for one, arms for another, encou- 
raging all, and constantly crying: viva a fe deChristo! 

The beautiful and delicate young lady, in the midst of 
the projectiles, and of the fury of death, displayed so 
much courage that the soldiers and sailors, who had 
commenced to waver, became invincible heroes. 

The combat lasted all day, being interrupted only at 

There were no more cartridges on board the Portu- 
guese ship; Donna Rosa Maria de Siqueira assisted by 
two African slaves and two old Indian women who had 
gone with her, worked till day-light, and prepared three 
hundred cartridges. 

In the mean time the crew repaired, as best they could, 
the damage done to the ship. 

The fight continued on the following day. Five times 
did the Algerines attempt to board the Portuguese ship, 
and five times were the infidels repulsed, many being 
killed and thrown into the sea, and in the midst of this 
hand to hand fight, did the heroine, by her example, 
convert every soldier into an Alcides. Those who could 
not see her, heard her, for her silver voice was heard 
above the din of battle, always crying out: viva a fi de 

On the 21st of March the escape of the ship was due to 
the protection of God, through the instrumentality of the 
young and delicate Rosa Maria de Siqueira, who fought 
with intrepidity and inspired the soldiers with prodigious 

— 318 - 

The combat is again interrupted; night comes on and 
again Rosa de Siqueira, spends it working in the prepa- 
ration of cartridges for the combat which would again 
continue as soon as daylight appeared. 

But at break of day the Portugueze saw the three Al- 
gerine ships, with sails set, and favored by the breeze, 
already at some distance, having abandoned the combat. 

The danger had passed. The heroine disappeared. 

On arriving in Lisbon, Donna Rosa Maria de Siqueira, 
became confused on finding herself the object of the curio- 
sity and admiration of every one, and young, beautiful, 
and courted, but modest, and retiring she eluded the 
martial glory, which, only exceptionally, can belong to her 
sex, and devoted herself, in her domestic circle, to the 
love of her hnsband, and to her family. 

?C7rT OF ^OLAlRaH. 



Domingos Borges de Barros, legitimate son of Captain- 
major Francisco Borges de Barros and D. Luiza Borges de 
Barros, was born in the city of S. Salvador da Bahia. 

Possessing a brilliant intellect, a lively imagination, a 
generous character, an enthusiastic Ion* ing for the acqui- 
sition of new ideas and for penetrating the mysteries of the 
future, and a fondness for study produced by his thirst for 
information, Domingos Borges, as may be easily under- 
stood, completed in Bahia the study of the humanities in a 
manner that could not fail to be very gratifying to his 
parents and to inspire 1 hem with the mo^t hopeful expec- 
tations of the future. 

— 350 - 

In Coimbra, where he next prosecuted his studies, he 
formed a part of the phalanx of students, and graduated 
as doctor of laws. 

Talented and wealthy by birth, he was not content with 
his collegiate honors, but was assiduous in the study of 
philosophy and cultivated his natural poetical talent and 
his taste for literature with great ardor, courting the inti- 
macy of the principal Lisbon poets of the time, such as 
Francisco Manoel (Filinto Elysio), Bocage, Nicolao Tolen- 
tino and Agostinho dv* Macedo. 

He afterwards employed his time in studyng agriculture 
and poetry, probably attracted to the former by his flowers 
and to the latter undoubtedly by the influence of that 
genius of inspiration called woman. 

A fiiend to Felinto Elysio and to Hyppolito, editor of 
tli^ Correio Braziliense, he was ardently attached to lib- 
eral principles and underwent persecution on account of his 
intimacy with the former and his enthusiasm for the latter. 

The Portuguese revolution broke out in 1820, and in 
1821 the constituent assembly met in Lisbon. Domingos 
Borges de Barros, who represented Bahia in this assembly, 
advocated the concession of political liberty to woman, but, 
though unconvinced, was obliged to yield to the overwhelm- 
ing majority against his measure which, to regard it in 
the most favorable light, was certainly not well-timed. 

A thorough patriot and Brazilian, he left the assembly 
to plead before the French court for the recognition of 
Brazil as an independent State. His diplomatic career, how- 
ever could not withdraw him from his poetical labors, for 
during the time of this mission, he published two precious 
volumes of « Poems dedicated to the Brazilian Ladies, by 
a Native ofBahiay » a collection of fine productions which 

honor the author and display the character as erotic but not 

Elected on the senatorial list and chosen senator, he 
rarely attended the sittings of the legislative body to 
which he belonged. 

A thorough Brazilian in feeling, he had acquired certain 
European habits th?.; bound hihi to the old world. 

But in Europe he i endered good service to his country. 

He had already he^iH made Baron of Pedra Branca when 
he was charged with the delicate and confidential mission 
of arranging thu ina.riage between the Princess Amelia de 
Leuchtenberg ;ind the Emperor D. Pedro I. For his services 
in this respect he v/as decorated with the grand-cross of 
the Imperial Order of Christ, and was shortly afterwards 
raised from tho rank of Baron to that of Viscount of Pedra 
Branca and liiadd grand dignitary of the Imperial Order 
of the Rose. 

After having visited, either as a diplomat or a tourist, the 
principal courts, he returned in his old age to his country, 
where he continued to render important services. He de- 
voted himself particularly to agricultural improvements 
which he had studied with interest and to great advantage. 

He died in Bahia on March 21, 1855. 

He had distinguished himself principally as poet and 

An indefatigable worker, he wrote a great deal and 
sedulously cultivated the art of poetry. But of all his 
works the only ones now extant in print are his Poems 
dedicated to Brazilian Ladies y and a poem called The Tombs^ 

He was a member of the Brazilian Historical and Geo- 
graphical Institute and of several European scientific and 
literary societies. 

•X"?rTT OF li/LATlCXEX. 


The present sketch is a legend of an uncanonized saint 
worthy of being called the Brazilian St. Francis of Assis. 

Joaquim Francisco da Costa was the legitimate son of 
Sergeant- major Thoniaz Francisco da Costa and D. Marianna 
Jacintha da Victoria. 

He was born in the city of Desterro, capital of the pres- 
ent province of Santa Catharina, on Holy Friday, March 
22, 1751. 

He was at first supposed to be dumb, for he was six years 
old before he began to pronounce the first words. 

At the primary school his disposition soon revealed its 
two principal characteristics, devotion and charity. Studi- 
ous and talented, he made good progress in his studies, but 
the greater part of his time was taken up in teaching his 
backward school-fellows, and in play-hours he neglected 
VOL. 1 45 

— 354 — 
everything else- to sing hymns before oratorios of his own 

The presents which he received from his mother and god- 
father he gave to the poor. 

His father, who was a merchant, caused him to enter his 
business house at the age of twelve. This was not agreeable 
to Francisco Joaquim who felt no inclination whatever for 
mercantile pursuits ; but he submitted with the most per- 
fect obedience, andattheendoffive or six years he re- 
ceived permission to follow the profession which suited him. 
His father had become convinced that he had no vocation 
for a mercantile life. 

Francisco Joaquim abandoned the shop whenever the 
sound of the bell called the faithful to accompany the holy 
sacrament, and was extremely devout and assiduous in his 
attendance at church. His father could not reprehend him 
for this. 

But besides this he gave away all he possessed. 

The monthly allowance given by his father to encourage 
him, his clothes and the pocket-money which he occa- 
sionally received from his mother, all went to succor the 

To cure him of excessive charity, his parents reduced 
his allowance to what was strictly necessary for his sub- 
sistence, ceasing altogether to give him money ; but the 
boy, in default of anything else, gave away the sheets 
and blankets of his bed. 

Abandoning his commercial career at the age of 16 or 
18, he took charge of the oratory which his father had 
caused to be constructed in his house and which was de- 
dicated to our Lady of Livramento, changing his surname 
at the same time for that of Livramento. 

The young man was delighted with the field of labor 

— 355 — 
placed before him* At early dawn he might be seen 
sweeping the church and decorating the altars, and after- 
wards assisting at mass as an acolyte. On leaving church 
and before returning home he visited the most needy of 
the poor and assisted as much as he could. He was the 
nurse of the sick, and with his own hands washed the 
most loathsome ulcers, at the same time soothing their 
spirits with words of consolation. 

When the vicar hastened to a death-bed he found Joa- 
quim do Livramento seated thereby with the Redeemer's 
image in his arms, breathing words of consolation and 
softening the pangs of death. 

These works were accompanied by the purest and holi- 
est mode of life. 

One day he conceived the idea of establishing an asyl- 
um for the admission and treatment of the indigent sick. 
Donning a brown woolen robe (he never afterwards used a 
shirt) he bound a cord around his waist and adorning his 
breast with a representation of a cup and waver, in token 
of the holy sacrament, he went forth to ask alms for the 
asylum which he proposed to found. 

Thenceforward he was by everyone simply called 
Brother JoaqiUm, 

Brother Joaquim traveled on foot over his province and 
that of Rio Grande, and at the end of a year returned 
well pleased with the fruit of his labors, and caused his 
charity hospital to be erected on lands contiguous to the 
chapel of Menino Deus, which had been built by the vir- 
tuous D. Joanna de GusmEo. 

Brother Joaquim acted as nurse in the hospital he had 
founded, and, it is unnecessary to state, with zeal, ardor 
and devotion he attended to the wants of the poor who 
were treated within its walls. 


The expenses were heavy and the hospital had no fund. 
Brother Joaquim went to Lisbon and obtained from the 
Queen D. Maria I an annual donation of three hundred 

Returning to Santa Catharina, he continued his mission 
of charity until somewhere between 1796 and 1800 when he 
placed the hospital in charge of the brotherhood of Senhor 
Jesus dos Passes, formed in the chapel of Menino Deus, 
and embarked for Bahia. He never returned to his native 
province, which he abandoned for motives that have not 
been made known. 

At Bahia he began to ask alms for founding a school 
for unprotected children, and, his efforts being blessed by 
God, he founded the S. Joaquim Orphan Seminary in which 
a large number of indigent children were maintained 
and educated. 

He again went to Lisbon and obtained for the seminary 
the same assistance which he had obtained for the hospital 
in Santa Catharina, returning to S. Salvador in 1803 and 
continuing to ask alms for the establishment. 

At this time he received a letter announcing the death 
of his father and calling him to receive his inheritance. 
This he ceded to his poorest sister, though he was at 
that time living on alms. 

Seeing the seminary fully established and prosperous, 
he went to Rio de Janeiro where the prince-regent, D. John, 
sent for him, received him with great demonstrations of 
friendship and entrusted him with the education of several 
orphans. But Brother Joaquim was not in his element at 

His travels on foot over the provinces of Santa Catha- 
rina and Rio Grande had left him afflicted with a swelling 
of the legs and feet which gave him great pain and which 


could never he cured on account of his being perpetually 
in movement, collecting alms for the poor. 

Notwithstanding the aggravation of his disease he 
set out on foot in 1809 for S. Paulo where, preceded by 
the fame of zeal and virtues, he met a favorable recep- 
tion and collected" an abundance of alms with which he 
founded two seminaries, one at Itu and the other on the 
old Jesuit plantation at Sant'Anna. 

As he was fond of sketching the picturesque landscapes 
which he found on his travels, one day Brother Joaquim 
was seated all alone under the shade of a tree engaged in this 
occupation, when he was arrested as a foreign spy and 
carried in irons from S. Paulo to Rio de Janeiro without 
regard to his protestations of being innocent or to the 
evangelic patience with which he submitted to the rough 
and insulting treatment to which he was subjected. 

Arriving at Rio de Janeiro, he was presented to the 
police intend ant who on seeing him opened his arms to 
receive him, exclaiming : 

^ Why, it's Brother Joaquim ! » 

And he caused the irons to be at once taken off, and, 
after embracing Brother Joaquim, carried him home, where 
he treated him with the utmost care and solicitude. 

As soon as he had rested. Brother Joaquim set out for 
Angra dos Reis to hasten the completion of the Semin- 
ary of Jacuecanga which he had founded on his journey 
to Sao Paulo. 

Returning to Rio de Janeiro, he learned that his be- 
loved hospital at Santa Gatharina had been converted into 
a military barrack, and, almost weeping, he sought the 
Marquis of Lavradio to make his complaint. 

The latter,] seeing him from the window, hastened to 

— 358 — 

meet him, consoled him and on the following day sent an 
order for the building to be restored to its original use. 

The seminary of Jacuecanga was the last of the char- 
itable enterprises of Brother Joaquim who by con- 
stant solicitude was pei^mitted to see it in a flourishing 
state and attended by a large number of pupils, some 
of whom afterwards became learned and distinguished 

In 1822, by his request, the Emperor D. Pedro I appoint- 
ed to the rectorship of the seminary Father Vicoso, 
afterwards the venerable bishop ofMarianna, a virtuous 
prelate and a sublimelj- eloquent orator, whose teachings 
were understood and followed by the people. 

Brother Joaquim continued to obtain alms and to im- 
prove the Jacuecanga seminary, which he visited assi- 
duously, always setting an example of religious and pious 

When rustic festivals, dances or entertainments were 
announced in the vicinity, he always attended them, 
whether invited or not, and bj'- his presence and the re- 
spect felt for his virtues kept the pleasures within just 
])ounds, mingling religious services with innocent amuse- 
ments and promoting enjoyment without immorality. 

Sometimes he would venture out in a small canoe 
during stormy weather on the bay of Angra dos Reis for 
the purpose of aiding the sick and consoling the dying; 
and on such occasions he might be heard singing hymns 
amid peals of thunder and the roar of the waves. 

Finding that he was becoming feeble and that his end 
was approaching, Bix)ther Joaquim, anxious to confide his 
seminary of Jackiccanga to the priests of the missionary 
congi^gation, took courage to make a third trip to Eu- 
n>l>o in 183tK 

— 359 - 

Well received in Portugal by D. Miguel, he was, 
however, disappointed in his expectations. 

He proceeded to Rome, but, finding himself growing 
worse, he determined to return for the purpose of dying 
in his own country. 

Reaching Marseilles, he there expired in 1829, at sixty- 
eight years of age. 

His life was a unclouded horizon, an azure sky illu- 
mined by a brilliant sun. 

As a child, he was an angel; as a young man, a high- 
priest of charity; and throughout his whole life, an exam- 
ple of brotherly love. 

He was a nurse to the sick, and a death-bed consoler. 

The poor and the orphans were his adopted children. 

Entirely destitute and consecrated to poverty, he spent 
his life in asking alms, and with the alms of the faith- 
ful he founded a hospital for the poor in Santa Catha- 
rina, a seminary for orphan and unprotected children in 
Bahia, two in S. Paulo and a fourth in Rio de Janeiro, 
And all this he accomplished, clothed in a coarse and 
simple robe, with a hand extended to receive the mite 
of charity and with his Savior's example and teachings 
always in his heart and soul. 

Such is the legend of Brother Joaquim. 



Estella Sezefreda was a native of Rio Grande do Sul, 
where she was born on January 14, 1810. At 12 years 
of age she came to Rio de Janeiro in company with some 
of her relatives. 

A few years afterwards she entered the ballet corps 
of the theatre S. Pedro de Alcantara. 

Her skill in dancing did not exceed mediocrity, and 
she pleased the audience more by her graceful and win- 
some figure than by her perfection in the art of Terpsi- 

The theatre was undoubtedly her vocation; but the 
laurels she was destined to win were certainly not 
to be obtained in the ballet corps, from which she retired 
shortly before the year 1831. 

A genius discovered her wonderful talent. JoSoCae- 
VOL. I 46 

tano dos Santos, afterwards her legitimate husband, intro- 
duced her to the drama. 

She made her debut in 1833 in the little theatre of 
Vallongo, in the play of Camilla ou o Subterraneo, in 
which she performed the part of Camilla. 

Jodlo Caetano, Estella and the rest of the company then 
proceeded to Mangaratiba ; and such was their poverty 
that they traveled as far as Guaratiba oh foot. 

Returning to Rio, Joao Caetano took charge of the 
company at the theatre of S. Pedro de Alcantara. 

Joao Caetano had little education and less dramatic 
teaching, but the secrets of the art were illuminated by 
the flame of genius within him, and besides he was gifted 
with all the physical qualities essential to an actor. 

Estella was not a genius. She could divine the secrets 
of the art, and, although possessed of a graceful and attrac- 
tive figure, she did not possess the precious gift of ex- 
pressive eyes that would lighten up in scenes of great dra- 
matic power. This defect was greatly against her. 

She also had not been trained in a proper school, for 
there was no one to teach her. But in compensation she 
was very intelligent, which enabled her to perfect herself 
gradually and constantly in the dramatic art, acquiring 
little by little fresh rules for her guidance by reading the 
best French and Portuguese writers on this subject. 

About this time the poets Magalhaes (now Viscount of 
Araguaya) and Porto Alegre (now Baron of Santo Angelo) 
returned from Europe and exerted themselves to regen- 
erate the Brazilian stage, especially Magalhaes who, avail- 
ing himself of the genius of Joao Caetano and the in- 
telligence of Estella, succeeded almost immediately in 
banishing from the stage the heavy, monotonous declam- 
atory style then in vogue, in subjecting the attitudes, 

— 363 — 

movements and gestures of the actors to the true precepts 
of art, and in initiating in the S. Pedro theatre the French 
romantic school, generally adopted in Europe, but hither- 
to unknown In Brazil. 

It was then that the great actress began to approach 
the zenith of her fame. 

She gave an original and correct interpretation of the 
characters of Catharine Howard, of Margarida in the 
Torre de Nesle, of Desdemona in Othelo, of Marianna in 
Antonio Jose, of Clotilde in the play of the same name, 
(one of her greatest triumphs) of the mad mother in La 
Grace de Dxeu, and of fifty other dramatic personages, in 
all of which she was rewarded with the most flattering 

She was the star of the Romantic School in Brazil. 

The radiant intelligence and consummate art of Estella 
was the complement of the wonderful genius of Joao Caeta- 
no ^"^ho was unable to write his own language correctly. It 
is said that, at least during the first years, she used to read 
over to her husband the speeches belonging to his roles, 
and with the most refined womanly delicacy would in- 
sinuate rather than express what she considered the pro- 
per accent, modulations, tones and gestures to be employed 
in the different scenes, skillfully hiding her purpose so as 
not to wound the sensitive pride of her husband who would 
not have brooked anything castng the least doubt on the 
power and discrimination of his dramatic genius. 

Undeniably JoSo Caetano was, from the inexhaustible 
wealth of his prodigious natural talent, an actor far supe- 
rior to Estella Sezefreda dos Santos ; but the latter was 
superior as an artist and in her knowledge of histrionic 
rules and principles. 

In 1851 Estella, beginning to grow old and suffering in 

— aet- 
her health, felt herself to be on the decline and avoided 
roles for which she considered her age inappropriate. But 
she unhesitatingly accepted the part of an old idiotic 
woman in the Mysteries of Paris. 

This drama, entirely without merit, was an eloquent 
proof of the corruption of a school*which in its greatest 
splendor never possessed qualities to render it enduring. 
This, however, is foreign to the subject. 

On the night of the first appearance of the Mysteries 
of Paris, one of the boxes was occupied by two friends 
and their wives. One of them was Porto Alegre (now 
Baron of Santo Angelo) whose friendly intercourse with 
Joao Caetano and Estella had been broken oflF for a 
number of years. 

At last she came to the act or scene in which the 
idiotic woman appears on the stage. 

She does not speak except a word or two to express 
hunger. A few inarticulate sounds indicate her sufferings, 
especially when she burns her hands at the light used 
at his work by her son, a poor and honest lapidary. 

Far from being a principal part of the play, it is merely 
a secondary one in a single scene. 

But so well was it managed by Estella Sezefreda that 
it saved the play from a well-deserved fiasco. The look 
which she assumed was a wonderful imitation of idiocy ; 
and pain and suffering were expressed with unsurpassable 
eloquence in the contraction of the muscles of her face. 
The cry of hunger and the inarticulate sounds which 
issued from her mouth penetrated every heart. 

The theatre shook with applause. 

Porto Alegre, greatly moved, said to his friend : 

« Among the most celebrated actresses whom I have 

— 365 — 

seen in Paris there was not one who could surpass Estella 
in this role — not a single one ! » 

The celebrated artist, after this great triumph, avoided 
the stage more and more, and in 1863, the year of her 
husband's death, abandoned it altogether. 

Living a poor and retired life with her daughters, 
Estella Sezefreda prolonged her feeble existence for eleven 
years, enduring painful physical sufferings with admir- 
able patience and pious resignation. 

She finally found relief and repose in the last earthly 
rest, expiring on March 13, 1874. 

The Brazilian stage has never possessed another actress 
that could equal her. 

321X1 V OF lsa:ATiaJB3L 


On March 30, 1816, there arrived at Rio de Janeiro, 
from Portugal, a body of troops which took the name of 
the King's Volunteers, composed of four battalions of 
riflemen who presented themselves on dress parade on 
April 4, the 4th battalion being commanded by Lieut.-Gol. 
Joao Chrysostomo Callado. 

He was born on March 24, 1780, in the city of Elvas, 
Portugal, being the legitimate son of Colonel Manoel 
Joaquim Callado and D. Maria Joaquina Nobre. 

He enlisted in an infantry regiment and was recognized 
as a cadet on March 26, 1795. 

After fighting against the Spaniards in the year 1801, 
he devoted himself to the study of mathematics during the 
ensuing peace. He had risen to the rank of lieutenant 
^hen the French invaded Spain and Portugal. 

Under the command of the Spanish general, D. Antonio 
de Arce and his adjutant, he served in all the campaigns 
up to 1814. He distinguished himself in the action of 
March 5, 1811 and was brevetted Major, being promoted 
to a full majority at the battle of S. Munhoz. He was offi- 
cially eulogized for other deeds^ and at the end of the war 
rewarded with the Cross of S. Bento de Aviz and the cor- 
responding pension. 

On the adoption of the plan of the campaign for the 
occupation of the Banda Oriental, he organized and drilled 
the 4th battalion of riflemen, came to Brazil with the 
command under Gen. Lecor (afterwards Viscount of La- 
guna) and reaching Rio on March 30, 181f6, accompanied 
his command to Rio Grande do Sul ; entered into active 
operations the same year, and for his valuable services in 
this campaign was rewarded with the cross of Tort^e e 

In 1822, being in command of the 2d brigade of Royal 
Volunteers, he declared in favor of the cause of Brazilian 
independence of the Emperor D. Pedro I, withdrew from 
Montevideo, which was under the control of the Portu- 
guese general, D. Alvora da Costa, and defeated the latter's 
forces, for which his property in Montevideo was confis- 

After the capitulation and withdrawal of D. Alvaro, 
Callado came to Rio to report to the Emperor what had 
taken place, and was sent back to the Cisplatine province 
with the rank of brevet brigadier-general. 

On the breaking out of the war which took the name of 
this province, and which terminated in August, 1828, with 
the recognition of its independence, Callado continued to 
render important services which were duly acknowledged 
and rewarded by the government. On February 20, 1827, 

at the battle of Ituzaingo, where he commanded the 2d di- 
vision of the Brazilian army, he succeeded, at a heavy sac- 
rifice, in saving it from destruction. Forming it into an 
impenetrable square, he received with a destructive fire 
the advancing mass of fugitives and pursuers, killing among 
other brave Brazilian soldiers the heroic Baron of Serro 
Lage who, swept away from the battle-field by his fugitive 
troops, was pursued by over two thousand of the enemy's 

In this dreadful contest, Callado displayed coolness, brav- 
ery and skill for which he was justly eulogized. 

In 1828 he was appointed commander of the military 
district of Santa Catharina where the greater part of the 
army was stationed. 

But General Callado, not being willing to be made a tool 
of by certain authorities in their cruzade in favor of absolute 
government, charges were preferred against him, and he 
was brought before a court-martial, but was unanimously 
acquitted. The supreme military court, confirming the 
sentence, declared that his conduct was not only irrepre- 
hensible, but praiseworthy. 

The Emperor bestowed upon him the cross of knight 
commander of the Order of Aviz, and the Imperial govern- 
ment appointed him commander of the military district of 
Bahia at a time when the whole Empire, and especially 
that province, was in a ferment of revolutionary agita- 

On April 4 and 5 the mutinous troops and a disorderly 
and riotous mob of people threatened public order. The 
military commander wished to use repressive measures, but 
the president of the province, Luiz Paulo de Araujo Bastos, 
hoping to avoid the effusion of blood and to restore quiet by 
conciliatory action, relieved him of his command. Callado 

VOL. 1 ^T^ 

— af7o — 

reluctantly obeyed and embarked for Rio de Janeiro. On his 
arrival at this city he learned that D. Pedro I had abdicated, 
and he was ordered to report himself in arrest at the For- 
tress of Yillegaignon. 

Without fear of the political passions then let loose, he 
immediately demanded a court-martial. On July 20, 1831, 
he was acquitted, the sentence being at once confirmed by 
the supreme military court whose laudatory decision com- 
pensated him for the mortification of unjust imprison- 

Callado left Brazil and spent two years in the River 

Returning to his adopted country he was promoted to 
the rank of marshal, and in 1838 was placed by the regency 
in command of the troops sent to reduce the city of Bahia 
which had been in the hands of the insurgents since No- 
vember 7, 1837. 

He commanded the attacking forces, but the defense was 
kept up for three days ! What bravery thrown away and 
wasted in fratricidal- strife ! 

On March 16, 1838, Marshal Callado planted the victo- 
rious national banner in the Praga da Piedade. 

The loyal citizens of Bahia, as a token of gratitude, 
raised a large subscription to ofier him a suitable present. 
But Marshal Callado requested to be excused from accep- 
ting it, and suggested that the product of the subscription 
be applied for the benefit of the widows and orphans of the 
brave soldiers who had fallen in defense of the legal cause. 
The general conquered in this conflict of generous senti- 
ments, but his victory was short-lived, for his wife was not 
permitted to reject the ofi'er made her of a handsome jewel 
containing a likeness of the Emperor D. Pedro II, (then in 
his boyhood) and inscribed with the words :— « To Marshal 

- 371 — 

Callado as a token of gratitude of the People of Bahia, 
in 1838. » 

The regency promoted Callado to the rank of lieutenant- 
general, and appointed him member of the supreme mili- 
tary court. 

In 1840 Lieut.-Gen. Callado, during the exciting scenes in 
parliament during the days preceding the decree proclaim- 
ing D. Pedro II of age, remained at the palace of S. Chris- 
tovao and had the honor of escorting the Emperor to the 
senate chamber in July 23. 

In 1841 he was appointed councilor of war, and was al- 
lowed to retire from active service. 

Throughout his life he was fortunate in the month of 
March. During his final illness his death was momentarily 
expected ; but he survived till the month was finished and 
only died on the first day of April. 

He was lord-in-waiting of the Imperial Household, knight 
commander of the Orders of Aviz and the Rose, companion 
of the Order of the Cruzador, councilor of war and lieuten- 
ant-general, and had been decorated with several campaign 

X.'Xr^ Oy Ts^^J^-ROJE^ 


With the biographical article* of this day, commenceH 
the list of the young and boy heroes, who became immor- 
talized in the tremendous Paraguayn war. 

Antonio Augusto de Araujo TorreSo, the legitimate son 
of dezembargador Bazilio Quaresma TorreSo, and of Donna 
Josepha de Araujo Torreko, was born in Pernambuco on 
the 25th of .March 1845; accompanying his father, then 
juiz de direito, who had been removed to Rio Grande do 
Norte, he there received his primary education, and after- 
wards studied humanities in MaranhSo, completing these 
studies in the city of Rio de Janeiro, to where his 
grandfather had brought him to matriculate in the naval 

He was received as a naval cadet on the 38tb of Feb- 
ruary, 1801. 

— 374 — 

TorreSo loved and cultivated belles-lettres and music; 
but he had a decided inclination for a sea life; he distin- 
guished himself in the studies at the naval school, and 
on the 26th of November, 1863, he was promoted to the 
rank of a midshipman, starting for Europe in December of 
the same year on board the corvette Bahiana on a voyage 
of instruction, and on his return in October, 1864, he pas- 
sed his examination in the practise of navigation, there 
completing the regular studies of a naval oflScer. 

He finished them in time. The war was inviting brave 
men to the fight. TorreSo full of contentment and enthu- 
siasm went in the steamer Mearim to his post in the 
Brazilian fleet in operations at the River Plate. 

Brazil having been surprised by the Paraguayan war, 
commenced it with a hastily raised army of volunteers, 
employing its old vessels, some of which had been hur- 
riedly repaired. 

The terrible day of Riachuelo arrived; terrible, but 
full of heroism and of glory for the Brazilian navy. 

This battle will be so often mentioned in this book, that, 
to avoid repetitions, a rapid sketch of it is reserved for 
the 11th of June, the day on which it was fought. 

Eight Paraguayan steamers . and as many flatboats, 
surround and attack nine Brazilian steamers, against 
which, from the high bank of the river (the Parani) forty 
pieces of artillery, belched forth destruction and death. 

The battle is horrible , the Jequitinhonha, aground, 
became a target for a shower of balls ; the Pamahyba, 
has her deck inundated with blood and with heaped-up 
bodies of heroes, and before the Amazonas with unheard 
of audacity comes to decide the action almost lost, the 
other Brazilian steamers fight desperately to prevent the 
attempts made to board them. 

— 375 — 

In the small steamer Mearim, the commander, officers 
and men, show the utmost gallantry and ability in maneuv- 
ering, struggling brilliantly and preventing the attempts 
made at boarding; but in the midst of so many brave men, 
the young midshipmen, TorreSo, distinguished himself by 
his enthusiasm and by the skill with which he commands 
one of the guns : fearless, almost laughing, and with 
flaming eyes, his voice rings firmly and electrifyingly, 
shouting — Fire! — but an enemy's ball stretches dead at 
his feet the chief gunner, and Torreao, rushes to the gun 
and takes his place, and at the moment in which he was 
stopping the vent-hole of the piece to charge it, another 
Paraguayan ball fakes his hand off and wounds him 

The brave TorreSo falls on the breach of the piece 
and still shouts— Fire ! — His blood spurts in jets from 
his arteries, and a short time afterwards he expires, 
murmuring : — Country. . . 

Nor had he the consolation of hailing the grand victory 
of the country in Riachuelo. 

XrXVT O-P 3i^ Alton 


Manoel Odorico Mendes, the legitimate son of Fran- 
ciscoRaymundo da Cunha, and of Donna Maria Rayraunda 
CorrSa de Faria, was born in the city of S. Luiz do Ma- 
ranhao, on the 24th of January 1799 ; he assumed the 
name of his uncle, god-father, and adoptive father Ma- 
noel Mendes da Silva, who presented him at the baptismal 
font on the 26th of March of the same year. 

Haying finished some studies of humanities, in MaranhSo, 
he left for Portugal, intending to graduate in medicine ; 
he passed the course of philosophy in Coimbra, and was 
there the companion, and intimate friend, of Manoel Alves 
Branco, and of Almeida Garret, both being afterwards 
created viscounts, and more than viscounts, glories of 
their countries. 

For some unknown reason, Odorico interrupted hi^ 
▼OL. I 48 

- 378 — 

studies, and returned to Maranhao in 1824 ; he was then 
twenty Ave years old, and an ardent liberal, and fin- 
ding Brazil agitated by the dissolution of the constUuirUef 
he became an exhalted politian; in the same year he edited 
the A?^gos da Lei, in Maranhao ; he was elected deputy 
for his province in the first legislature, and in 1836, in 
the first session he allied himself to Paula Sonza, Feij6, 
and Costa Carvalho (afterwards viscount, and Marquis of 
Monte-Alegre) in the opposition ; in Rio de Janeiro he 
wrote for a small periodical, of which a Frenchman, 
called Pedro Chapuis, was editor ; he was one of the foun- 
ders of the Astrea ; in S. Paulo, he at the commencement 
edited the Pharol Paulistano, with Costa Carvalho, and 
in parliament, and in the press he maintained adTanced 
opinions, being numbered among the republicans ; in the 
second legislature, however, he became the intimate friend 
of Evaristo, and commenced to feel the influence of that 
patriot, who was the symbol of good sense. 

On the 17th of March, 1831, he was one of those signed who 
the famous representation of the 23 members of the legis- 
lative corps ; and on the 6th of April following he was one 
of the leaders of the people at the campo de Sant'Anna » 
immediately after the abdication of Don Pedro I, he dis- 
tinguished himself by his eflForts to establish order and mo- 
deration, and ill June, 1831, he gave a fine example of mo- 
desty and disinterestedness, in refusing to be a member of 
the i)ermanent regency, and in getting Joao Braulio Muniz 
olocted in his stead. 

The people of Maranhao punished this error, or refused 
to honor this virtue. Odorico was not reelected in the third 
legislature, and uncomplaining, hedevoted himself to study 
in retirement. 

In 1R39 he again became editor, and with Aureliano 

— 379 — 
de Souza e Oliveira Coutinho, afterwards Viscount of Sepi- 
tiba, wrote the Liga Americana, a patriotic dream inspi- 
red by the resentment for an offence to the national honor. 

He was for some years inspector of the treasury of the 
province of Rio de Janeiro, in which office, ho was super- 

In 1844 he returned to the chamber of deputies, having 
been elected by the province of Minas Geraes, and with 
Paulo Barboza da Silva, drew up the project of electoral 
reform, which, with some modifications, was adopted, and 
offered guarentee and resources to all political parties. 

In 1847 Odorico retired to Europe, and devoted himself 
entirely to literature. 

He was an excellent poet ; but slow in composition, his 
writings were well meditated, and corrected before publish- 
ing ; Odorico, therefore, left but few original compositions; 
but his Hymno d Tarde is an admirable piece, full of 
sweetness, of charm, of melancholy, and of truth, which 
will be preserved through ages. 

Odorico shines most as a first rate translator poet ; a 
faithful devotee of the classic school, his idols were Virgil 
and Homer ; he had however, before, paid his tribute to 
Voltaire, translating, in a masterly manner, his tragedies 
— Tancrede and Merope. 

In 1854 Odorico gave to the learned world the Eneiia 
BrazUeira, or rather the magnificent translation of Virgil's 
Eneid, and in 1858, the Brazilian Virgil containing the 
second, and much improved, edition of the other, and the 
Bucolic and Georgics translated in the same masterl} 

When already old, and careworn, he studied Greek, lie 
read, he examined, he compared all the translations which 
had bee» mad^ of Homer, be studied deeply, he cleared up 

— 380 - 
interpretations, and left in M. S. his translation of the I Iliad, 
which the province of Maranhao received as a glorious le- 
gacy, and had it published. 

Don Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil, was the friend of Odo- 
rico, and always encouraged him, with his protection, in 
great translations. 

The translations of Odorico are classic in the Portuguese 
language, and aie enriched by archeologic researches of 
great value. 

As a translator poet, Odorico throws himself into the 
shade as a politicion, though his influence was great, du- 
ring three or four years. 

This man, who refused to be a member of the regency of 
the Empipe, who, though out of oflBce, governed from 1831 
to 1833, lived without privations ; but in honorable com- 
petency, which barely exempted him from the suflferings of 
hard poverty, died poor in France in the year, 1864. OF isa:A.Fiaj^ 


— ooX^$o«— 

Thom6 de Souza resided in Brazil only four years and 
four months. Yet so important was the task he here 
performed and so conspicuous the services he rendered 
that he can not fail to be ever remembered as one who 
deserved well of the nation which he endowed with its 
first regularly organized government. 

Interested in colonizing his American possessions, King 
John III divided them into extensive captaincies which ho 
distributed among donees, bestowing on the latter, as an 
incentive, extraordinary privileges. The captaincies were 
hereditary and independent, subject only to the jurisdiction 
of their respective donees who, clothed with sovereign 
powers, executed justice and otherwise exercised their 
authority as they deemed proper, rendering an account of 

- 382 - 

their acts, in case of serious accusations, only to the king 
in person. 
Thus was feudalism planted in Portuguese America. 

Several captaincies having been founded, the king soon 
perceived the inconveniences of this system, and, resolving 
to reform it radically, ordained the organization of a gen- 
eral goverment. To the governor-general the donees, shorn 
of their vast powers, were rendered subject, their captain- 
cies being deprived of their independence. 

For the execution of this difficult and important work 
the royal choice fell upon Thom6 de Souza, a prudent and 
enlightened officer and statesman, who had achieved 
renown in the wars of Africa and India. 

Charged with organizing the general government of 
Brazil, whose seat was to be fixed at the city destined to 
be founded on the Bay of Todos os Santos (All-Saints), 
Thom6 de Souza set sail from Lisbon on the 2d of February, 
1549, with a squadron of six vessels conveying on board a 
thousand men, including the persons of his retinue, 
colonists, convicts, several artillery officers, engineers, 
mechanics, and finally, the principal sub-directors of tiie 
projected administration, and, for the purpose of christian- 
izing the Indians, six Jesuits under the lead of Father 
Manoel da Nobrega. 

On the 27th of March Thome de Souza beheld from afar 
the bay of Todos os Santos, and, assembling his vessels, 
entered the harbor on the 29th, carrying with him tiie 
elements of social order and consequently the bases of 

The aged Diogo Alvares (Caramuru), the hero of the 
land, hastened to welcome the newly-arrived governor- 

- 383 -- 

general, acd the Tupinambds threw down their bows and 
arrows in token of peace and friendship. 

There already existed the commencement of a Portuguese 
settlement which had been initiated by the unfortunate 
donee of Bahia, Francisco Pereira Coutinho who, having 
been shipwrecked on the island of Itaparica, was put to 
death and devoured by his mortal enemies, the Ttipt- 

At half a league's distance from this settlement, Thom^ 
de Souza founded a city on a steep elevation near the beach. 
To this city he gave the name of Salvador, afterwards 
changed to SSo Salvador. The assistance received from 
numerous parties of Ti^nambds under the lead of Cara- 
muru hastened the progress of building. The principal 
edifices commenced were the cathedral, the custom-housey 
the governor's palace and the Jesuit college, and at the 
end of four months 100 houses had been completed, with 
grounds enclosed and planted. 

In the meanwhile ThomS de Souza had inaugurated his 
government, appointing a chief-justice to preside over the 
judiciary afiairs, a major-domo charged with the financial 
administration, a chief coast-guard to whom was entrusted 
the duty of providing for maritime defense, and afterwards 
a chief alcaide who was subdirector of the land forces. 

On the 1st of November, 1549, the growing city had its 
municipal council which registered the governor-general's 
commission and administered to him with due solemnity 
the requisite oath of office. 

Thom^de Souza, the fortunate, and deservedly fortunate, 
founder of the city of Bahia, and creator of the general 
government of the colony,had great difficulties to overcome; 
cautious but energetic, just and at times severe, honest 
and upright in his administration, he was neglectful of 

- 3^4 - 
nought save himself, and, in the execution of his duties^ 
braved unhesitatingly both toils and dangers. 

Imposing his authority upon the Indians, he v>on 
good-will by his kindness and by favors, and iutiiJ.i'Liioil 
them with the fear of the condign punishiuc:- v. liich 
transgressors suffered at his hands. A cannibal, i^. iii>iance, 
detected in the act of feeding on the bodyoi r- . ^etched 
Portuguese whom he had murdered, wa condi iuned to 
be blown to pieces at the cannon's mouth. 

He repressed the abuses and corruption of the secular 
clergy which in the captaincies had .spotted unchecked 
the purity and holiness of the religion it professed. 

Visiting the captaincies he regulated their administra- 
tion, strengthened the action of his superior authority in 
their borders and established therein the sway of law 
and justice. In that of Sao Viconte he raised to the rank 
of a town, on condition of establishing defensive works, 
the enterprising village of Santo Andr6 (afterwards fallen 
into decay) founded by John Ramalho and controlled by 
the influence of the fiery Mu/nelukes, his sons 

After so many and such arduous toils, Thom<J de Souza 
took his departure from Brazil in 1553. He left his name 
perpetuated here by his services, in the prosperous devel- 
opment and comparative wealth of the city of Sao Sal- 
vador, in the growth of the captaincies, in the adminis- 
trative order which he established and zealously main- 
tained, in the civilization which he had planted on Bra- 
zilian soil, and above all in the fame he had acquired 
of being a just, upright and disinterested magistrate and 
an honest man, worthy in every sense of the word. 

Thom6 de Souza, the fortunate founder of the general 
government of Brazil, was in this vast country the nour- 

— 385 — 

isher of civilization, the most ancient, the first and ablest 
administrative organizer, and the introducer of social or- 
der into the Portuguese possessions in America. 

ThomS de Souza is like a father; to his memory is due 
the utmost veneration of all Brazilians. 

YOL. I 49 



Antonio Carlos de Mariz e Barros was born in the city 
of Rio de Janeiro on the 7th of March, 1835. He was the 
legitimate son of Yice-Admiral Joaquim Josd Ignacio de 
Mariz e Barros and his wife D. Maria Jos6. His grand- 
father on the father's side was the second-lieutenant Josd 
Yictorino de Barros, and his maternal grandf ather was 
Captain Pedro Mariz de Souza Sarmento. 

Son and grandson to valiant and daring sailors, he was 
bom for the sea and received in the cradle the lofty ins- 
pirations which serve to constitute the hero. And a hero 
he showed himself, even in early childhood, in which he 
began to display courage, fortitude, generosity and elevat- 
ed and enthusiastic sentiments. 

Having finished his preparatory studies, he was admit- 
ted into the Naval School on the 14th of June, 1849. 

Being at that time fourteen years of age, he had already 
won admiration for the gallantry and skill which he had 
displayed while assisting in the extinction of fires in the 
capital of the Empire. 

The naval cadet of 1849 had become first-lieutenant 
in 1857. He commanded the hiate Parahybano, the 
gun-boat Campista, the steam corvettes Belmonte and 
Recife and afterwards the iron-clad Tamandare. 

He made two voyages to Europe, one to the Pacific, 
one to the Cape of Good Hope, one to the island of Trini- 
dade, and a voyage of instruction to the Upper Amazon, 
of which he presented an interesting report. 

He accompanied His Majesty the Emperor on his visit to 
the Northen Provincesof the Empire, and was decorated 
with the cross of the Imperial Order of the Rose. 

He assisted in saving a French barque that was in 
danger of being wrecked on the rocks oflf the fortress of 
Lage, and for this act was made Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. 

One day, while passing along the Itapuca beach near 
Nictheroy, he heard cries of distress, and on approaching 
the spot whence theyproceded beheld a negress struggling 
vainly with the waves. 

He immediately threw himself into the sea, dressed as 
he was, and succeeded in saving the life of the poor slave. 

Before there had occurred a circumstance which dis- 
played his courage as a naval officer. 

In command of the gun-boat Campista he was cruising 
ofif Ilha-Orande for the purpose of preventing the land- 
ing of Africans from vessels engaged in the slave trade. 
Seeing a vessel that was making off and which had a 
suspicious appearance, he gave orders to crowd on all 
sail and give chase. The Campista flew before the wind 

like a bird, but before coming up with the strange vessel 
the breeze slackened and was soon succeeded by a calm. 
Mariz e Barros did not hesitate a moment. 

— « Man the boats, * he cried, and the crew obey- 
ing, armed for boarding, rowed heartily towards the 
stranger. On reaching the latter, Mariz e Barros, who 
was in the foremost boat, gave orders for boarding, when 
the commanding officer of the stranger appearing on deck 
gave three lusty cheers which were repeated by his crew, 
at the same time running up the British colors. 

The strange ship was an English brig. 

Behold him finally in battle. He is before the fort of 
Paysandu, commanding a redoubt thrown up under his 
orders in the most appropriate position for bombarding the 
enemy, and the most exposed to their fire, and his brave 
men are falling fast around him. 

So close was his redoubt to the enemy's position that 
it was within range of their musketry. The soldiers of 
Leandro Gomez called Mariz e Barros the invulnerable. 

The bombardment lasted fifty-two hours until the fort, 
in which every house was converted into a fortress, was 
enclosed and taken and the green-and-gold banner, 
hoisted by Marcilio Bias, waved in triumph over the church 
tower of the place. 

At Paysandu heroism was displayed by many officers 
and soldiers ; but among them all it was Mariz e Barros 
who won by his deeds the glorious title of the Lion 
of the fray. Marcilio Dias, the Hercules who fought by the 
Lion's side, said of him with the rude simplicity of a sol- 
dier : 

— « The devil of a boy fights like a demon. > 

Mariz e Barros, commander of the express steamer 
dispatched to convey to Rio de Janeiro the news of the 

victory, was taken from on board and carried in tri- 
umph to the Merchant'sExchangeand to his father resi- 

The Emperor gave the hero the medal of Chevalier of 
the Order of the Crusador. 

At the close of the Uruguayan campaign, that of Par- 
aguay was begun. 

The first Brasilian iron-clad (built in a Brazilian dock ) 
received the name of Tamandari, an infallible incentive 
to a glorious career. Mariz e Barros was chosen to com- 
mand it, and gallantly set sail for the seat of war. 

Whether running the gauntlet of the Paraguayan forts 
and encampment at Passo da Patria on the River Parani, 
or sounding the river under a deadly fire of the enemy, 
Mariz e Barros performed prodigies of valor and daring 
maintaining through all dangers and exciting scenes an 
imperturbable calmness. 

On the 27th of March, 1866, the Paraguayan fort and 
flat-boats, having attempted to hinder the passage of the 
steamer Henrique Dias which had been sent on an ex- 
pedition up the Parani, the TamandarS and the Brazil 
opened on them a fire which lasted from 10 A. M. to 5 
P. M. The flat-boats were destroyed or sunk, and the fort 
was completely silenced. 

It was time to rest ; the steamers were retiring when 
a ball from the fort entering the porthole of the casemate 
in the bow of the Tamandar6, shattered the chains by 
which the latter was protected and, ricocheting along 
the wall of the casemate, wounded 34 persons. Mariz e 
Barros, unmoved in the thickest of the fight, now has- 
tens in distress to the spot, accompanied by his officers. 
Suddenly another ball, entering the same porthole, causes 
havoc in the group. 

-391 - 

Horrible sceoe ! Besides the poor soldiers and sailors 
slain, the brave Vassimon, the Purser Accioliand the Clerk 
Alpoim lie extended on the floor, horribly mutilated. 

The first-lieutenant Josd Ignacio da Silveira is still alive 
and able to speak, having lost an arm and a leg. 

Calm and serene, he recounts without a groan what had 
taken place to the Viscount of Tamandard who has at once 
sought the scene of disaster, and, finishing his sublime 
narrative, murmurs « fare well » and expires. 

From among mutilated bodies of the dead and dying 
Mariz e Barros is lifted, his leg shattered below the knee 
(which is also injured) and only hanging by the tendons. 
Severing this frail connection, Mariz e Barros casts aside 
the useless member, turning a smiling countenance to 
Councilor Francisco Octaviano de Almeida Rosa, Brazilian 
Minister Plenipotentiary, who being at that time with 
the squadron has accompanied the admiral to the spot 
where his country, draped in mourning, bewails the death 
and agony of her heroic sons. 

On the following day, in the cabin of the hospital-ship 
Onze de Jidho, Mariz e Barros, in the arms of the Viscount 
ofTamandard, with Councilor Octaviano in front and his 
friends and comrades gathered around him, endeavors to 
encourage them by his cheerful manner and, alluding to 
the surgeon, jestingly inquires : 

< Where is the man who takes the helm ? » 

It is necessary to amputate his leg above the knee. 

The surgeons appear and ofier him chloroform. 

He smiles and says : 

« I prefer a cigar. » 

Calmy and quietly he smokes it while the operation 

When this is finished he ceases to smile, and says with 
emotion, but without depression of spirits : 

« Tell my father that I have always honored his 
name. » 

His eyes close : he seems to sleep. 

It is March 28th, 1866, and the day is but twenty min- 
utes old. 

Antonio Carlos de Mariz e Barros — the Lion — ^has ceased 
to exist. 

•^TTCIX OF Tsa^A.:RCm. 

mt mm ribeiro dk abrkd uia 

In the beginning of the last quarter of the 18th cent- 
ury Jos6 Ignacio Ribeiro de Abreu Lima, legitimate son of 
Francisco Ignacio Ribeiro de Abreu Lima and D. Rosa Maria 
de Abreu Grades, was born in the city of Recife, in Pernam- 
buco, where he began the study of the humanities, display- 
ing remarkable intelligence and an independent and some- 
what adventurous spirit. 

He entered the Carmelite Order, but some time after- 
wards apostatized and left his native city. 

He spent several years in Europe, and underwent perse- 
cution in Goimbra, as may be inferred from a note in a slight 
biographical sketch among the manuscripts of General 
Abreu e Lima. He traveled through various countries, 
stopping at Rome, whence he returned to his native 

VOL. I 50 

— 394 — 

In Pernambuco he declared that he had obtained from 
the Pope his secularization and his appointment to holy 
orders. His son, General Abreu e Lima says that he was 
a Bachelor of Divinity and consecrated knight of the Order 
of Christ, the latter part of which statement agrees with 
that made in the work entitled « The Pernambuco Mar- 
tyrs. » 

In his travels through Europe, and particularly during 
his stay in Rome, Josd Ignacio completed the study of the 
humanities : he was well acquainted with Latin, under- 
stood Greek and several modern languages. As he had 
visited the eternal city, and was accustomed to speak of it, 
he was nicknamed « Padre Roma » (Father Rome). 

He professed ultra-liberal principles, and was not parti- 
cularly noted for his prudence. 

He practiced law in Pernambuco and was appointed crown 
lawyer of the ecclesiastical court. 

In the short and incomplete manuscript notes of General 
Abreu Lima we are told that JosS Ignacio, hearing of the 
intended coming of the Portuguese royal family to Brazil, 
assembled his friends and proposed to them that the Prince 
Regent D. John should not be received unless he prom- 
ised to grant the country a constitution ; a proposal which 
was not accepted. 

In 1817 Jos6 Ignacio took part in the republican revolu- 
tion which broke out in Pernambuco, and offered his services 
to go Alagoas and thence to Bahia for the purpose of for- 
warding the revolutionary movement in those two prov- 
inces. In the performance of this delicate and dangerous 
commission he was very successful in Alagoas. Availing 
himself of an opportunity which appeared suitable, he 
chartered a vessel at Macei6 and sailed for Bahia where 
existed a vast conspiracy whose purposes were of the same 

nature as those of the revolutionary movement in Pernam- 

He carried with him proclamations and letters implicat- 
ing various persons, but as if seized with a presentiment, he 
threw all these papers overboard. 

On landing he was arrested and carried to the city. 

Inexperienced and imprudent, he had taken no steps to 
hide his purpose and movements, and was not even dis- 
guised. The Count of Arcos, captain-general of Bahia, 
expected his arrival and easily effected his capture. 

He was tried by court-martial and condemned to be exe- 

He had been arrested on the night of March 26, and on 
the 29th he was shot on the grounds called Campo da 
Polvora, meeting death with courage and resignation. 

In his biograhical notes General Abreu Lima says that 
Father Josd Ignacio Ribeiro de Abreu Lima left many 
works, particularly in regard to agricultural improve- 
ments, and also a Commentary on the Statute Law of Por^ 
tugaly which Dr. Caldas, owner of the Larangeirasplan- 
tation, considered the best exposition of the laws of the 
country; but none of these works are now extant. 

:X^2^ OF ly^AUCH 


Even though this citizen had no other claim to distinc- 
tion, his glory would have been suflSciently established by 
the part which he took in the cabinet of Aug. 31, 1864, 
of which Councilor Francisco Jos6 Furtado was premier, 
a cabinet that improvised a navy and created an army 
of volunteers for the Paraguayan war. 

Joao Pedro Dias Vieira was born on the 30th of March, 
1820, in the town of GuimarSes. Neither from his father, 
Manoel Ignacio Yieira, a militia captain, nor from his 
mother, D. Dyonisia Maria Dias Vieira did he inherit 
wealth or station to obtain the political influence which he 
was destined to wield in his native province. 

In the capital of that province he went through the 
preparatory studies, entered the law-school of Olinda, and. 

— 398 — 
leaving it for that of S. Paulo, completed his edacation in 
1841, receiving the diploma of Bachelor of Laws. 

In 1842 he was appointed prosecuting attorney in the 
capital of his province, but, connecting himself with the 
liberal opposition in which some of his old friends and 
fellow students were in charge of the press, he shortly 
received his dismissal. He then opened a lawyer's office 
and continued to practice law for two years, being appoint- 
ed in 1846 prosecuting attorney of the judicial district of 

Elected several times to the provincial assembly of Ma- 
ranhao, he was noted for his moderation, and was dis- 
tinguished as an orator by an easy flow of language, clear- 
ness of expression, precision and skill in argument and a 
complete freedom from lofty flights of impassioned elo- 

In the capital of the province he acted provisionally as 
municipal judge, and from 1851 to 1855 exercised consider- 
able influence over the provincial administration. In 1852 
he was appointed solicitor of the provincial treasury, and 
two years later director-general of the provincial land- 
office. At the same time he served as professor of philosophy, 
rhetoric and geography in the Episcopal Seminary, a place 
which he resigned only after his election to the Sen- 

In 1855 he was appointed President of Amazonas which 
he governed till January 4th, 1857. 

By the election which was held in the last-named year 
he obtained a seat in the chamber of deputies, and in 1861 
was not only re-elected but also honored by his province 
with a place in the list of three names submitted to the 
Emperor for the selection of a Senator and was chosen by 
the Crown to represent his province in the Senate. 

Having been appointed vice-president of MaranhSo, in 
the absence of the president he was entrusted with the 
government, and during his administration displayed great 
interest in promoting the navigation of the rivers of the 
province, giving all lawful assistance to a company which 
shortly before had been formed for that purpose. In ac- 
knowledgment of the favors received, the company gave 
to one of its steamers the name of Bias Vieira, 

On the 15th of January, 1864, he was entrusted with 
the portfolio of Minister of the Navy in the cabinet organ- 
ized by Councilor Zacharias de G6es e Vasconcellos, 
exchanging it on the 15th of March for that of Foreign 
Affairs. At the head of this department he was called upon 
to maintain a prudent reserve in the midst of exciting dis- 
cussions in the Chamber, having not only to encounter the 
attacks of the Conservative opposition, but also to restrain 
the impetuosity of the bellicose faction of his own party 
which demanded prompt and energetic action against the 
Montevideo government. This government had treated 
with levity the serious complaints and demands for repar- 
ation made by Brazil on account of the insults and injus- 
tice suffered by its subjects; and now, when the latter, in 
order to make a last effort for peace, adopted the gener- 
ous, dignified and conciliatory expedient of sending Coun- 
cilor Saraiva on a special mission to Montevideo, its repre- 
sentations were met with the utmost neglect. 

On the 31st of August, 1864, the new ministry, organ- 
ized by the meritorious Councilor Furtado, assumed the 
reins of government, and a few days thereafter Dias 
Yieira, who had accompanied his colleagues, returned to 
his old position at the head of the department of foreign 

The conspicuous services performed by the Furtado min- 

- 400 — 

istry which found itself without an army, navy or mu- 
nitions of war, forced into a gigantic struggle in order to 
wipe out the insults offered to the country, will be for- 
ever engraved on the brighttsst pages of Brazilian history. 

Besides the ministry which guided the destinies of the 
country immediately after its declaration of independence 
there has been none more eminently patriotic than the 
Furtado ministry. 

In this cabinet Das Vieira performed thoroughly the 
duties imposed by patriotism. 

His services afterwards in the Naval Board were 
eulogized, and were certainly worthy of applause; but they 
are entirely eclipsed by the bright renown of the ministry 
of August 31, which in nine months improvised the army 
and navy which gained the victories of Paysandu, Uru- 
guayana, Riachuelo, Cuevas, Redempgdo Island or Vic- 
toria, Passo da Patria, and May 2d and May 24, 1866, 
which formed the first, essential and principal elements 
of the final grand triumph of the Empire in the Para- 
guayan war. 

JoSo Pedro Dias Vieira was only 50 years of age, when 
he died on the 36th of October, 1870. 

He had received the title of Councilor, was oflScer of 
the Imperial Order of the Rose, and Grand Cross of the 
Ernestine Order of the Ducal House of Saxe. 

To his widow, who was left in honorable poverty, the Im- 
perial Government granted a pension of one conto and two 
hundred milreis per annum on account of the consptci^us 
services rendered to the State by Councilor Jodo Pedro 
J>ias Vieira, 

M» tM <*» 

OF Isa^A-HOJcX. 





T^^e city of Alcantara in the province of MaranMo has 
^ad the fortune of being the birthplace of several il- 
lustrious Brazilians. It was there that was born on the 
25th of December, 1807, Joaquim Franco de SA, legitimate 
son of the militia colonel, Romualdo Antonio Franco de 
Si and D. Estella Francisca da Costa Ferreira. 

Up to the age of eighteen under the direction of his 
fraternal aunt, D. Anna Francisca de S&, he studied the 
primary and secondary branches of instruction and the 
art of music, of which he was a distinguished amateur. 
In 1826 he went to Lisbon and in 1828 was studying in 
the second form of the Coimbra law-school when a reaction 
of the absolutists forced him to return to Pernambuco, 
where in 1832 he received the diploma of Bachelor of 
Laws from the law-school in ' Olinda, having during his 

VOL. I 51 

- 402 — 
college life distinguished himself in his class by his intel- 
ligence and application, in society by his amiability, 
courtesy and musical talent, and in politics by his pa- 
triotism and courage in defending, in conjunction with 
some of his fellow students, the cause of social order 
against the assaults of armed anarchy and a licentious 

On August 16, 1833, he was appointed solicitor of the 
national sub-treasury in Maranhdo and worthily oc- 
cupied this office until Jan 2d of the following year when 
he began his judicial career as district judge in SEo Luiz. 
It fell to his lot to Initiate trial by jury in that district, 
and on this occasion he made a notable address on the 
importance of the institution. 

Thenceforward the public life of Joaquim Franco de 
Sa embraces three distinct spheres : the magistracy, par- 
liament and public administration. 

In December, 1836, he obtained his transfer to the 
district court of his native place, Alcantara, where as 
judge he rendered important services, systematizing the 
modes of procedure and the process of administering justice. 
By imperial decree of Jan. 14, 1851, he was promoted 
to a judgeship in the Superior Court of Maranhao, but 
was prevented by death from taking his seat. 

In 1841 he had entered parliament as vice-deputy for 
Maranhao in the General Assembly, after confirming in 
the provincial assembly of his province his reputation 
as an orator possessing weighty ideas and gifted with an 
easy flow of language. He was twice re-elected deputy and 
on the 31st of March, 1849, was chosen senator. In both 
chambers he took part in important debates, and distin- 
guished himself by the ease and grace of his elocution and 
the force and penetration of his arguments. 

— 403 — 

But on his administrative career rests his principal 
claim to distinction. Having been appointed vice-president 
of Maranhao, he was in 1837 required to perform during 
four months the duties of president, and for this space 
of time administered the affairs of the province with mod- 
eration, justice and freedom from party spirit. In so 
short a period it was of course impossible for him to 
devise and execute many improvements, but the plan for 
creating a company for the purpose of placing steamers 
on the Maranhao rivers gives evidence, in connection 
with other acts, to his administrative ability. In 1844 
in the midst of a period of violent party excitement 
caused by a heated electoral campaign he was president 
of Parahyba. Just and moderate, he soothed the polit- 
ical agitation, and, though depressed in spirit by the 
loss of his wife and obliged to be ever vigilant in main- 
taining order and in obviating the evil consequences of 
party strife, he still found time to systematize and sim- 
plify the public service, reforming and reorganizing the 
financial department and promulgating regulations in- 
tended to render the administration more efficient and 
less restrained in its action. 

This province also he governed only a few months. 

From Oct. 27, 1846, to April 1, 1848, he was president 
of Maranhao. He found the province still suffering from 
the devastating effects of the Cabanos insurrection and 
torn by bitter and almost ungovernable factions. Boldly 
and patriotically he declared that justice and progress 
should be the watchwords of his administration. He was 
supported by the Maranhdo Liberal League, a consider- 
able party formed of the dispersed fragments of others 
for the express purpose of sustaining him, and by the 
Progresso, the first daily paper published in the province, 

— 404 — 
which was edited by noted political and literary char- 

In the -.i eanwhile Franco de S4 reorganized the provincial 
administration, introduced into the budget the item of 
Public Works, created the respective bureau, improved 
the provincial revenue by means of system and economy, 
and causing taxes to be levied on articles exceptionally 
exempted, overcame the deficit and presented a surplus. 
In Alcantara he opened the Garvalho canal, and in 
1848, renewing his efibrts in behalf of the important 
enterprize, began the works of that of Aparahy. He 
encouraged agriculture, advocating untiringly the culture 
of cane and manufacture of sugar, which for some years 
had been almost entirely abandoned in the province. 

In less than two years he had given MaranhSio wealth, 
prosperity and order, and opened before it a brilliant 
prospect for the future. 

His administration ended on the 1st of April, 1848. 

Joaquim Franco de S4, Senator of the Empire and 
Judge of the Superior Court, died in the city of Rio de 
Janeiro on November 10, 1851. 

I O^F An^Hj 


This is the name of a poor and obscure French immigrant 
of whom no one had heard until 1826 and the date of whose 
arrival in Brazil is not known. 

Seignot Prancher, a man without wealth, without 
that brightness of intellect which often takes the place of 
instruction, without capacity to plan and to calculate for 
the future and even without claim to be considered a 
mechanic of ordinary skill or ingenuity, was merely an 
industrious workman, economical and resolute in the desire 
to gain a livelihood by making the most of his labor. 

This poor and obscure Frenchman succeeded, God only 
knows by means of what sacrifices and in spite of what 
obstacles, in establishing an insignificant printing office in 
an unsightly building on the Rua dos Ourives, and had the 
good fortune to publish in his small establishment one of 

— 406 - 
the oldest, and certainly the largest and most widespread 
edition of the Brazilian Constitution, adopted on the 25th 
of March, 1824. 

Seignot Prancher was neither constitutional nor anti- 
constitutional in his views ; he printed the Constitution 
as a commercial speculation, counting on a rapid and 
extensive sale of the publication. It was to him merely a 
partial means of livelihood, and in those days there was 
little printing to do and consequently very little to be made 
out of it. 

But Seignot Prancher was visited by a brilliant idea 
whose extent and future development his feeble intellect 
evidently failed to comprehend. 

It occurred to him that the merchants of Rio de Janeiro 
would take an interest in the announcement of vessels 
arrived and cleared, and in advertisements relating to 
auctions and other branches of trade. 

Selecting a source of revenue supposed to be of little 
value, but in any case, although a doubtful hope, still a 
resource not to be neglected by one struggling with 
laborious poverty, the obscure and unlettered Seignot 
Prancher published on the 1st of April, 1826, the first 
number of the Jomal do Commercio of Rio de Janeiro. 

Without even being a dailj/y badly printed on coarse 
wrapping-paper, containing only two sides of printed 
matter on a half-sheet of paper, embracing an account of 
the movemont of the port and some other ordinary news 
items, all, however, of interest to the trade — it was thus 
that on the 1st of April, 1826, the JorncU do Commercio 
made its first appearance in the world. 

It was thus that Seignot Plancher, without compre- 
hending the value of his undertaking whose importance he 
was never-able to realize, laid the foundation of the paper 

~ 407 — 
which was destined shortly to hecomo the most, imporiant, 
the most widely circulated, and the wealthiest representa- 
tive of the daily press of Brazil. 

The trade of Rio de Janeiro gave a cordial reception to 
the half-sheet of wrapping-paper which Seignot Plancher 
oflTered it. 

The most imperfect trade journal was the best, because it 
was the only one. 

'Seignot Plancher saw his work progress. He explored 
the mine of advertisements of runaway slaves and of slaves 
for sale, afterwards that of houses to rent, and finally 
everything that appealed to the material interests of 
the people. He even went so far sometimes as to publish an 
account of the principal political events of Europe. 

The Jornal do Commercio grew into a four-paged daily, 
the number of its subscribers increased and its typographic 
appearance improved. On the 9th of June, 1832, Seignot 
Plancher sold his paper and printing-office to Junius Ville- 
neuve and Maugenol for 52:664$000. 

In six years the Jornal do Commercio had given Seignot 
Plancher a fortune which satisfied his ambition and which 
he shortly afterwards went to France to enjoy. 

Yet in 1832 the Jornal do Commercio was but in its 
Im. fancy, and was very far from that prosperous position 
which it has since attained. 

Seignot Plancher was industrious and diligent, but he 
had neither the education nor the intellect to build up his 
paper into a journal worthy of the capital of a civilized 
nation. Nevertheless his name must be mentioned with 
interest, for it belongs to the history of Brazilian jour- 

n OF -A-raiL 



Antonio Nunes de Serqueira, as weare informed b 
Balthazar da Silva Lisboa, was a native of Rio de Janeiro, 
and was born on the 2d of April, 1701. Having studied the 
humanities, he devoted himself to the priesthood and took 
orders in his native city. 

He was noted for his talent and his lively imagination as 
well as for his integrity and exemplary deportment. 

He was an enlightened priest and a profound philosopher 
and theologian. The honors of padre-mestre were con- 
ferred on him, and he was rector of the Seminary of S. 

He cultivated music and poetry with enthusiasm, and it 
is said with much success. 

He was noted for skill in the organization of choirs and 
for his musical compositions which are said to possess more 

VOL. I 52 

— 410 — 
than ordinary merit. There is no doubt of his having been 
oflScially employed in composing sacred mnsic. 

He was member of the «Academia dos Selectos,» and 
some of his verses were , in 1754, admitted into the collection 
of that establishment. 

Balthazar da Silva Lisboa says that some of these musi- 
cal and poetical compositions have been printed. 



Legitimate son of Jos6 Francisco de Figueiredo and Feli- 
ciana Maria da ConceigSo, Antonio, who afterwards took the 
name of Santa Gertrudes, was born in the city of Rio de 
Janeiro, where he also studied, displaying no little talent. 

On the 2d of July, 1804, he took the vow in the Carme- 
lite Order and in the course of time grew to be one of its 
most distinguished members. 

He was a consummate theologian and so studious that it 
used to be said of him that he carried a library in his head. 

He was well acquainted with both sacred and profane 
literature, and was a man of profound erudition. He was 
justly considered an able and eloquent preacher at a time 
when Rio de Janeiro was noted for its distinguished pulpit 

— 412 - 

He was a provincial of his Order and lu^s been greatly 
eulogized for his zeal and discretion. 

He was an untiring preacher, and, like S. Carlos, S. Paio 
and many others, left a large number of manuscript ser- 
mons to be destroyed by neglect or despoiled by plagiarists. 

He published some of discourses, but most of these have 
been lost. 

One of his sermons which has been most eulogized is 
that which he delivered in the chapel of the Carmelite Or- 
der on the 3d of April, 1826, on the return of the Emperor 
D. Pedro I from Bahia to the city of Rio de Janeiro. 

IV OF A.i>:RrL, 


Jos6 Lino Coutinho was born in the province of Bahia in 
the latter part of the eighteenth century. 

After studying the humanities in the city of S. Salvador, 
he went to Portugal, where he graduated as a physician in 
the Coimbra University. On his return to his native land he 
began the practice of medicine occupying his spare mo- 
ments in literary labors connected with his profession. 

In 1816 he published in Bahia a quarto volume compris- 
ing a translation from the French of Cabanis' Observa- 
tions on the Catarrhal Diseases. 

He also wrote an interesting treatise which he entitled 
Medical Topography of Bahia, and presented it to the 
Royal Academy of Science in Lisbon, which conferred on 
him a fellowship. This treatise was published in Bahia 
in 1832. 

— 4U — 

Lino Coutinho abandoned medicine for politics. He was 
not only a man of great learning, but also one possessing 
few equals for an agreeable and insinuating address. Good, 
disinterested, plain, cheerful and witty, easy to approach, 
and of the strictest integrity, Lino Coutinho was generally 
esteemed and extremely popular. 

In 1821 he was elected deputy for Bahia to the Portu- 
guese constituint assembly. He accepted the honorable 
mandate, and, in that celebrated assemblage distinguished 
himself, in conjunction with Antonio Carlos, Feij6 and 
Barata, for his energetic defense of Brazil. With the above- 
named deputies and two others he secretly embarked for 
Falmouth and on his arrival signed with them the famous 
manifesto of Oct. 22, 1822. 

Having remained in England, he was not elected to the 
Brazilian constituent assembly in 1823; but he represented 
Bahia in the chamber of deputies during the first and 
second ordinary legislatures. 

An ardent liberal, he was constantly in opposition during 
the reign of D. Pedro I. His seat in the chamber was in front 
of the President's table and near the seat of Vasconcellos. 
He spoke nearly every day, and though he was inferior to 
Vasconcellos and some other deputies both in the depth of 
his ideas and in the weight of his arguments, still he was a 
terrible adversary to the government. His agreable voice 
and fluent speech secured him a hearing, and his subtile 
spirit, fertile in epigrams, in irony and often in sharp sar- 
casm, carried with him the assembly and inflicted cruel tor- 
tures on the ministers and their adherents. 

On account of the pleasure with which he was listened 
to by the spectators. Lino Coutinho was called the deptUy 
of the galleries. 

In 1831, after the abdication of D. Pedro I, Lino Coutinho 

— 415 - 
was entrusted with the department of the Empire in the 
first ministry formed under the permanent regency. Among 
his colleagues in this ministry, which was organized on 
thel6thof July, 1831, were his friends Vasconcellos and 
the priest Feij6, the firm and energetic minister of justice. 
In this celebrated and glorious cabinet which maintained 
public order and saved the capital of the Empire from the 
most horrible dangers, Lino Coutinho served until April 4, 

This ministry assumed the reins of government under the 
most trying circumstances. The provinces were writhing in 
the convulsions of anarchy and disorder. In the capital of 
the Empire, under the very eyes of the government, the 
troops were mutinous and ungovernable, and in October, 
1831, on the island of Cobras broke out into open revolt. 
Conspiracies and mutinies became frequent, and the 3d and 
17th of April, 1832, were marked by the effusion of blood. 
Every day brought fresh anxieties, every hour threatened 
new dangers and gave additional cause for the already 
constant apprehensions and disquietude. Such were the 
deligths of power which the ministry was called upon to 
enjoy. But with undaunted fortitude and unflinching pa- 
riotism did the worthy citizens who composed it bear the. 
burdens imposed upon them by their duty to their countryt 

But during these twelve months of storms and perils, 
harassed by all these annoyances heightened and multi- 
plied by the atrocious inventions of calumny, passing nights 
of unrest in anticipation of the events of the following day, 
Jos6 Lino Coutinho found sufficient time and calmness of 
spirit to undertake, prepare and promulgate the import- 
ant regulations for reforming the Medical Colleges in the 
Empire and the Academy of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro. 

It was against his will and only in obedience to the call 

— 416 — 

of his country, beset by a thousand dangers, that he consent- 
ed to accept a minister's portfolio. He was sought for this 
purpose at his small and modest dwelling on the Travessa 
do Pago, where he continued to reside after becoming min- 
ister, for he was poor and continued to live in the same 
unpretending style as before his elevation to a place in the 
cabinet. He kept no carriage and no orderlies, and never 
wore a laced coat ; but, attired in the plain dress of an or- 
dinary citizen, he went on foot to and from his department 
and the Chambers. He used his position as minister not for 
making a vain display, but for rendering his country serv- 
ices which national gratitude will not allow to be for- 

Leaving the government on July, 30 1832, Dr. Jos^Lino 
Coutinho little by little and almost imperceptibly disap- 
peared from the political arena. 

He was tormented by sufferings which became every day 
more and more aggravated. His medical knowledge could 
not overcome his excessive fondness for Bahia cookery 
which abounds in exciting stimulants. Inflammation of the 
stomach and of the intestines finally put an end to his life. 
Dr. Jos6 Lino Coutinho died in the city of Bahia either in 
1834 or in 1835. 

In 1849 was published his posthumous work entitled— 
Letters on the education of Cora, followed by a ynoral, 
political and religious catechism. 

Dr. Jos6 Lino Coutinho was a distinguished patriot and 
a man of the .strictest integrity. 



When in consequence of the war begun in 1816 the Por- 
tuguese troops occupied Uruguay, among them was Major 
Francisco de Paula de AvellarCabrita, accompanied by his 
wife D. Apollonia de Willagran Cabrita. Hence it hap- 
pened that the son of this couple, JoSo Carlos de Willagran 
Cabrita was born in the city of Montevideo. His birthday 
was December 30, 1820. 

' On January 13, 1840, he enlisted as a volunteer in the 
1st batallion of mounted artillery in Rio de Janeiro. On the 
5th of the following month he was recognized as a cadet, 
and on March 1st, admitted into the Military School. 

On the 2d of December, 1842, he was appointed ensign on 
account of his high standing in his class, and on the 16th of 
January, 1847, he received from his school the diploma of 
bachelor of mathematics and physical sciences. 

In 1851, when in service in the province of S. Pedro do 
▼OL. 1 53 

-. 418 - 

Rio Grande do Sul, he received orders to set out for Para- 
guay for the purpose of serving there as drillmaster of ar- 
tillery, little supposing the Brazilian Government that it 
was thus arming and disciplining a future enemy. 

('abrita was eulogized for the zeal with which he exe- 
cuted this and other commissions. 

In 1862 he had already been promoted, on account of 
meritorious services, to the rank of Major. 

The Paraguayan war broke out. Gabrita hastened to the 
theatre of action, and was at Corrientes in 1866 when he 
received the news of his promotion to a lieutenant- 

In the river Parand, opposite the Paraguayan fort of 
Itapirii, lies the island known by the name of Redempgao, 
an important strategic point not only on account of pro- 
tecting the passage of an invading army, but also on account 
of the shelter afforded by its coves to the Paraguayan flat- 

The valiant Brazilian general. Baron, now Marquis of 
Herval, resolved to take possession of this island. 

On the night between April 5th and 6th the bold and 
skillful Lieut. -Col. Gabrita surprised and captured the is- 
land, hoisting the gold-and-green banner which during 
throe days waved in triumph amid a storm of shot and 
shell from the fort of Itapirii. During the Paraguayan 
war the Brazilian troops never lost a position taken from 
the enemy. 

On the night between the 9th and 10th of April the 
Paraguayans, with a comparatively large force, attacked 
the island. The Dictator, Lopes, wished at all hazards to 
regain the position. 

His valiant and savage hosts silently disembark from 
the flat-boats, and advance in orderly array. But they 

- 419 - 
are seen by the boy-hero, Torres, who gives the signal 
of alarm, for which he pays with his life. With a shout 
of rage they throw themselves like tigers on the enemy. 
A terrible conflict is begun, its horrors heightened by the 
surrounding darkness. 

Gabrita distinguishes himself by his gallantry and cool- 
ness. He not only withstands the assailants, but drives 
them before him and hurls them back to the beach. 

The sun of the 10th of April rises in splendor on the 
field of battle and discloses the broken remnants of the 
Paraguayan force embarking in haste and confusion in 
their boats. On these remnants the gun-boat Henrique 
Dias opens fire and completes the work of their almost 
entire annihilation. 

The intrepid Cabrita covered with laurels, but pant- 
ing with fatigue, allows himself no rest. After seeing 
to the wounded and prisoners, he entered a chalana, 
accompanied by Major Sampaio, Lieutenant Gunha and 
Ensign Woolf, and proceeds to draw up his official account 
of the action. 

It was a lamentable error of soldiers and officers of 
every grade in this war in which all vied with each 
other in acts of heroism, to be too careless in exposing 
themselves to the enemy's fire even when honor and duty 
did not demand it. 

As Cabrita was writing, a shell exploded in the midst of 
the group which surrounded him, killing the hero and 
victor, and also his brave companions in glory and triumph. 

The captured island received at first the name of Gabri- 
ta, and afterwards that of Victory. 

In other words the name remained unchanged; for 
Cabrita and Victory are synonymous terms. 

i .M i i min i i ^ i i 

vi or Ajpnjx^ 


Jose Ignacio de Abreu Lima, son of Father Jos^ 
Ignacio Ribeiro de Abreu Lima, was born in Pernam- 
buco on the 6th of April, 1796. 

After having studied Latin, philosophy, rhetoric, French 
and English, he began in 1811, still in Olinda, the study 
of regimental artillery tactics, taking at the same time 
lessons in literature from his father who taught him the 
first principles of Greek. 

In February, 1812, he embarked for Rio de Janeiro, 
and in this city was admitted into the first form of the 
Royal Military Academy, completing his artillery stud- 
ies in 1816, and obtaining every year a prize in the 
class of mathematics. 

He was appointed captain of artillery and regimental 

— 422 — 

He arrived in Pernambuco in December of the same 
year, and soon afterwards he was charged with the 
crimes of disorderly conduct, assault and battery, and 
resistance to lawful authority, and was indicted by the 
Olinda judge, Antonio Carlos de Andrada Machado e 

He was arrested, and appealing from the sentence of 
indictment, he accompanied his suit to Bahia, where on 
his arrival in the beginning of February, 1817, he was 
imprisoned by order of the Count of Arcos in the for- 
tress of S. Pedro. He was still there, when his father 
arrived as emissary of the revolutionary government of 
the Pernambuco republicans, and, on landing near Bahia 
on March 26, fell into the hands of the forewarned and 
expectant authorities. 

On March 28, at the latter's request, they were per- 
mitted to see each other in prison, and on the follow- 
ing day the father was shot. 

After this horrible and trying event he remained 
several months in prison with his brother and other pris- 
oners who had arrived from Pernambuco. The two 
brothers were released in October, and being aided by the 
Freemasons to the amount of one hundred dollars, em- 
barked for the United States of North America, where 
they arrived in February, 1818. 

In some brief autobiographical notes Abreu Lima com- 
plains that the Pernambuco revolutionary commissioner, 
who had been sent to the United States with a consider- 
able sum of money, refused to render them the slightest 

In April, 1818, they set out for the island of St. 
Thomas, and Captain Abreu Lima, leaving his brother as 
clerk in a commercial establishment in Porto Rico, sue* 

- 423 — 

ceeded, after great difficulties and much adverse fortune, 
in reaching Augustura, seat of the Republican govern- 
ment of Venezuela. This was in November of 1818, 
when Gen. Bolivar had just returned from his unfor- 
tunate Caracas compaign. 

Abreu was admitted into the service of Venezuela 
with the rank of captain of artillery and was assigned 
to duty on the staff of the commanding general. 

His military life, his martial deeds and his brilliant 
services in the war for the independence of this part of 
America form a long and glorious record. 

Abreu Lima greatly distinguished himself in various 
battles and skirmishes, in military enterprises involving 
great risk and important results, and in commissions re- 
quiring tact and discretion. He held important offices, such 
at that of Secretary-General to General Soublette, Vice- 
President of the Augustura government, to whom he 
was also aide-de-camp. He used his position to assist his 
countrymen in misfortune. Among those to whom his 
protection was extended were two implicated in the Per- 
nambuco revolution of 1817, and another, the unfortun- 
ate Jos^ da Natividade Saldanha, a Pernambuco revo- 
lutionist who, having been condemned to death in 1824 
and having made his escape, was obliged to endure the 
most painful and trying hardships in foreign countries. 

He was sent on diplomatic missions to the United 
States, was honored with the title of Liberator of New 
Grenada, and belonged to the military order of Libera- 
tors of Venezuela. 

On the death of General Bolivar in 1830, Abreu Lima 
obtained from his government leave to absent himself from 
Columbia. He went to the United States and from there 
to Europe, visiting the capitals of several countries and 

— 424 — 
remaining for some time in Paris, whence he came to Rio 
de Janeiro in 1832. 

The Chambers passed a resolution restoring him to the 
rights of citizenship, recognizing his rank as general and 
permitting him to make use of all the honors and decor- 
ations which had been conferred upon him for the serv- 
ices he had rendered in the war in which he had taken 
part in defense of the freedom of the ex-colonies of Spain 
in South America. 

In 1833 he united himself in Rio de Janeiro to the Ga- 
ramuru, or restoration party, and entered into a heatpd 
and lively newspaper war with Bvaristo Ferreira da 
Veiga. His principal occupation, however, was the study 
of national history. 

In 1836 he published, in opposition to the government 
of the regent Feijd, a paper entitled the Raio de Jupiter 
which advocated the conferring of the regency on the 
Princess Januaria. 

He had already written the year before for the Men- 
sageiro NictJieroyense, and in 1840 he wrote for the Maio- 

In 1844 he left Rio de Janeiro for Pernambuco, where 
in 1848 he published a paper called the Barca deS. Pedro 
and wrote for the Diario Novo, organ of the Liberal party 
from 1844 to 1848, when the Praieiro insurrection took 
place. He always defended the principles of the Liberal 
or, as it was then called in Pernambuco, the Praieiro 

In 1867 he began to write for the newspapers in de- 
fense of civil marriage, which gave rise to a warm dis- 
cussion which, far from causing him to draw back, was 
by him vigorously maintained. 

This illustrious Brazilian di«l in Recife in the province 

— 425 — 

of Pemambuco in 1869, and, on account of his opinions in 
regard to civil marriage, which he refused to recant in 
obedience to the injunctions of the church authorities, 
his body was denied sepulture in holy ground, a circum- 
stance which came near giving rise to serious disturbances 
in the city of Recife. 

VOL. I 54 



The town, afterwards city of Santos, which gave birth 
to the Gusmans and to the Viscount of Sao Leopoldo, was 
also the birthplace of the Andradas. 

In that place on June 13, 1763, was born Jos6 Bonifacio 
de Andrada e Silva, legitimate son of Col. Bonifacio Jose 
de Andrada and D. Maria Barbara da Silva. 

Having finished in Santos his primary studies and com- 
menced the study of Latin, at the age of fourteen he 
went to S. Paulo where he studied philosophy and rhe- 
toric as well as belles-lettres and the modern languages. 

In three years he had made extraordinary progress. 
The bishop. Friar Manoel da Ressurrei^ao, earnestly man- 
ifested his desire for him to take orders, but neither the 
student nor his family was willing to have that wish 

— 428 — 

At the age of seventeen Jos6 Bonifacio left S. Paulo 
and came to Rio de Janeiro, whence after a short delay 
he proceeded to Coimbra, being there admitted as a student 
into the law and natural philosophy branches of the Uni- 
versity, in both of which he graduated and took the degree 
of bachelor. 

In Coimbra Jos6 Bonifacio soon established a reputa- 
tion for possessing an intellect above the ordinary level. 
At the same time he distinguished himself in scientific 
studies, and especially in natural philosophy. He attained 
vast literary acquirements, and cultivated successfully 
the poetical art for which he had natural talent. In the 
midst of all his employments he still found time not only 
to indulge in the amusements suitable to his age, but 
also to write dissertations, some of which related the slaves 
and Indians in Brazil. 

From Coimbra he went to Lisbon seeking literary 
employment. His reputation was such that through the 
influence of the Duke of Lefdes he was admitted as a fellow 
of the General Academy of Sciences, which received from 
him besides other works a notable essay on whale fisher- 
ies, on the best process of preparing the oil and on the 
advantages to be derived by the government from encour- 
aging and protecting the immense fisheries that could be 
established on the Brazilian coast. This work was print- 
ed in the Academy's collection of essays. 

On the recommendation of this learned society Jos4 Bo- 
nifacio was selected to travel as naturalist and metal- 

In June, 1790, this ^aran* of 27 years of age left Por- 
tugal. His first care was to imbibe the lessons of Werner, 
Jussieu, Lavoisier and others, and then proceeded to study 
science in Nature's own book and to examine the metal- 

— 429 — 
lurgical establishments in every State in Europe and the 
different processes employed in the study and application 
of the principles of natural philosophy. He visited France, 
Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Hungary, Bohemia, 
Sweden, Norway, and lastly a part of Turkey, spending 
10 years and three months in these travels and writing in 
the mean time various valuable essays. 

In Paris he read before the Society of Natural History 
a scientific and historical account of the discovery and 
characteristics of the Brazilian diamonds, for which he 
was honored with a membership of the society, his work 
being published in the Annals of Chemistry of Fourcroy. 

In a letter first published in German and addressed to 
the Engineer Beyer, Director of the Schneeburg mines, he 
gave a brief description of the peculiar characteristics of 
12 new minerals which he had discovered in Sweden and 

This letter, which was alone enough to immortalize 
its author, was translated and published in the French 
and English scientific journals. 

He also published other works in regard to his obser- 
vations on the Scandinavian peninsula, and wrote a 
valuable essay on the Salha mines, which was published 
in German in the Freiberg Mining Gazette. 

The Stockholm Royal Academy of Sciences conferred a 
fellowship on Jos6 Bonifacio. 

In 1794, traveling through Italy, he wrote an essay 
which he entitled «Geognostic Excursion to the Eugan- 
ian Mountains in the Territory of Padua, » which was 
printed 18 years afterwards (1812) after being read before 
the Lisbon Academy of Sciences. 

Besides other labors of less importance, he wrote a 

— 430 — 

work on the electric fluid, which may be found in the 
Fourcroy Annals of Chemistry. 

This pilgrim of science devoted himself at the same 
time to the study of literature and cultivated poetry as 
a sweet solace for his labors. 

Id. September, 1800, he returned to Portugal, carrying 
\sith him a European celebrity. 

Proud of the savant, the Portuguese government ap- 
pointed him Intendant-General of Minas, created and 
conferred on him a professorship of geognosy and metal- 
lurgy in the Coimbra University, and appointed him puisne 
judge of the Opporto Superior Court. 

The Scientific Faculty honored him with the degree of 
Doctor of Natural Philosophy. 

In the same year he made a mineralogical excursion 
in the province of Estremadura, going as far as Coimbra, 
and wrote an account of this trip, which in 1812 was 
read before the Lisbon Academy of Sciences. 

Charged with canalizing the Mondego and with bringing 
under vegetation the sand-beds on the Portuguese coast, 
Jos6 Bonifacio seems to have acquired the gift of ubiquity 
in executing these commissions and in performing his judi- 
cial, administrative and professorial duties. 

In 1807 the invasion of Portugal by the French dis- 
turbed his scientific occupations, which he temporarily 
abandoned in order to meet the more pressing claims of 

Flattered and praised by the French generals on ac- 
count of his scientific celebrity, Jos6 Bonifacio did not 
allow himself to be won over ; but on the first rising of 
the Portuguese he was at his post of honor and sent 
arms and gun-makers to the assistance of the patriots. 
He served as Major and afterwards as Lieutenant- 

— 431 — 

Colonel of the Students' Battalion and fought with valor 
and intrepidity against the invading eagles of France, 
and for the cause of honor and Portugue e indepen- 

After the expulsion of the French, he was appointed 
police intendant of Opporto, and performed the duties of 
his office with zeal and prudence. It fell to his lot to 
save the lives of a number of persons who, suspected of 
having been friendly to the French, were in danger of 
becoming victims to the reactionary fury. 

Returning to his scientific labors, Jos6 Bonifacio, who 
in 1812 had been unanimously elected Permanent Secre- 
tary of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences, laid before it 
some notable works, among which were treatises on the 
following subjects : — the stone coal of Portugal ; the 
advantages in planting new forests in Portugal, and the 
Prince Regent gold mine on the opposite side of the 

He had then labored for a long time and was longing 
for his native land from which he had been absent for 
thirty-nine years. In 1819, obtaining the permission of 
the government, he returned to Brazil. 

Arriving at Rio de Janeiro, he refused all ofiers of 
employment made to him by the government, and, when 
he took leave of King John VI, refused to accede to the 
monarch's request that he would at least accept the 
place of Director of the University which the govern- 
ment proposed founding in Brazil, asking for time to 
consider and promising to give his answer after reaching 

As a recompense for his valuable services Jos6 Boni- 
facio was honored with the title of Councilor and the 
Cross of the Order of Christ. 


Returning to his native land, he lived in retirement 
at his place called Outeirinhos, where he employed him- 
self in arranging his manuscripts and in classifying his 
precious collection of minerals, of plants and of medals 
which he had brought from Europe. 

In 1820 Councilor Jos6 Bonifacio, accompanied by his 
brother, Martim Francisco, made a journey through part 
of the province of S. Paulo for the purpose of exploring 
auriferous lands. 

A valuable report of their investigations was published 
in the Journal des Mines, containing information not only 
in regard to the precious metal which was the principal 
object of their studies, but also in regard to rich mines of 
iron and other minerals. 

The Portuguese revolution broke out in 1820, and in the 
following year the Brazilian provinces declared themselves 
in favor of the revolutionary party. A provincial committee 
was organized in S. Paulo, and the learned Councilor Jos6 
Bonifacio was chosen vice-president. 

The Portuguese Cfirtes, in pursuance of the fatal policy 
they had adopted in regard to Brazil, abolished its courts of 
justice, revoked the legislative measures that had united 
the provinces and raised the union to the rank of a king- 
dom, and finally decreed the recall of the Prince D. Pedro, 
whom the king had left as regent of Brazil. 

The Brazilians retaliated, and Jose Bonifacio, responsive 
to the call of the Rio de Janeiro patriots, assembled, at 11 
o'clock on the night of December 24, 1821, the provincial 
committee and caused it to pass a resolution asking Prince 
D. Pedro to remain in Brazil. 

In Rio de Janeiro the people had signed a petition con- 
taining the same request, which on the 9th of January, 
1822, was laid before the Prince by the Senate. 

— 438 — 

D. Pedro passes the Rubicon, declaring his resolution to 
remain in Brazil. 

On January 11, the Portuguese garrison mutinies, but 
capitulates on the following day, and is sent to Praia 
Grande to await the preparation of vessels to convey the 
soldiers to Portugal. 

Jose Bonifacio arrives from S. Paulo at the head of a depu- 
tation chosen to persuade the Prince Regent to remain in 
Brazil. On January 16 he is appointed home secretary and 
minister of foreign affairs. 

From this day to October 12, 1822, the hii^tory of Jos6 
Bonifacio is the history of the Brazilian Revolution and of 
D. Pedro Fs acclamation as Constitutional Emperor and Per- 
petual Defender of Brazil. 

Jos6 Bonifacio had able and meritorious assistants ; he it 
was, though, that acted as mentor to the young and inex- 
perienced Prince, and his was the ruling intellect that 
directed the course of events. 

On the 28th of October, 1822, the Andradas ministry 
(Martim Francisco belonged to it as well as Jos6 Bonifacio) 
was dismissed. The young Emperor yields to the demand 
of the people expressed in a public and somewhat riotous 
demonstration. Two days afterwards the Andradas are re- 
called on certain extraordinary conditions which are exe- 
cuted in the deportation of several political celebrities who 
had rendered valuable assistance to the cause of indepen- 
dence, and among whom are Ledo, Januario da Gunha 
Barboza and Jos6 Clemente. 

The Andradas ministry infused life and activity into the 
war for independence, and succeeded in 1823 in completing 
the work of uniting the provinces in one great Empire. 

The members of the constituint assembly labored, without 
Yoi:.. I 55 

— 434 — 

party ties, in the work of framing the Constitution of the 

The Andradas ministry continued during 1823 to display 
an anti-Portuguese spirit, and a bill attributed to its in- 
fluence was introduced into the Assembly containing clauses 
of an excessively violent nature. It was rejected, and sev- 
eral weeks thereafter, on July 17, the Andradas were 

The new administration fell into the opposite error, and 
the suspicions of the Brazilians were excited. There was 
supposed to be a plot for giving the Portuguese element a 
preponderating influence in the afi*airs of the country. 

The excitement spread. A Brazilian who had suffered 
violence at the hands of Portuguese officers complained to 
the const ituint assembly. A violent discussion followed, 
and the Andradas warmly defended the Brazilian cause. 

In this threatening state of affairs the Emperor dissolved 
the Assembly. This occurred on the 12th of November, 1823. 
As thoy were leaving the assembly building two of the An- 
drada brothers (Antonio Carlos and Martim Francisco) and 
three other deputies (Rocha, Montezuma and Belchior Pi- 
nheiro) were arrested. Jos6 Bonifacio was arrested at his 
house. A few days afterwards all these deputies were de- 

This was a grave political blunder for which D. Pedro I 
paid dearly and which caused a permanent breach between 
him and the Liberal party. 

Jos6 Bonifacio accepted the decree of banishment in a 
calm and philosophic spirit. 

While in the constituint assembly he had drawn up two 
important documents, one relating to slavery and the other 
to civilizing the Indians. At Bordeaux, where he resided 
during his exile, he published the former as well as a book 

— 435 — 

of poetry entitled « Poems of Araerico Elysio, » one of the 
most precious of Brazilian literary treasures. 

In 1829 Jos6 Bonifacio returned to Brazil, saddened by 
the recent death of his wife. He was well received by 
1). Pedro I, but, old and weary of political strife, he lived 
a retired life on the small and beautiful island of Paqueta. 

On the 7th of April, 1831, the Emperor D. Pedro I, 
not willing to yield to the demand made by the peo- 
ple and troops for the dismissal of the unpopular minis- 
try organized on the 5th, abdicated his throne and appoint- 
ed the staunch old patriot Jos6 Bonifacio, the man 
whom he had exiled in 1823, as guardian to D. Pedro 
II and to the Imperial princesses. 

The chamber of deputies considered the appointment 
illegal and refused to recognize it. Objecting only to the 
act and not to he appointee, it elected the same guar- 
dian, Jose Bonifacio, who protested a gainst this act of the 
legislative power and defended the rights of the ex-Emperor 
and of his wards. 

Jose Bonifacio was for a short time a vice-deputy in 
the Chamber. He was never, however, a parliamentary 
orator, and the Chamber was not a suitable field for the 
display of his talents and learning. 

In 1832 the Cara/nunt, or restoration party, began 1o 
be organized and to conspire against the government. 
Jose Bonifacio was mixed up in these intrigues and was 
suspected of aiding and abetting that party. 

After having been defeated on the battle-field, the 
Caramurus again conspired in 1833. 

The moderate Liberals who were then in power un- 
doubtedly precipitated events and purposely hastened the 
crisis which was imminent, causing the capital to be the 
scene of reprehensible, abusive and unpunished disorders 

— 436 — 

to which members of the restoration party were victims 
on the nights of Dec. 2 and 5. 

Public order being thus threatened and the city filled 
with sinister apprehensions, the government availed itself 
of the opportunity to adopt extra-legal measures, and on 
Dec. 15 caused Councilor Jos6 Bonifacio to be arrested 
in the Boa Vista palace and sent in custody to the 
island of PaquetA, suspending him at the same time from 
the guardianship of his Imperial wards and appointing 
the Marquis of Itanhaem in his place. 

It is unnecessary to observe that in the session of 1834 
the chamber of deputies approved and applauded all the 
arbitrary measures of the government. 

Jos6 Bonifacio undoubtedly suffered no little in conse- 
quence of this violent and dictatorial act of the govern- 
ment. He underwent personal restraint and was proba- 
bly placed under espionage for some months on the 
island of Paqueti; but otherwise he was not subjected to 
any persecution or annoyance, and the government made 
no effort to prevent his acquittal in the trial which was 
a necessary consequence of his arrest. 

The object of the regency was to remove the Emperor 
from his control, and, having accomplished its purpose, 
it was satisfied. 

The stoicism of the venerable sage did not fail him in 
the hour of adversity. 

When he was carried off in custody, his face wore an 
expression of meek and modest triumph. 

During his detention on the island of Paqueti his man- 
ner was as calm and cheerful, as affable and free from 
care as if he were merely living in voluntary and pleas- 
urable retirement. His unchangeable serenity displayed, 

if not contempt, at least indifference to the reverses Of 

Leaving PaquetA, Councilor Jos6 Bonifacio fixed his 
residence in S. Doraingos in the city of Nictheroy, and 
it was there that on the 6th day of April, 1838, the 
illustrious patriot and sage gave up his soul to his 

As far as circumstances permitted, the government 
paid to the memory of Jos6 Bonifacio all the tributes of 
respect due to the memory of so eminent a man. His death 
cast a gloom over the hearts of the people. 

The only medal which he had accepted was the Cross 
of the Order of Christ conferred by Queen Maria I. 

Ruling spirit in the ministry in 1822 and 1823; mentor 
(and at times a severe one) to the Prince Regent, afterwards 
Emperor of Brazil, he persistently rejected all persuasions 
to accept some of the highest decorations. 

The Patriarch of Brazilian independence was not even a 
Senator of the Empire. 

His only reward was the fame which he won and the 
esteem and gratitude which he inspired. The new gener- 
ation, at least, and the present Emperor have been able 
to appreciate his greatness and to revere the memory of 
the Brazilian Washington. 

In 1829 or 1830 he had received from the state an unso- 
licited but well-merited pension of four contos per 
annum. On his death the government granted pensions 
to his daughters. 

On September 1, 1872, the 50th anniversary of Brazil- 
ian Independence, his statue was unveiled in the square 
of Sao Francisco de Paula in the city of Rio de Janeiro. 
The Emperor presided at this patriotic solemnity; and 
H. M. the Empress, the Princess Imperial, her august 

— 438 — 
spouse, the Count d'Eu, the principal nobility and officers 
of the court and government, the members of the Histor- 
ical Institute and a large and enthusiastic concourse of 
people were present at the ceremony. 

Had it been possible for him to be alive and witness 
this scene, Jos6 Bonifacio would undoubtedly have dis- 
played the same quiet, placid and unmoved simplicity 
which always characterized his demeanor in the midst of 
earthly splendors and vanities. 

Recognized by savants as belonging to their fraternity, 
one of the first ministers of Brazil and the patriarch of its 
independence, honored by the choice of D. Pedro I as 
guardian of his children, at once famous as sage, poet and 
statesman, Jos6 Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva was at the 
same time a model of modest simplicity, of unsurpassed 
disinterestedness, of the strictest integrity and of the 
purest patriotism. 

The Andrada family produced three brothers, all 
renowned, whose glory now belongs to history ; but the 
greatest, the most glorious and the most brilliant of the 
three was Jos6 Bonifacio. 

■6 H»CM Wi 



Slender trunk of a fruitful tree Joao Ramalho, who 
resembled Diogo Alvares {Caramuru) in the incidents of 
his life, lacked that halo of legendary romance and poetry 
which surrounded his prototype, but in compensation was 
perhaps even more useful. 

Joao Ramalho was wrecked on the S. Paulo coast in a 
vessel probably bound for India. 

It is supposed that this event occurred in the year 1512. 
The history of the first few months of his life after this 
occurrence has never been related. All that is known is 
that he found his way to the wigwam of the valiant 
morubixaba (sachem) Tebyrigi, who welcomed him, gave 
him his daughter in marriage and in the course of time 
placed himself entirely under his guidance. 

-« 440 — 

It is probable that Jo5o Ramalho, adopting the custom 
of the Indians among whom he lived, had other wives 
besides Tebyrigd's daughter, for the progeny which he left 
was certainly a large one. 

It was due to the assistance which he brought from the 
interior of the country that Martim AflFonso de Soaza was 
able to found on the coast in 1532 the colony and town of 
Sao Vicente f and it was by his advice and under his direc- 
tion that the said Martim AflFonso founded beyond the 
eastern range of mountains the colony and town of Pira- 
tininga, of which JoSo Ramalho was made Gtmrda-mdr, or 

The latter founded near Piratininga the settlement of 
Santo Andr6, a patriarchal establishment peopled by his 
children, dependants and Indian slaves, which grew so 
rapidly that on April 8, 1553, it was incorporated as a 

Piratininga and Santo Andr^ continued to flourish until 
they were overshadowed by the growing town of Sao 
Paulo which was built up around a Jesuit college of the 
same name. 

The Jesuit domination gave rise to bloodshed as early as 
1556, when their college was attacked by the mamelukes 
of Santo Andr6 and Piritininga. 

The patriarch of the mamelukes, this race of crusaders 
sprung from the mixture of the Portuguese and Indians, 
the adventurous and enterprising pioneers of S. Paulo, who 
overran the greater portion of the interior of Brazil, was 
JoSo Ramalho. 

Guided by his influence and example, the Portuguese 
colonists of Piratininga and afterwards those of Santo 
AndrA united themselves in legitimate or illegitimate 
bonds with the Indian women, and from this connection. 

— 441 — 
which became more and more extended, sprang the indomit- 
able mamelukes and pioneers whose prowess and almost 
incredible conquests excited the wonder •)£ their contem- 
poraries and even of succeeding ages. 

Jo£o Ramalho perpetuated his memory by his misfor- 
tune in being shipwrecked, by his adoption into the sav- 
age household of Tebyriga, by his valuable assistance 
and directions in the foundation of the colonies and towns 
of SEo Vicente and Piratininga, by founding the settle- 
ment and town of Santo Andr^, and above all by being 
the founder of the race of Mamelukes and pioneers of 
Sao Paulo. 

Father and grandfather to heroes, JoSo Ramalho, 
although a Portuguese by birth, was the first Pau- 

Diogo Alvares — Caramuni — was in Bahia a devoted 
auxiliary of the glorious conquests of civilization; Jo^o 
Ramalho, in Sao Paulo, was, without suspecting it, the 
principal founder of a mighty Empire. 

It is necessary to state that the beginning of Joao Ra- 
malho's history is extremely obscure. Some writers aflSrm 
that he was not shipwrecked, as is alleged by others, 
but that he was a deported convict left on the island of 
GananSa by the first exploring expedition which visited 
Brazil, thirty years before he presented himself to Mar- 
tim A£fonso de Souza. 

yot. , 56 




Joao Vieira de Carvalho was the legitimate son of the 
colonel of the same name and of D. Yicencia da Silva 
Nogueira. He was born in 1781 in Oliven^a, which be- 
longed at that time to Portugal. 

He enlisted as a cadet in 1786, was promoted to the 
rank of ensign in 18Q1, and four years after was appoint- 
ed adjutant of the 2d Oliven^a Regiment. 

He studied at the College of the Nobility, and was re- 
warde4 with successive prizes, obtaining a reputation for a 
more than ordinary intellect. 

During the French invasion he served on the Peninsula, 

* 444 — 
but unable to tolerate the idea of being in the conquer- 
or's service, he had himself declared unfit for military 
duty and under the protection of the Marquis of Alorna 
embarked for Brazil, where on arriving he placed his 
intellect at the disposal of the Prince-Regent D. John. 

As sergeant-major of engineers he served in the cam- 
paigns of 1811—1812 and 1816—1817. In both he dis- 
played skill and valor, especially in the latter. In the 
direction of the warks of fortifications he showed both 
zeal and science, and at once ability and daring in diffi- 
cult marches through a territory occupied by the enemy 
and intersected by swamps and rivers. In the battle of 
Catalao he so conducted himself as to be promoted for 
meritorious services to the rank of lieutenant-colonel. 
General orders of his commanders and the Royal Letter of 
July 26, 1817, furnish an official record of the important 
services which he rendered during the war. 

In 1821 Joao Vieira de Carvalho was appointed mili- 
tary commander and director of the colony of Nova Fri- 
burgo, which he assisted no little in developing. 

In 1822 he espoused the cause of Brazilian indepen- 
dence, and on Oct. 28 was entrusted with the portfolio 
of war department in the ephemeral ministry which, hav- 
ing succeeded the Andrada cabinet, only lasted till the 
30th, when the latter was recalled in consequence of a 
popular demonstration in its favor. 

In the following year JoSo Vieira de Carvalho was 
knighted and in 1824 promoted to the rank of brigadier- 
general and decorated with the cross- of- the Imperial 
Order of the Crusader. - 

On .Augtist 6, 1824, he again became minister of war 
and, on leaving office, was made^£arpn.of Lages.. 

•On ..Ian. ^20, 1826, ha was appointed minister of JhaEoi' 

— 445 — 

pire, ad interim. In the same year he was made councilor 
of State, and in 1827 promoted to the rank of marshal. 
In 1838 he became Count of Lages and his name was in- 
cluded in the triple list submitted to the Crown for the 
selection of a Senator. 

It is evident that the Emperor, D. Pedro II, showered 
distinctions upon him and honored him with the utmost 

The Liberal party, whose opposition to the government 
became more and more violent, suspected the Count of Lages 
and assailed him both in the press and the Chambers, 
accusing him of a conspiracy to establish an absolute 
government in Brazil. 

The Count of Lages became unpopular. 

At present, however, the political passions of that time 
no longer affect our opinions of the persons who figured 
in the scenes then enacted. 

The Count of Lages was not a politician, but a soldier; 
and justly grateful to the Emperor, became to him a de- 
voted and self-sacrificing friend. Having a military edu- 
cation, he had been taught to observe soldierly discipline 
and obedience. He was, therefore, unlike most young men 
of his time, who, educated at the University had there 
imbibed the liberal ideas which flowed like lava from the 
French volcano. 

This explains his whole conduct : his obedience to the 
Emperor was inspired by loyalty and his devotion by gra- 

Undoubtedly the Liberal party which opposed the gov- 
ernment of the Emperor was right in regarding him as 
an adversary ; but the Count of Lages never conspired to 
establish an absolute government. 

Neither did D. Pedro II conceive or favor this plot 

— 446 — 

which a minister more monarchical than the monarch him- 
self had formed, and which; convinced of its futility, he 
afterwards abandoned. 

This plot received no co-operation from the Count ofLages 
nor did it correspond with the wishes of the Emperor who, 
it is proper to observe, was still able to count on the obe- 
dience of a large and devoted army. 

But the Count of Lages was not accustomed to measure 
his sacrifices or to weigh the consequences of his loyal and 
cheerful services to the cause of the throne and to the 
Emperor's person. 

He showed this on the night of April 5th, 1831, accept- 
ing the war portfolio in an anti-liberal reactionary cabi- 
net, in the face of a widespread and unrestrained revolu- 
tionary spirit openly manifested by the people in their 
nightly meetings. 

This threatening and impolitic ministerial organization 
would only have been explicable, if the ministry had 
been armed with the necessary powers and enabled to 
adopt energetic measures for repressing all opposition to 
their reactionary and disastrous scheme. 

D. Pedro I, who undoubtedly knew what he was doing» 
organized the ministry on an openly reactionary basis, but 
gave it no power to sustain the ideas which it represented. 

The Count of Lages, obedient to the Emperor's call, ac- 
cepted the war portfolio ; but had the disappointment of 
finding that he was not allowed to take any decisive steps 
in regard to the military force in Rio de Janeiro. 

The insurrection of the people on the evening of April 6, 
and the mytinu of the troops on the night of the same 
day were eflfected without opposition, without the 
slightest effort at repression on the part of the government. 

It was just as if there were no ministers in existence. 

— 447 — 

At early dawn on the 7th of April the Emperor 
D. Pedro I had abdicated his throne, and one of the mem- 
bers of the ministry of April 5, the Marquis of Inhambupe 
was charged with delivering the government into the 
hands of the revolutionary leaders. 

During the minority of the Emperor D. Pedro II, the 
Count of Lages was twice placed at the head of the War 
Department ; first on November 1, 1836 under the regency 
of the priest, Diogo Antonio Feijd, and secondly under that 
of Pedro de Araujo Lima, afterwards Marquis of Olinda. 

In 1840 the Count of Lages was among those who exerted 
themselves to have the Emperor declared of age, and in the 
following year he had the honor of acting as ensign-major 
at the ceremony of anointment and coronation, being at 
that time decorated with the grand-cross of the Order of 
Aviz, and on the 9th of April raised to the rank of Marquis 
of Lages. 

When Minister of War, he founded the Minors -School 
at the arsenal, and created the company of artificers which 
has proved to be of the greatest utility. 

The establishment of the powder factory at Estrella and 
the foundation of the asylum for invalid soldiers in the 
fortress of Sao Joao were due to the same minister. 

The Marquis of Lages died on the 1st of April, 1847, at 
the age of sixty-six. 



Legitimate son of Dr. Bartholomeu Corrfia Vidigal, Fran- 
cisco CorrSa Vidigal was born in the city of Rio de Ja- 

He studied the humanities in this city, and afterwards 
went to Coimbra where he graduated in the University in 
canon law. From Portugal he went to Rome, where he 
took orders and perfected his studies. 

On his return to Brazil he was appointed vicar of Cu- 
yab&, and worthily performed his parochial duties. 

Returning to Rio de Janeiro, he began the practice of 
law in which he was very successful and won considerable 

The Prince-Regent D, Pedro appointed him canon of the 
cathedral and the bishop, D. Jos4, appreciating his learning 
VOL. 1 57 

- 450 — 

and virtues, made him rector of the S. Jos6 Seminary and 
judge of the ecclesiastical court. 

In 1829 he was appointed Brasilian minister to the court 
of Rome, and gave so much satisfaction that the Holy See 
begged that he should be permanently retained there. 

In the elections for the first general legislature, Correa 
Vidigal, who by this time had attained to the title of Mon- 
seigneur, was elected deputy for the province of Rio de 

In the Chamber he avoided party strife, always dis- 
playing moderation , always siding with the Government. 

Keeping aloof from the Liberal opposition, he did not, 
however, take an active part against it in the debates 
of the House, and was able to secure the respect and 
good-will of all parties. 

On the death of the bishop, D. Jos6 Caetano, he was unan- 
imously elected capitular vicar, and performed the dif- 
ficult duties of this position with zeal and discretion until 
his death, which took place on April 10, 1838. 

His remains repose in the church of S. Pedro, in Rio de 

His pastorals have been highly eulogized. 

Governing the See as capitular vicar at a time when 
the government of the Empiire had a serious misunder- 
standing with the court of Rome, Corrfia Vidigal never 
for a moment forgot or neglected the civil and political 
respect and obedience which he owed to the State. 

He retained up to the day of his death his spirit of mo- 
deration and the modesty which adorned his strict 
sense of justice and his notable learning. 

311 OF AraiTLi 


Brazil, as a colony and possession of Portugal, shared 
of course the fate of the home government, and con- 
sequently was, after 1580, subject to the yoke of Spain. 

At the close of a twelve year's truce which had been 
adjusted .with the government of Madrid in 1609, Holland 
renewed the war. This is not the proper place to describe 
in detail the means which she employed in carrying it 
on, it being enough to say that Brazil was tho principal 

In 1624 a powerful Dutch squadron attacked and cap- 
tured the city of S. Salvador da Bahia, capital of colonial 
Brazil, but after severe fighting lost it again in the follow- 
ing year. 

In 1830 the Dutch returned with an immense fleet and 
a powerful army for the purpose of conquering the cap- 

— 452 — 

taincy of Pernambuco. They took the capital, Olinda, 
and the infant town of Recife, which was to them of the 
utmost . importance as a sea-port. 

This event was followed by five years of terrible war 
in which the people of Pernambuco, inferior in numbers 
to the enemy and almost without assistance, covered 
themselves with glory, displaying indomitable courage 
and heroism. 

The attention of Spain was divided between so many 
objects that she scarcely remembered the colony of the 
country which she had conquered ; Portugal in her sub- 
jugated condition was able to do nothing ; whilst Holland, 
on the other hand, spared no effort to consolidate her 
power in Pernambuco and extend it to the other provinces. 

In 1635 the army of Pernambuco, seeing that the fortune 
of war was against it, made a desperate defense preparatory 
to abandoning the positions which it still occupied. 

Mathias de Albuquerque, the gallant, skillful and in- 
trepid Pernambuco general, was attacked, on April II, at 
Villa Formosa by superior forces and, after a prolonged 
and brilliant defense, obliged to withdraw his army from 
the contested battle-ground. 

Arriving at the river Serinhaem, closely pursued by 
the enemy, he made a stand, resolving to beat back 
his pursuers or perish in the attempt. The battle com- 
menced at 10 o'clock in the morning and lasted till night- 
fall, resulting in the complete rout of the Dutch army, 
which fled from the field under the cover of the dark- 

But the little army of Mathias de Albuquerque suffered 

Among the gallant soldiers who fell on this field was the 
young Pernambuco hero, Estevao Velho, son of Gon^alo, 

— 453 — 
who had already lost in the war two sons and one son- 
i n-law. 

Mathias de Albuquerque, unmoved in the midst of the 
conflict, trembled at the thought of the terrible blow to 
be inflicted on the parents of Estevao Velho, when the 
sad tidings should be divulged. 

This distressing affair brought to light a type of fe- 
male heroism, perhaps superior to that of the Spartan 
mother who, concealing her grief for the loss of her son 
in her desire not to dampen the general rejoicing for 
her country's victory, was the first to exclaim : < Let us 
go and give thanks to the Gods ! » 

EstevSo Velho was the son of D. Maria de Souza, a 
noble Pernambuco lady, the virtuous, pious and patriotic 
wife of Gongalo Velho. 

Hearing the sudden and cruel news of the death of 
her third son, D. Maria de Souza keeps back the tears which 
spring to her eyes, and, suffocating her violent anguish, 
calls to her presence, in a firm voice, her two only re- 
maining sons, one of whom, Gil Velho, was 14 years old, 
while his younger brother was only 12. 

When the two boys appear before her, gazing earn- 
estly on the elder's face, she says : 

< My sons, your father and I have just received the 
news of the death of your brother Estevao, who is the 
third we have lost in this war, besides our son-in-law. 
What duty demands of you now is to imitate his example. 
Go, my children, take your swords and, if need be, offer 
up your lives in defense of your God, your king, and 
your country. » 

It is possible tliat this grand and energetic speech of 
D. Maria de Souza is clothed in the language of the his- 
torian of the war, the Marquis of Basto, Count and Lord 

— 454 — 
of Pernambuco; its sublimity, however, is not in the 
words in which it is couched, but in the lofty, resolute 
and self-sacrificing spirit which dictated them. 

Gil Velho immediately went to fill up the place of his 
brother Estevao in the patriot ranks, and his younger 
brother, then only twelre years of age, made but a short 
delay before following his example. They were boys in 
years, but in courage and resolution they proved them- 
selves to be men worthy of their heroic mother. 

And let it be noted that the sublime behavior of 
D. Maria de Souza was not caused by the stimulating in- 
fluence of victory, but was performed in the darkest hour 
of adversity, when her country's fortunes were well-nigh 

D. Maria de Souza, the model wife, the kind and bene- 
ficent lady, presents a noble picture when, suppressing the 
natural outbursts of a mother's anguish, and crushing the 
tenderest feelings of her heart, she sends forth her sur- 
viving children to battle for God, King and Country. 

Among the heroines of the world she occupies an ele- 
vated and conspicuous place. 

■g-TT OF A.I»IUXi 


Jos6 Velloso Xavier was the legitimate son of Jos6 Vel- 
loso da Gamara and Rita de Jesus Xavier. He was born in 
the parish of Santo Antonio, town of Sao Jos6, in the ju- 
dicial district of Rio das Mortes, province of Minas Geraes. 
The year of his birth wos probably 1742, for it was in this 
year that he was christened. 

On the nth of April, 1761, he adopted a claustral life 
and was admitted into the convent of S. Boaventura de 
Macacu, which goes to show that it was at an early 
period that he had arrived at Rio de Janeiro. 

On April 12 of the following year he took the solemn 
TOW to give up the things of this world, to abandon all 
human ambitions and re nounce his name, which was sub- 
stituted by that of Friar Jos6 Marianno da Concei$ao 

— 456 — 
He was soon distinguished by his virtues and his rigid 
application to study. He was consecrated by the bishop, 
D. Antonio do Desterro, and received his diploma from Friar 
Ignacio da Graga. In the General Convocation of July 23, 
1768, he was appointed preacher. 

He tilled several offices in the Rio de Janeiro convent, 
was appointed confessor, teacher of geometry in S. Paulo, 
and professor of rhetonc in the convent of that city, and 
was one of the most illustrious Franciscans of the eccle- 
siastical province of GonceiQao do Rio de Janeiro. But 
Friar Yelloso, besides devoting himself to theological, 
philosophical and literary studies, occupied himself with 
those relating to the natural sciences, particularly bo- 
tany. He became so famous a botanist that the viceroy, Vasconcellos e Souza, wisely resolved to make use 
of his services. Accordingly, the latter gave orders to the 
Franciscan provincial, Friar Jos6 dos Anjos Passes, to 
allow Friar Velloso to leave the convent at will and to 
give him an unlimited leave of absence in order that he 
might make his botanical excursions. It was these long, 
difficult and fruitful excursions that produced the valu- 
able work to which Velloso gave the name of Flora 

In these excursions he was accompanied by Friar Anas* 
tacio de Santa Ignez, who was skilled in botanical defini- 
tions, and by Friar Francisco Solano, a self-taught floral 

Friar Velloso either accompanied Luiz de Vasconcellos 
on his return to Portugal, or, as is more probable, made 
the voyage some years later. 

In Lisbon he took charge of the printing-office called 
Litteraria do Arco do Cego, and on its absorption into the 
Royal Printing-office, was made literary director of the 

— 45'7 — 
latter, conjointly with the professors Custodio Jos6 de Oli- 
veira and Joaquim Jos^ da Costa e S&, and the Brazilian 
Hyppolito Josd da Costa. 

As a reward for his services Friar Velloso received from 
the Prince-Regent, afterwards King John VI, the com- 
mission of ex-provincial and a pension of five hundred mil- 
reis. Chosen Fellow of the Lisbon Royal Academy of 
Sciences, he had a misunderstanding with that corpora- 
tion, which caused his name to be stricken from the rolls. 

He was a friend to the great poet Socage, and rendered 
him all the assistance in his power while literary di- 
rector of the Royal Printing Office. 

In 1807 Friar Velloso accompanied the royal family to 
Rio de Janeiro, when on the 13th of June, 1811, he died 
at Inidnight in the Santo Antonio convent. 

The most important of his works is undoubtedly the 
Flora Fluminense, in which are classified, according to the 
system of Linneus, many of the plants of Rio de Janeiro 
and its suburbs. 

His work is constantly quoted by botanists who treat of 
South American plants, and there is scarcely a single bo- 
tanical family without genera or species designated by 
Velloso. Many of his designations have either been ac- 
cepted without reserve or adopted as synonyms. 

Among these imperishable monuments of glory figure 
the Jabanesia Princips in Euphorbiacion family, and the 
genus Vellosia, in commemoration of the illustrious Bra- 
zilian's name. 

Eis quinography embraces the quin-quinasor anti-febrile 
plants which he supposed to be related to the real chin- 
chona ef other parts of South* America, but which are now 
included in other genera. 

VOL, I 58 

— 158 — 

His Brazilian Ornithology, or enumeration of many useful 
birds, contains a great deal of interesting matter. 

His study on cochineal and on its manufacture into car- 
mine embodies some valuable information. 

He also published a monograph on fixed alkalis. 

His pamphlets in regard to practical farming, containing 
a history of the culture of the sugar cane, his studies relat- 
ing to saltpetre, (nitrate of potash) and on the mode of pre- 
paring animals for museums and a number of other paraph- 
lets are early translations made by Velloso, in accordance 
with the views of his royal protector, D. John VI, to whom 
they wore mostly, if not wholly dedicated, for the purpose 
of disseminating useful information amongst the Portu- 
guese people. 

He published them free of cost to himself in the printing- 
office Litteraria do Argo do Cego. 

But his great original production and chief glory, the 
celebrated Flora Fluminense, is a posthumous work pub- 
lished at much cost through the insistence of the Emperor 
D. Pedro I. 

This biographical sketch is necessarily very incomplete, 
especially in regard to the merits of Friar Velloso's scien- 
tific works, but in the Review of the Brazilian Historical 
and Geographical Institute may be found a learned criti- 
cism of these works in the extensive, candid and ably 
written biography of the immortal author of the Flora 
Fluminense, by Dr. Saldanha da Gama. 



A native of the city of Rio de Janeiro where he was 
born in the first quarter of the 17th century, he studied in 
the Jesuit college in his native city and received the degree 
of master of arts. 

Gifted with considerable talent and possessing a decided 
religious vocation he was a useful priest and a model of 
charity. One of the first canons of the new See of Rio de 
Janeiro, he occupied the fourth place on the 16th of June, 

He accompanied the bishop, D. Jose de Barros e Alarcjlo, 
on his visit to Rio de Janeiro and was appointed attorney 
to the chapter. 

Returning to Bahia with the bishop, he was appointed 
visitor of the churches of Reconcavo in 1701, and shortly 
afterwards was again made attorney of the chapter and 

- 460 — 

charged with lajing before the King several memorials 
relating to matters of importance. 

On his return to Rio de Janeiro in 1703, he was almost 
immediately sent by the bishop (who delegated to him fall 
powers) to Minas Geraes in order to fix the boundaries of 
the sees of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, and to take steps for 
preventing unauthorized priests from performing parochial 
duties in the interior of the country. 

Appointed arch-deacon, he took possession of his dignity 
on the 13th of April, 1715. In the following year he was 
appointed chief-treasurer. 

He afterwards governed the diocese until the vacancy 
was filled by the bishop, Prior Antonio de Quadelupe, and 
left a fine example of disinterestedness, scientific brilliancy 
and vigorous activity. 

He died on the 8th of January, 1734. 

He bequeathed to his church six thousand cruzados, to 
be employed at the bishop*s discretion. 

He left the necessary means for paying an annual alms 
of twenty-four milreis to twelve indigent persons at the 
ceremony of feet- washing celebrated on Holy Thursday, in 
the Casa da Misericordia, besides a single payment of two 
hundred milreis more. 

He left considerable legacies and donations to convents, 
asylums and pious works. 

These charities are known because they are necessarily 
mentioned in his will, but, although many of the recipients 
have gratefully acknowledged the benefits received, it is 
impossible to calculate the acts of charity which he per- 
formed and the daily alms which he distributed before his 



Manoel de Moraes Navarro, son of the Paulista Josd de 
Almeida Lara, was born on the 14th of April, 1697. 

He settled in the town (now city of Sorocaba) where he 
married. His name figures in the PaiUo Peerage of Pedro 
Taques de Almeida Paes Leme. 

A thorough Paulista, he was a type of the bold, daring 
and uncouth pioneer, at times heroic and at times revenge- 
ful and cruel. 

Paes Leme informs us that the noble and useful Manoel 
de Moraes for a long time occupied, in Sorocaba, various 
offices of the commonwealth, and that he always came out 
unscathed from the investigations of the Corregedor and 
from those of Jancyrinha. 

He was the owner of a cane and sugar-mill, and was 
reputed a just and upright man. 

- 462 — 

Leaving S. Paulo, he went to Goyaz in search of gold 

During his absence from home, his house, situated on the 
Papua farm among the Pilar mines in the judicial district 
of Villa Bda, was attacked by a large band of runaway 
slaves (and probably Indians), being defended by his son 
Jos6 de Almeida Lara, assisted by two mulatto slaves. 

Barricading the entrances of the house and armed each 
with a gun, the three men resisted, for twelve hours (they 
were S. Paulo pioneers) when, the doors being forced, the 
assailants entered and murdered the occupants, whose 
bodies they mutilated in a most horrible and barbarous 

Manoel de Moraes arrived too late to save his son, but 
arming his friends and relatives he set forth in search of 
the murderers. But it seems as if the very elements con- 
spired to prevent the horrible vengeance which had been 
planned; the heavens were opened, emptying on the earth 
mighty torrents of rain which, raising the streams, ren- 
dered them unfordable and checked the advance of the 
avenghig banner, Manoel de Moraes was furious with rage 
and disappointment. 

The runaway slaves effected their escape, but continuing 
to murder and pillage they obliged the governor and cap- 
tain-general of Goyaz, Count of Argos, to issue an order 
permitting any so desiring to attack their hiding-places and 
to put to death those who offered resistance. 

Manoel de Moraes, though old and exhausted, newly 
invaded the wilderness and destroyed all the haunts of 
runaway slaves that he could find. 

Seeing in every runaway a murderer of his son, he of 
course everywhere pretended to encounter resistence. 

When he returned from his expedition, hundreds of hu- 

man ears struugtogether, gave evidence to the number of 
victims on whom he had wreaked his vengeance. 

Leaving Goyaz he returned to his plantation atSorocaba, 
inconsolable for the loss of his son, Jos6 de Almeida Lara, 
who was his favorite among nine children and who had 
already shown himself to be a worthy successor of the 
bold pioneer in deeds of daring and valor. 

Manoel de Moraes Navarro died several years after 



mi mum bezerra 

Legitimate son to Antonio Barbalho Felpa de Barbuda 
and Camilla Barbalho, Luiz Barbalho Bezerra was born in 
Pernambuco in one of the closing years of the 16th century. 

He adopted the military profession and had served four- 
teen years, when in 1630 the Dutch invaded Pernambuco 
and took Olinda and Recife. 

The war with the Dutch commenced, and Luiz Barbalho 
carried his two sons, Agostinho and Guilherme, and his ser- 
vants and slaves to Gen. Mathias de Albuquerque, in the 
improvised fortress of Arraial do Bom Jesus and oflFered him 
his and their services. 

He soon began to distinguish himself. To relate all his 
heroic deeds from 1630 to 1635 would be to give an account 
of a score of battles and skirmishes, of the attack and cap- 
voL. I 59 

— 466 — 
ture of redoubts, of the repulse of the enemy, and of a 
series of wonderful adventures. 

In the latter year, Mathias de Albuquerque was obliged 
to retire into Alagdas, leaving Luiz B irbalho and Serge ant- 
Major Pedro Corr^a da Gama in charge of the fortress of 
Nazareth, when after holding out during a severe siege of 
four months, they capitulated on July 2, obtaining the 
most honorable terms. 

So tenacious had been the defense and such were the 
privations which the garrison had suffered, that on 
marching out of the place several of the soldiers dropped 
dead from the eflFects of hunger. 

Luiz Barbalho, his wife and children were kept as prison- 
ers, he being shortly afterward sent to Holland, whence he 
succeeded in making his way to Spain. On August 16, 1637, 
he returned to Bahia, having been appointed commander 
of a body of two hundred and fifty men which he had 
rais.ed in Lisbon. 

The state of his family greatly distressed Luiz Barbalho 
at whose request General Bagnuolo wrote to Prince 
Maurice of Nassau, asking the release of the wife and ten 
children of Luiz Barbalho, who were still detained at 

The generous coinmaQder of the Dutch forces readily 
complied with this request and, after two years' captiv- 
ity, the family of Luiz Barbalho was sent to Bahia. 

In 1638 Maurice of Nassau, at the head of a powerful 
army, attempted the capture of Bahia. Bagnuolo carried 
to the assistence of the beleaguered city the little army 
which had retired from Pernambuco, and which was then 
encamped at Torre de Garcia d'Avila. 

Notwithstanding his personal feelings of gratitude 
towards the Dutch commander, Luiz Barbalho fought hero- 

— 467 — 
icallyin defense of Bahia and of Brazil, and on the repulse 
of the Dutch he was rewarded by the King, and his name 
perpetuated in the important fort which he had constructed. 

In 1639 the Count of Torre arrived at Bahia with a 
powerful fleet. In the following year he proceeded to exe- 
cute a vast plan of operations, and set sail with more than 
eighty vessels, carrying on board land forces in which 
were included Luiz Barbalho and other Brazilian chiefs. 

The plan was a failure. The Count of Torre's designs 
were defeated by contrary winds and storms, and in several 
naval encounters with the Dutch he acted in a manner 
which casts a doubt on his military capacity. 

After these severe reverses, he put on shore Luiz Bar- 
balho and the force under his command at a little place 
called Touros, 14 leagues north of Rio Grande, and made 

This was almost a barbarous sacrifice. 

Luiz Barbalho thus abandoned with a few hundred sol- 
diers, to whom the Count of Torre had given only two 
days' rations, found himself obliged to accept one of the 
following alternatives: — either to surrender with his force, 
or to attempt to cross Rio Grande, Parahyba and Pernam- 
buco, three captaincies occupied by the Dutch, besides that 
of Sergipe, without a base of operations and completely 
exposed to the enemy. 

He did not hesitate. In preference to a surrender to the 
enemy he determined to attempt this almost impossible 

Assembling his little command, consisting of about a 
thousand men among whom were several valiant officers, 
he made them an energetic address, and commenced his 
march. Proceeding towards the South, he purposely 
sought the towns and villages on his line of march. In 

— 468 — 
those which were not garrisoned he found welcome and 
assistance ; in the others he attacked the Dutch garrisons 
and captured their stores, of which he burnt everything 
which he could not carry with him. 

Three columns of Dutch troops, of 1,000 men each, left 
Recife in pursuit of Barbalho, whose retreat became of 
course more and more diflScult. 

He found himself obliged to take circuitous routes, to 
penetrate into a desert and barren country, to open a way 
through dense forests and to cross deep streams swollen 
with heavy rains. To obtain supplies he was obliged to 
keep out small foraging parties. At times he would turn 
on the nearest pursuing column, strike it a sudden blow, 
and leaving it stunned by his unexpected attack, would 
again disappear in the vast forests, deceiving the enemy by 
intricate counter-marches, and so continuing his heroic 

At length he reached the banks of the S. Francisco, and 
crossing the river, camped on the southern side, giving relief 
and repose to his worn-out but undaunted troops and to 
the civilians of both sexes who, unwilling to live under 
the enemy's yoke, had joined the little army on the route. 

The Dutch troops did not pursue them beyond the S. Fran- 
cisco, and Luiz Barbalho, after allowing his army a few 
days rest, continued his retreat, passed through Sergipe, 
and after a march of four months duration, in which he 
traversed three hundred leagues, interrupted by numerous 
engagements in which he had generally been successful, 
he reached the city of S. Salvador da Bahia. 

This retreat is considered the most wonderful undertak- 
ing of the war. Even the Dutch writers have eulogized it ; 
and the Portuguese writers have compared it to the famous 

retreat of the tenthousand, and denominated Barbalho the 
modem Xenophon. 

Shortly after reaching Bahia, Luiz Barbalho was sent to 
dislodge the Dutch who had begun to fortify themselves on 
the River Real. He attacked them, carried their works and 
completely routed them, killing more than three hundred 
of their men. 

Luiz Barbalho had by this time acquired a brilliant and 
glorious renown. 

In the meantime the Portuguese revolution broke out 
and shook oflF the yoke of Spain. The Marquis of Montalvao, 
the first viceroy of Brazil, proclaimed his allegiance to 
D. John IV ; but, as his two brothers had fled to Spain, 
refusing to espouse the revolutionary cause, he. incurred 
the suspicion of the Portuguese monarch. Accordingly, 
though D. John wrote him an autograph letter, giving an 
account of the great event which raised him to the throne 
and asking him to proclaim his authority in Brazil, he, a 
few days afterward, dispatched to S. Salvador, the Jesuit 
priest, Francisco de Vilhena, bearing two letters, one 
addressed to the viceroy, relieving him of his office, and 
the other appointing a provisional government composed of 
the bishop, D. Pedro da Silva, Col. Luiz Barbalho Bezerra, 
and the solicitor-general, Lourengo de Brito Corrfia. 

These letters were to be delivered in case the Marquis 
failed to declare his allegiance to the Portuguese throne ; 
but on Vilhena's arrival at Bahia, he found that the au- 
thority of D. John had already been recognized. Neverthe- 
less, either from levity or bad faith, he delivered the letters 
and induced the provisional governors to depose the Mar- 
quis of Montalvao and send him in custody to Lisbon. 

This event obscured for some months the fame of Luiz 

— 410 — 

Barbalho who in his turn was arrested in 1642 and sent 
to Portugal. 

On his arrival he was able to justify himself to D. John IV, 
who recognizing that he was entirely innocent of a criminal 
ambition and was merely a victim of his confidence in 
Vilhena, not only pardoned him, but appointed him, in 1649, 
governor of Rio de Janeiro. 

In this office he displayed the utmost zeal, activity and 
energy until the day of his death, April 15, 1644. 

His remains were interred in the principal vault of the 
Jesuit church. 


kmm n cim brochado 

Antonio da Cunba Brochado was born in the city of 
Bahia. He was the legitimate son of D. Maria Francisca 
de Paula e Almeida and of the judge, Belchior da Gunha 
Brochado, who was Gentleman of the Royal Household, 
Treasury Councilor, and corregedor of the palace. 

He studied the humanities in the Jesuit college and gra- 
duated in the Coimbra University, taking the degree of 
bachelor of laws. 

After his arrival in Lisbon, he was appointed judge of 
India and Mina. 

In order to study diplomacy and international policy, 
he accompanied his uncle^ Jos^ da Gunha Brochado, when 
the latter was sent as Minister Plenipotentiary to the 
Court of Madrid. 

On his return to Portugal, he was appointed Treasury 

-472 - 
Councilor, but despising the grandeurs of this world, and 
only desirous of God, he took orders and entered the con- 
vent of Santa Cruz in Coimbra, where he took the vow on 
the 16th of April, 1735. 

He translated several works from the Spanish, and 
figured amongst the most d tinguished literary men of 
his age. 

x-vrc OF A.FnxL, 

mm fiONEs DOS santos 


Of humble parentage, Thomaz dos Santos was born in 
Rio de Janeiro on April 17, 1803. He early displayed ex- 
traordinary intelligence, and he learned his first lessons 
with so little eflFort that he seemed to acquire knowledge 
rather by instinct than by study. Such, however, was 
the extreme poverty of his parents that they were 
obliged to place him in a brazier's shop. 

Whether he rebelled against this mode of life or 
whether they discovered that he was not suited to it, is not 
known ; but what is certain is that he was taken from the 
shop and sent to the Franciscans' convent for the purpose 
of becoming a monk. 

The late Bishop of Marianna saw Thomaz Gomes, and, 
appreciating his talent, received him into the Jacuecanga 
college of which he was rector, and was much pleased 
VOL. I 60 

— 4*74 — 
with the progress which his pupil there made in the 
study of the humanities. 

Having completed these studies, Thomaz Gomes went to 
France where he took the degree of bachelor of arts in the 
Academy of Paris and that of Doctor of Medicine in the 
Montpellier faculty, where his name has since been re- 
membered as that of one of the most talented students. 

After his return to Brazil, he was in 1834 chosen pro- 
fessor of clinique in the medical school of Rio de Ja- 
neiro, and on the 13th of December of the same year 
was appointed court physician. In 1837 he was trans- 
ferred from the professorship of clinique to that of hygiene 
in the same school. 

He was member of the Provincial Assembly of Rio de 
Janeiro in several legislatures, and from 1845 to 1848, 
inclusive, was deputy to the General Assembly from the 
same province, which three times included his name in 
the triple list for the selection of a senator. 

He served as vice-president and acting president of the 
province of Rio de Janeiro, was from 1858 to 1864,inclusive, 
director of public instruction in the same province, and 
from 1858 to the day of his death, director of the Aca- 
demy of Fine Arts in the capital of the Empire. 

In 1851 he became principal editor of the Reforma 
newspaper, which at that time was organ of the liberal 

He was honored with the title of Councilor, with the 
Cross of Commander of the Imperial Order of the Rose, 
with that of Chevalier of the Order of Christ, and with 
the grand-cross of the 2d class of the Order of St. 
Stanislas of Russia. He was corresponding member of the 
Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute, and of 
other scientific and literary societies. 

— 475 — 

In his college lectures he was n oted for his winning 
eloquence and for the unfailing and appropriate illustra- 
tions with which he explained and rendered interesting the 
teachings of medical science. 

He was a first-class parliamentary orator, combining 
learning with fluency and delicacy of speech, with unan- 
swerable logic and with correct elocution. His favorite 
weapon in debate was a sharp and penetrating irony which 
he managed with a skill that has rarely been sur- 

The sciences did not monopolize his affections. He 
zealously cultivated literature and was familiar with the 
works of the great poets of all ages. 

The Portuguese language and the classical works writ- 
ten therein were his special study. 

On the day before his death on which was probably re- 
flecting, his favorite subject recurred to him. 

At the age of seventy-one he had been seized with 
an attack of the disease of the lungs which defied medical 
treatment. On the 9th of June, conversing in his usual 
agreeable manner, he referred to the Portuguese lan- 
guage and remarked : 

«One of its chief beauties is, Ithink, the formation of the 
word cadaver (corpu) — ca^'nis datu vermis. » 

This was on the day before his death. 

Possessed of more than ordinary talent, vast powers of 
illustration, a brilliant imagination, ready and lively 
wit, abundant stores of information, judgment and good 
sense, a wonderful memory and a patriotic heart. Dr. Tho- 
raaz Gomes, who might have left a rich and voluminous 
collection of works, died without having contributed a 
single production to the literature of his country. 

— 476 - 
The Idarned Dr. Joaquim Caetano da Silva, his fellow- 
pupil, friend and admirer, used to say of him : — « Thomaz 
Gomes is not only a man of great talent; he is more: he 
is a genii$s that is not willing to soar. » 



Josd Mauricio Nunes Garcia was the son of Apolinario 
Nunes Garcia and D. Victoria Maria da Cruz, and was 
born in Rio de Janeiro on the 22d of September, 1767. 

He lost his father when he was only six years of age, 
and, left in charge of his mother and of a maternal aunt, 
whom he tenderly loved, he was by them carefully 
taught the first and elementary lessons. In his hours of 
recreation, instead of amusing himself with the usual 
sports of childhood, he preferred to play on the Brazil- 
ian banjo and harpsichord, often singing to the accom- 
paniment of one of those two instruments. 

On account of his natural taste for music his mother 
sent him to the school of Salvador Josd, where in a short 
time he outstripped all his fellow-pupils. 

— 478 — 

He studied Latin with Father Elias, the Royal tutor, 
who at the end of three years declared that Jos6 Mauricio 
was competent to take his place. 

He studied philosophy in the class of Dr. Gaulao, and 
displayed such application to study and learned so rapidly 
that it was proposed to make him assistant master, but he 
refused, having another vocation. 

What he desired was to become a priest. The generous 
merchant, Thomaz Gongalves, donated to him a house in the 
rua das Marrecas fhow n. 14) and with this fund he took 
orders as deacon, and in 1792 was allowed to say mass. 
In 1798 he was authorized to preach. 

Father Jos6 Mauricio, besides Latin, philosophy, theol- 
ogy and rhetoric which he had studied under the cele- 
brated Dr. Manoel Ignacio da Silva Alvarenga, was 
acquainted with history and geography, knew something of 
Greek and Hebrew, translated English and was thoroughly 
conversant with French and Italian. 

Learned, modest and virtuous, he won the esteem of the 
bishop, D. Jos6 Caetano da Silva Coutinho, who appreciated 
his talents and invited him to attend the literary conver- 
sations at his palace. 

But Father Jos6 Mauricio was chiefly fond of the study 
of music ; but such was his poverty that for many years he 
could not save suflScient money to buy a harpsichord, after 
wearing out that which he used in his childhood. 

Without masters to consult, much less to teach the 
grand secrets of music, and without musical repositories 
which he could visit in Rio de Janeiro, he succeeded in 
acquiring those secrets by his own unaided powers, and at 
the Portuguese court in 1808, showed himself an accom- 
plished master and composer. 

Father Jos6 was, through the force of genius, a self-made 

— 479 — 

and self-educated musician and composer, a rigid follower 
of the school of Hayden and Mozart, who would have wel- 
comed him as a worthy colleague and cultivator of the art 
of music. 

Before the arrival of the Portuguese royal family at Rio 
de Janeiro, Father Jos6 Mauricio had won a considerable 
reputation. To obtain a livelihood he gave private les- 
sons ; but he also gave lessons at home to a class of free 
pupils, which he kept up for thirty-eight years. His pupils 
wore a red and blue cockade on their hats and were 
exempt from military service. For a long time, in his class, 
he accompanied the solfeggios with banjo arranged with 
metallic chords in default of a harpsichord, which he was 
unable to buy. These lessons were attended by many 
persons who afterwards became celebrated professors of 

In 1798 the place of musical director of the cathedral 
became vacant, and the Bishop gave it to Father Jos6 Mau- 
ricio with a salary of six hundred milreis. 

In 1808 the Portuguese royal family arrived. The 
prince-regent, afterwards King John VI, who was very 
fond of music and of pompous religious ceremonies, had 
brought with him the celebrated master, Marcos Portugal ; 
the first time, however, that he heard sacred music in the 
cathedral he became convinced that the Brazilian master 
need fear no competitor. 

Almost immediately there commenced a mean and 
unworthy rivalry. Father Jos6 Mauricio was a mulatto, 
and the Portuguese musicians made use of this accident of 
color as a weapon of ridicule and contempt. But the 
Prince-Regent appreciated and commended the Brazilian 
master, and in 1808 appointed him inspector of music in 
the royal chapel. 

— 480* 

Father Jos6 Mauricio was an inspired and able com- 
poser. His compositions of sacred music were nearly all 
masterpieces. In 1810, at the close of a religious cere- 
mony, D. John was so charmed with the music he had 
heard that, calling the master to his presence, he took the 
Cross of the Order of Christ from the breast of one of the 
courtiers who surrounded him, and fastened it with his 
own bonds on that of 3os6 Mauricio. 

Soon after he gave orders that the latter should re- 
ceive a daily ration as servant of the Royal Household, but 
at the request of Jos6 Mauricio, who suffered no little an- 
noyance at the hands of the Portuguese servants, it was 
commuted into a pecuniary allowance of thirty-two mil- 
reis a month. 

On the frigate which brought to Rio de Janeiro the Aus- 
trian Arch-Duchess Leopoldina, afterwards first Empress 
of Brazil, there came an excellent band of military music. 

This band used to play sometimes on the Square of 
S. Jorge, where Jos6 Mauricio was then living. He was 
so much pleased with the masterly execution of the per- 
formers that he improvised for them twelve divertisemenis 
which rank among the most ravishing musical inspira- 

Having established his claim, by practical tests, to the 
highest place among the composers of sacred music, Father 
Jos6 Mauricio, by order of the King, composed for the 
theatre of S. Joao the opera Le DucGemelle, whose parti- 
tures were destroyed in the burning of the theatre in 
1824, and the copy among the papers of Marcos Portugal. 

The Santa Cruz plantation, was, about this time, the scene 
of an artistic combat or duel. The king wished to cele- 
brate with the utmost splendor the sacred commemora- 
tion of the beheading of John, the Baptist. He ordered 

— 481 — 
Marcos Portugal to prepare the music for the matins and 
Josd Mauricio for the high mass and credo. The former 
took a month to finish his work; the latter, at the end 
of 15 days, presented a composition which enchanted the 
monarch and won the admiration of all who heard it. 

On his return to Portugal in 1821, the King invited 
Father Josd Mauricio to accompany him, but the latter did 
not wish to leave his native land. D. John, who was a 
warm friend of Brazil and the Brazilians, wrote him from 
Lisbon a letter that was highly honorable and flattering to 
the composer, gently complaining of his refusal to accom- 
pany him. This document is in the possession of the son 
of the composer. Dr. Jos6 Mauricio Nunes da Silva, who 
keeps it as a precious and honorable heir-loom. 

When D. John VI left Brazil, the religious ceremonies 
were no longer celebrated with the same pomp and 

The King's departure was followed by the revolution- 
ary period of 1821-22; and the reign of the first Emperor 
was too busy with stirring political events to leave time 
for encouraging the fine arts. 

Father Jos6 Mauricio, forgotten, discontented and in- 
firm, was passing in silence and oblivion to the grave. 

One day the Emperor, D. Pedro I, who had noted his 
prolonged absence from the palace, met him in the Consti- 
tutional Square, and, reining up his horse, said to him : 

« We never see you at the Palace now-a-days. » 

« Ah ! Sire ! » sadly answered the man of genius who had 
been ungratefully neglected; « I have given all that I 
had to bestow. » 

His broken health becoming worse, he was obliged to 
keep his bed in April, 1831. Growing worse everyday, 
on the 18th of that month he left the garret in which he 

VOL. I 61 

— 482- 

slept and whose stairway was very narrow, and took a 
room on the ground floor. 

His affectionate son, returning from the Surgical School, 
wished to know why he had changed his quarters. 

« So as to give less trouble in the carrying of my body 
to the grave, » was the answer. 

On the evening of the same day. Father Jos6 Mauricio 
began to hum the hymn to the Virgin, and a few moments 
afterwards closed his eyes and expired. 

At the request of Dr. Jos6 Mauricio Nunes Garcia, Porto- 
Alegre, already at that time a distinguished artist and now 
Baron of Santo Angelo, took a plaster cast of the face of 
Father Jos6 Mauricio, which is still in the National Mu- 

Canon Luiz Gonial ves dos Santos, on hearing of his 
friend's death, hastened to his house in order to dress the 
corpse for interment, but, on his arrival, found that this 
had already been attended to by the dutiful son of the de- 
ceased. Dr. Jos6 Mauricio, who years afterwards succeed- 
ed through patient and persevering efforts in obtaining 
his father's portrait. 

Father Jos6 Mauricio was a fruitful composer, and 
all his musical compositions furnish a brilliant proof 
of his genius, of the pure classicalism of his style, and of 
his thorough knowledge of the art. Among his most ad- 
mired productions are the Funeral Symphony, which was 
executed at his own exequies, the Requiem, the Mass, 
the Tedeum and Matins for the festival of Saint Cicilia, 
the Twelve Divertisements, the ouverture of the Tempest, 
composed for a dramatic eulogy acted on the birthday of 
the viceroy, D. Fernando, and the High Mass and for 
the commemoration of the beheading of John, the Baptist. 

Neuckom says that Father Jos6 Mauricio occupies the 
first place among the musical provisers of the world. 

He was certainly the musical genius of Brazil, to whom, 
after a lapse of nearly a century, no worthy successor has 
been found. 

<<»8» !M w 



-' ■ - (S y i " 

Before 1786 twelve Brazilian students at Goimbra met 
in secret conclave and discussing the greatness of the 
country, then a colony, swore to work for Brazilian inde- 
pendence, availing themselves of the first favorable oppor- 
tunity for accomplishing their object. 

In 1786 other Brazilian students in France, among whom 
were Jos6 Joaquim da Maia and Jos6 Marianne Leal, na- 
tives of Rio de Janeiro, and Domingos YidaldeBarboza Lage 
and Josd Pereira Ribeiro, natives of Minas Geraes, had 
gone still further. Maia had even addressed, both verbally 
and by writing, the American minister in Paris, Thomas 
Jefferson, asking for the support of the United States to the 
cause of Brazilian independence. 

The diplamat gave an evasive answer which certainly 
could not encourage the young patriot. 

One of students, Domingos Vidal de Barboza Lage, was 

destined to become si victim to the patriotic scheme which 
they had adopted. 

This young man was the legitimate son of Captain Antonio 
Vidal de Barboza and D. Maria Thereza de Jesus, and was 
born in 1761 in the province of Minas Geraes, in the parish 
of Nossa Senhora da Concei^ao do Caminho do Matto. Sent 
to France to study medicine, he took his degree in 1788 
and returned to Brazil, his parents having died during his 

Dr. Vidal de Barboza found the so^ailled Tvradentes 
conspiracy nearly ripe in Minas and did not hesitate to 
join it. 

Shortly afterwards the conspirators were denounced, 
arrested and put to torture ; and finally on the 17th of 
April, 1792, the secret was divulged and eleven of the con- 
spirators condemned to death. Among them was Dr. Tidal 
de Barboza. 

On April 19, their sentence was read to them in prison. 

On the following day a magistrate read to them the royal 
letter of October 15, 1790, in which D. Maria I commuted 
into banishement the death penalty for all except Tiradentes. 

The punishment to be suffered by Dr. Domingos de Bar- 
boza Lagewas ten years' exile on Santiago, one of the Cape 
Verde islands. 

The secretary of the governor of the island was Dr. Joao 
da Silva Feij6, a native of Rio de Janeiro and a noted natur- 
alist, who received and treated with attentive kindness 
not only Dr. Vidal, but also his fellow-exiles, Rezende 
Costa, father and son, and Joao Dias da Matta. 

At the end of eight months Dr. Vidal de Barboza died at 
the convent of S. Francisco where he resided in the city of 
Ribeiro Grande. 



In February, 1630, a formidable Dutch fleet of more than 
sixty vessels with a powerful land force arrived at Pernam- 
buco, and easily took the capital, Olinda, and a few days 
afterwards, the town of Recife which was indispensable as 
a sea-port for communication with Holland. 

But the people of Pemambuco, at first weak and timid in 
resisting the enemy, suddenly became heroes, responding 
to the call of the courageous governor, Gen. Mathias de 
Albuquerque, who established and fortified the historical 
and glorious Campo Real do Bom Jesus on a plain half 
way between Olinda and Recife, and there assembled the 
patriots who took up arms against the foreign invader. 

Rendering his position impregnable, Mathias de Albu- 
querque kept the Dutch troops shut up in Recife and Olinda* 
and harassed them by means o f guerrilla companies that 

- 488 — 
almost succeeded in cutting off all communication between 
the two points occupied by the enemy. 

To one of these guerrilla bands belonged Domingos Fer- 
nandes Calabar, but between 1630 and April, 1632, had 
won no distinction, for up to the latter date no mention is 
made of his name. 

This partisan leader was born, it is generally supposed, 
in the town of Porto Calvo, though some writers assert 
that he was born and christened in Olinda. Poor and 
unfavored by fortune, he had above all one defect which 
Pernambuco, essentially aristocratic, could not overlook ; 
he was of mongrel blood and a mulatto in color. The Por- 
tuguese historians who were obliged to treat of his deeds 
from 1633 to 1635 called him in scorn the mulatto Ca- 

From 1630 to 1632 the Dutch did not advance a step 
beyond Olinda and Recife, and at Itamaraci, Parahyba, Rio 
Grande do Norte, Rio Formoso and Pontal de Nazareth 
they were repulsed with heavy loss. 

But on the fatal and inglorious 20th of April, 1632, the 
obscure Domingos Fernandes Calabar, who had fought un- 
noticed among the defenders of Campo Real, deserted and 
went over to the enemy, and immediately the fortunes of 
war were changed. 

Ten days after his desertion, Calabar led the Dutch troops 
to Iguassti, which they sacked, killing or capturing the in- 

In January, 1633, he directed the taking of the fort of 
Rio Formoso, and in June he led the enemy to victory at 

In December of the same year he conducted Ceulen io 
the capture of the fort of Reis Magos in Rio Grande do 
Norte. In March, 1634, Gen. Segismund, under his guid- 

ance, avenged the defeat suffered in February, attacking 
and capturing the port of Gape Santo Agostinho. 

Besides these successful enterprises in which he took part, 
Calabar, as an officer of the Dutch army, distinguished 
himself in numerous engagements fought under his di- 
rection and advice, and annulled the superiority derived 
by the Pernambuco forces from guerrilla companies, by 
organizing companies of the same kind for the Dutch service. 

The fortunes of war were obedient to the command oj 
the deserter Calabar. 

Duarte de Albuquerque in his MemoirSy and other Por- 
tuguese historians who accept his statements, blacken the 
memory of Calabar, saying that he deserted to escape 
punishment for a theft which he had committed in the 
Royal Sub-treasury; and Friar Manoel Callado, in his 7a- 
leroso Lucideno, says he was prosecuted for this crime 
by the judge, Andr6 d'Almeida Fonseca. 

But when could the poor mulatto Calabar, of whom no 
one had heard and who served at Campo Real entirely 
free of all charges, have stolen from the Royal Sub- 
treasuries, whose revenues at that time were very pre- 
carious ? 

The accusation made against the deserter, who proved 
to be so formidable an enemy, should rest on some more 
solid basis than a vague and odious insinuation devoid of 
the slighest vestige of proof. 

It is absolutely incorrect that the confessor of Calabar de- 
clared that the latter in his last moments confessed to having 
committed the crime ; Friar Manoel Callado made no such 
declaration as is attributed to him nor could he make it 
without a most scandalous and abusive revelation of the 
secrets of the confessional. 

The stain of having deserted his country's flag is enough 
VOL. I 62 

— 490 — 
and more than enough to tarnish the memory of Calabar; 
everything, however, indicates that this act, which is cer- 
tainly inexcuasble and worthy of the severest censure, 
was entirely due to the neglect and scorn with which 
he was treated when he was conscious of possessing a ca- 
pacity which entitled him to win more than ordinary 

But however this may be, Calabar, after joining the 
Dutch, gave ample proof ef his skill in the art of war which 
he had had no suitable opportunity of studying either theoret- 
ically or practically. Without instruction, but with won- 
derful intelligence and a thorough acquaintance with 
the topography of Pernambuco and of the coast districts of 
Parahyba and Rio Grande do Norte, he was during the 
first part of the Dutch war the most distinguished strate- 
gist among the Dutch or Pernambuco chiefs. 

He was brave, but it was not his bravery, but his mili- 
tary capacity, his skill in planning, his cunning in sur- 
prising the enemy, and his energy in executing his plans, 
that gave him a certainty of success. 

After the 20th of April, 1832, the fortune of war was 
nearly always adverse to the Pernambuco arms, until, 
dislodged from Campo Real and menaced on every side, 
Mathias de Albuquerque, in order to save the remains of 

his army, commenced in July, 1835, his withdrawal to 

Arriving in the vicinity of Porto Calvo on the 124h of 

that month, he learned that on the preceding day Calabar 

had reached them with 250 men to reinforce the garrison 

under the command of Picard. 
Then SebastiSo do Souto, a resident in the place and 

supposed to be a friend to Picard, rode out the latter's 

horse with the alleged purpose of reconnoitering Albuquer- 

-491 - 
que's position. What he did, however, was to combine 
with the Pernambuco general a plan for capturing the 
Dutch garrison. Accordingly on the same day he led Pi- 
card and 200 men into the ambush prepared for them. Gut- 
ling this force to pieces, Mathias de Albuquerque immedia- 
tely fell upon Porto Calvo, whose garrison capitulated. 

So Calabar, then a major in the Dutch service, fell into 
the hands of the Pernambuco army. He was hanged on the 
22d of July, having been shrived on the preceding day by 
Friar Manoel do Salvador, otherwise called Friar Manoel 


mm Mt u SUVA xavm-mdentes 

Joaquim Jos6 da Silva Xavier was the legitimate son of 
Domingos da Silva dos Santos and of D. Antonio da Encar- 
na^ao Xavier. He was born in the year 1748 at Pombal, in 
the municipal district of the town, afterwards city of 
S. Joao d'El-rei in Minas Geraes. 

His family was poor and his birth humble, and from his 
youth upward Fortune showed herself unkind. 

Having received the first elements of an education, he 
became a peddlar, and plied his trade in Minas Geraes, 
where he was arrested. 

It is more than probable that, if he had been guilty of 
any crime to justify this arrest, the harsh judges who tried 
him and his fellow-rebels would have unearthed and pro- 
claimed it. 

Tired of peddling, he enlisted in the army, entering the 

— 494 — 
regiment of dragoons commanded by the governor of the 
captaincy, and was promoted to the rank of ensign, as could 
not have been the case had he been imprisoned for any 
degrading crime. Brave and scrupulous in the performance 
of his duties, he was employed in several dangerous com- 
missions; but, mortified by the promotion of junior officers 
over his head, he threw up his commission. 

He attempted mining on a small tract of land which he 
had obtained in the parish of Simao Pereira, and was once 
more unsuccessful. 

He was poor, and, being unable to satisfy liabilities 
which he had incurred, was forced to give up his land and 
his mining claims. 

Obtaining two months* leave of absence^ he came to Rio 
de Janeiro, where, after studying the principal necessities 
of the city, he proposed canalizing the waters of the Anda- 
rahy and the MaracanS for the purpose of supplying the 
city with water. He also proposed establishing several 
bonded warehouses along the side of the bay. But the vice- 
roy, Luiz de Vasconcellos, would not hear to his plans. 

Silva Xavier had no technical knowledge, nor the neces- 
sary capital for realizing such projects , but his oflfer to 
undertake them displayed an energetic and enterprising 

Silva Xavier was a man of quick comprehension and 
gifted with a certain eloquence in which earnestness took 
the place of elegance and caused the impropriety of his ex- 
pressions to be forgiven. 

Skillful in extracting teeth and in making sets of artifi- 
cial ones, he was nicknamed Tiradentes, (tooth-pulled) a 
name which passed into history. 

He was still in Rio de Janeiro when Dr. Jos6 Alves Ma- 
ciel landed there on his return from England. He had 

— 4»5 - 
known the latter in Minas and on his arrival sought him 

Young Maciel came from Europe with his head full of 
democratic ideas and of aspirations for the industrial ag- 
grandizement of Brazil and especially of the captaincy of 
Minas Geraes. The eflfect of his conversation on Tiradentes 
was like that of a spark on dry tinder. 

This was in 1788. 

Returning to Minas some months after Dr. Maciel, 
Tiradentes, who was already involved in the plots which 
were in existence there, entered heart and soul with his 
customary ardor into the celebrated Minas conspiracy 
which was the perdition of so many illustrious victims, 
such as the poets Gonzaga, Alvarenga and Manoel da Costa, 
Colonel Francisco de Paula Freire de Andrade, the Vicar 
Carlos Corr^a, the priest Costa and the Rezendes. 

Tiradentes, whose character was not well-balanced, 
allowed his frankness to degenerate into levity and his 
courage and valor into imprudent and vain presumption, 
and in his enthusiasm implicated himself and others with 
ill-timed demonstrations. 

Such a man was not fit to be a leader, and should not 
have been admitted into the confidence of the originators 
of the plot. He was only suitable for an instrument. But 
he became ofi'ended with the chief conspirators if they 
did not inform him of everything that was done or devised 
and allow him to freely take part in their conferences. 

Some one informed against the conspirators, and, while 
the Viscount of Barbacena, governor of the captaincy, 
was preparing to arrest them, Tiradentes set out on a mis- 
sion to Rio de Janeiro. Soon after his journey was made 
known to the viceroy by a letter from the viscount. 

Luiz de Vasconcellos never lost sight of Tiradentes, 

— 496 — 
and the latter, suspecting that he was watched, resorted 
to flight. 

But he was arrested in Rio de Janeiro in a house where 
he had concealed himself, and was by order of the vice- 
roy placed in solitary. 

From this period (March, 1789) dates the beginning of 
Tiradentes' advancement from the second or third to the 
first rank of the conspirators. 

Being questioned in regard to the conspiracy, he made 
no attempt at concealment, but openly and calmly de- 
clared what part he had taken therein, and generously 
endeavored to shield from suspicion Thomaz Antonio Gon- 
zaga, although they were not on good terms at that time. 

He and ten other conspirators were sentenced to 
death, but on the 20th of April they were brought before 
a magistrate who read them the royal letter of D. Maria I, 
of Oct. 15, 1790, commuting the death penalty into trans- 
portation for all except Tiradentes. 

The only one brought to the scafibld was merely an 
agent of the conspiracy ! 

TiradenteSy loaded with chains, sadly smiled and con- 
gratulated his fellow-conspirators. 

On the 21st of April, amid shameful official rejoicings 
and the joyous peal of bells, Joaquim Jos6 da Silva Xavier 
was led to the scaflFold, and sufi'ered death with pro- 
found religious contrition and unfaltering courage. 

The gallows was his monument. 

From his obscurity among the leaders of the Minas 
conspiracy, he was raised up by the very iniquity of his 
sentence to a place above them all. 

The scaflFold was the height from which he was present- 
ed to the view of posterity. 




The third son of noble parents, Pedro Alvares Cabral 
conferred on his family by the glory which he acquired 
a greater boon than the nobility which he inherited. 

His father was FernSo Cabral, governor of the province 
of Beira, Lord of Azurara and chief alcaide of Belmonte, 
and his mother was Izabel de GouvSa, daughter of JoSo 
de Gouvfia, Lord of Almandra. 

Designated by King Emmanuel to continue in India the 
work begun by Vasco da Gama, Pedro Alvares Cabral, 
in command of a squadron composed of ten brigs and 
three sloops, descended the Tagus on the 9th of March 
and set sail on his voyage across the ocean. 

YOL. I 63 

— 4»3 — 

On March 22 he reached Cape- Verde. 

In prosecuting his voyage, he steered to the west in 
order to avoid being becalmed on the African coast, and, 
without knowing it, was carried still further out of his 
course by ocean currents at that time unknown. 

On the 21st of April he discovered birds and floating 
vegetable substances which indicate that land is near ; a 
circumstance that causes him no little astonishment and 
makes him pass the night in anxious waiting for the follow- 
ing day. On the 22d, which is Easter Wednesday, he dis- 
covers to the east a high mountain, to which he gives the 
name of Mount Paschoal, and as he advances is astonished 
to find spread out before him a long unknown line of land. 

The 23d and 24th were spent in looking for a harbor, 
and it was discovered that the country was inhabited by 

On April 26th the fleet of Cabral entered an excellent 
harbor, to which he gave the name of Por^to Seguro. 

On April 26th, Easter Sunday, the first mass in Brazil is 
read at an altar erected on a small island. The savages 
flock around and are gladdened with the presents that are 
given them, consisting of small looking-glasses, colored 
beads and such things. 

From the 26th to the 30th, Cabral employed himself in 
preparing to treat with the savages and to take steps for 
placing the newly-discovered land formally and firmly 
under the dominion of the Cross and of the Portuguese 

A large tree is felled and a huge cross made thereof. 

On the 1st of May, Cabral, his officers, soldiers and sailors, 
under the guidance of the priests, form a procession and, to 
the sound of sacred music, carry the holy symbol of re- 
demption to the mainland, where at a few steps from the 

- 499 - 
seaside it is erected, and at its foot an altar is raised bear- 
ing the Portuguese arms and bearing the device of D. Em- 

Friar Henrii^ue celebrates mass and preaches a sermon 
full of inspired eloquence which moves the hearts of the 
sailors and excites the ignorant wonder of the savages. 

Cabral returns to his vessels, leaving on shore two con- 
victs, who, during the night, are joined by two deserters. 
The subsequent fate of these four Portuguese is not known. 

On the 2d of May Gaspar de Lemos returns with one of 
the vessels to Lisbon to communicate the fortunate discov- 
ery to the King. On the same day at dawn Pedro Alvares 
Cabral proceeds on his journey to India. 

Thenceforward, his history is no longer connected with 
that of Brazil to which he belonged for only eleven days. 
But those eleven days are worth more to his fame than all 
the rest of his life beside, for it was during this period that 
he discovered the marvellously rich country to which he 
erroneously gave the name of Island of A'era Cruz. 

Whatever may be the work which treats of Brazilian 
history or is intended to perpetuate the memory of the cele- 
brated men of Brazil, it will be sadly incomplete if its 
author fails to inscribe on its first page the name of Pedro 
Alvares Cabral. 

Here it is inscribed not on the first page, but on that 
corresponding to the 1st of May ; for on this day was it 
that the famous Portuguese erected the holy emblem 
of the cross on Brazilian soil, and solemnly carved on 
the altar he constructed the sign of dominion of the 
sovereign of his country, thus raising a lasting monument 
of glory worthy of the heroic and then powerful nation to 
which he belonged. 

■ U II 3M I H " 

3:xiii o^p -A.miij 


Jos6 Ferreira Cardoso was born in the city of Bahia on 
April 23, 1761. He studied the humanities and devoted 
himself untiringly to literary pursuits. A great Latin 
scholar and extremely fond of the Latin poets, he himself 
composed Latin verse of considerable merit. 

His well-deserved reputation as a distinguished poet and 
literateur was confirmed by the authorized opinion of his 
friend, the famous and inspired poet, Manoel Maria Bar- 
boza du Bocage, who translated into Portuguese the poem 
Tripoli of the illustrious Brazilian, thus making known to 
the public the beauties and lofty sentiments of this work. 

ixxiiv OF jlf:rtjl, 


— t2=<s*^i;^e5=<5w^ 

On April 24, 1808, was born Joao Caetano dos Santos, 
the famous and inspired actor whose superior has never yet ■ 
trodden the Brazilian stage. 

His parents were D. Joaquina Maria Roza dos f antes and 
the militia captain, JoSo Caetano dos Santos. 

Whether from the weakness of excessive love or from 
the obstinacy and reluctance of a mischievous and willful 
boy, he grew to early manhood without even acquiring a 
common school education. He gave undoubted proofs of 
talent and of an ardent disposition and quick understanding ; 
but at 19 years of age he read badly and wrote still worse. 

The period was favorable to amusements and to the 
neglect of his studies. In 1808 the Portuguese royal family 
arrived in Brazil, and from that year till 1821 Rio de Ja- 
neiro was in a blaze of public rejoicings. From 1821 to 1822 

— 5M- 
everybody's mind was occupied by the great political 
events of the day ; the children were lulled to sleep to the 
sound of patriotic hymns and songs, and the boys were 
taught political lessons, repeated those hymns and wera 
sent to greet with cheers the Emperor D. Pedro I. 

Jo5o Caetano had barely reached the period of adolence, 
when, with the enthusiasm of the times, he enlisted as a 
cadet in the Emperor's Batallion, and in the Cisplatine war 
gave proofs of that courage and intrepidity which he ever 

On his return to Rio de Janeiro he left the army, and in 
spite of his parents' opposition, the ridicule and the censure 
of his relatives, he made an engagement as walking-gentle- 
man in an inferior theatrical company which was playing 
in the parochial village, now town, of Itaborahy, province 
of Rio de Janeiro. 

Jo3:o Caetano had been so much applauded both in male and 
female parts in private theatricals that he was completely 
carried away with enthusiasm for a theatrical career. He 
was irresistably attracted by his vocation. He made his 
professional debut at Itaborahy on the 24th of April, 1827, 
performing the role of CaWo5 in the Carpinteiro de Lisboa. 
The humble author of this sketch had the good fortune to 
be present on that occasion ; but being at that time barely 
seven years of age he can only remember the material im- 
pressions produced on his mind by that revelation of dra- 
matic genius. What he perfectly recollects is that he was 
impressed by the fine personal beauty of the young debutant 
and by the wonderful melodiousness of his voice, which 
was almost equal to music in its power of expression. 

As maybe readily imagined, the receipts of the company 
were insufficient to keep it, and it accordingly was broken 

— 505 — 

up ; but Joao Caetano was launched in a career which he 
never abandoned. 

Up to 1835 the theatrical career of JoSo Caetano offers 
few incidents of interest ; and those few were due to the 
imprudence of his enemies, whose envy of the genius he 
began to display only served to bring it out in a clearer 

Engaged in the Sao Pedro theatre, whose managers were 
nearly all Portuguese, they obliged him, in order to place 
him in a false position, to accept the role of anold man in 
the comedy Z). Josi visitando os carceres, a role en- 
tirely out of his line and of only secondary importance. 

He appeared on the stage properly made up, and so 
appropriate were his very first words and gestures, 
and so natural were the tone and coloring which 
he gave to the secondary part entrusted to him, that he 
infused into it life and vigor, elevated it to a place among 
the principal parts and brought down the house in thunders 
of applause. 

His enemies, however, did not choose to accept the 
defeat which they suffered at his hands. He was compelled 
to represent the ridiculous and absurd part of Manoelinho 
in the farce, Chapio Pardo. The public avenged him, 
greeting him with enthusiastic applause. 

Joao became director of a theatrical company in the 
same theatre of Sao Pedro de Alcantara, and won a large 
group of admirers ; but in truth his acting was injured 
by the defects of the school in which he had been trained : 
the old Portuguese so-called classic school, which was 
founded on false ideas of the art and was entirely difierent 
from that established afterwards by Garret and other Por- 
tuguese poets and litterati. 

Joao Caetano was an excellent example of nature 
VOL. I 64 

-.506 — 
without art. He had no education — could barely read, and 
wrote still worse. He had acquired little, very little from 
instruction, but in compensation instinct taught him almost 
all that was necessary. 

His w^as a rare and privileged nature gifted both 
mentally and physically. Nature had given him a really 
handsome face, eyes which reflected every imaginable 
passion, a well-shaped mouth, teeth beautifully white and 
regular, an elegant form, a voice that in sentimental 
passages was as soft and insinuating as the drowsy murmur 
of the brooklet, and in scenes of violence as powerful as 
the deafening peal of thunder; his action and gestures 
were appropriate and expressive, and his facial muscles were 
flexibleand obedient to his will. In short he possessed 
everything necessary to constitute a great actor except 
the correct precepts of art. 

In 1836 the Brazilian poets, Domingos Magalhaes and 
Porto- Alegre (now Viscount of Araguaya, and Baron of 
Santo Angelo) arrived from Europe, and, devining the 
genius of JoEo Caetano, initiated him into the romantic 

JoSo Caetano thus became the founder of this school in 
Rio de Janeiro. 

In the Torre de Nesle, Catharina Hoioard, Oscar filho 
de Ossian, Aristode^no, Antonio Jose, Othello, and in a score 
of other plays he excited to the highest point the enthusiasm 
of the public. 

Irritable, haughty and inconstant, the great actor quar- 
relled with the two poets. Nevertheless he remembered 
their lessons. Prodigious in Kean, unsurpassable in Cabo 
Simao, stupendous in the Gargalhada, and astonishing and 
wonderful in everything, his genius flashed meteor-like 
across the Brazilian stage. 

— 507 — 
Magalhaes had written in his album, among others, 
the following lines: 

69 vdos de Talm& com quern tu sonhas, 
Oyante segue, escurecendo a iuTeja 
Que }k nem ousa disputar-te a gloria ! 

Joao Caetano had two auxiliaries which were the wings 
of his untaught genius : — the friendly assistance of the 
two poets and his amorous intercourse with the actress, 
D. Estella Sezefredo dos Santos, always his devoted friend 
and afterwards his wife. Estella had not a tithe of JoSo 
Caetano's dramatic talent, but in compensation she had 
more judgment and had carefully and thoroughly studied 
the dramatic art. 

JoSo Caetano instinctively devined the great secrets 
of the art ; Estella mastered them by means of severe 

The last time that Estella shone on the stage was in the 
role of the half-witted old woman in the Mysteries of 
Paris. It was the sunset of her career ; but what a sunset! 
On that occasion she reached the boundaries of the su- 

Alas! the days of Estella and of Joao Caetano are 
fled ! The actors and actresses of the present day, the best 
of whom degenerate in theatres which murder the dra- 
matic art, are sad mediocrities compared with that great 
natural genius and with that admirable creation of art. 

Joao Caetano was censured by his contemporaries, even 
by his admirers, for what was considered his overacting, 
his tumultuous bursts of passion in the role of Othello. 

Years passed by, and Rio de Janeiro was visited by the 
European dramatic celebrities Rossi and Salvini who, when 
they appeared in this part, gave it the very same render- 

— cos- 
ing. It was then that his censors, astounded and repentant 
exclaimed : 

« Oh ! we have seen this before ! JoSo Caetano had de- 
vined and produced on the stage the wonders of Rossi 
and Salvini. )» 

Joao Caetano had then been dead nearly two years, 
having died on the 24th of August, 1863. 

On the Brazilian stage no one can dispute the glory of 
his genius. He was a dramatic prodigy who, unfortunately, 
passed from existence without leaving behind him follow- 
ers, and without founding a school to perpetuate his 
glories and his triumphs. 



Luiz Gongalves dos Santos was born in the city of 
Rio de Janeiro on the 25th of April, 1767. His mother, 
D. Roza Maria de Jesus, was a native of the same city, 
and his father, Jos6 dos Santos, was a Portuguese. 

The child, from his tenderest years, gave proofs of 
precocious vivacity and intelligence. 

He studied in the city of his birth, and every class he 
entered was a scene of triumph. He was the pupil of 
various distinguished masters and was an honor to them all. 

He had already studied Latin, philosophy, dogmatic 
theology, Greek, rhetoric, poetry, geography and history, 
all to extraordinary advantage, and was preparing for 
the priesthood, for which he had a most decided vocation, 
when his father*s house was ruined from the effects of 

the barbarous decree with which Portugal, led by short- 
sighted and envious avarice, annihilated the art of work- 
■ ing in precious metals, at that time flourishing and proj>- 
perous in Brazil. Retiring to Suruhy, he was assisted 
by the Latin professor, Jorge Furtado de Mendonoa, who 
took him to his house. 

Luiz Gonralves continued lo study. The bishop, D. Jose 
Joaquim Justiniano de ilascarenhas, appointed him assistant 
professor of Latin in the Seminary of Nossa Senhora da 
Lapa, where he taught, among other illustrious pupils, 
Januario da Cunha Barbosa and Antonio Jose do Ama- 

in 1794 he was received into orders and two years 
afterwards was made presbyter. 

Already much appreciated for his capacity and instru- 
ction, he was selected to teach philosophy in the place 
of his master, Dr. Goulao, royal professor, who had retired 
into the country on account of sickness. 

In 1809 he was appointed royal professor of Latin and 
gave up his place at the seminary. After sixteen years 
of service, his hearing became affected, and he was obliged 
to retire on a pension in 1825, receiving the Cross of the 
Order of Christ on Oct. 13 of that year. 

A fertile writer, he began in 1808 the series of his 
works, and, though he may not have written too soon 
on the final work, he at least took notes from which 
he compiled his Memorias para servir a Historia do 
Brazil, completed in 1821 and published in two quarto 
volumes in Lisbon in 1825 and 1826. 

He wrote a great deal and continued to do so up to 
the end of his life. On his death he left a WS. en- 
titled The Caiholic Faith or the Symbol of the Apostles 

— 611 — 

proced and explained by the Holy S capture, a work 
published in three small volumes in 1847. 

Having lived always on little means he was threatened 
with want in his old age; but the government of the 
regency, in attention to his services and deserts, appointed 
him prebendal canon of the Cathedral and Imperial chapel 
in 1839, the same year in which he received the diploma 
of honorary member of the Brazilian Historical and Geo- 
graphical Institute. 

Five years later, finding his health to be constantly 
growing worse, he asked for the sacraments to be admin- 
istered to him, and died on the 1st of December, 1844, 
nearly seventy-eight years of age. 

The learning of Canon Luiz Goncalves was extremely 
varied. He was versed not only in his own language, 
but also in Latin, Greek, French, English, Italian, Span- 
ish, and was somewhat acquainted with Hebrew. He 
was thoroughly acquainted with theological and philo- 
sophical sciences and possessed extensive literary acquire- 

His works display much learning,but it must be acknowl- 
edged that his style was stiflF and often incorrect. His 
polemical writings betray acrimony and subjection to the 
dictates of rage. 

He was small of stature and very thin, with a broad 
forehead, large mouth, brilliant eyes and a shrill voice. 
In argument, even with his friends, he easily became 
excited and wa:> unable to remain seated. He had a habit 
when thus excited of giving small jumps to the front as 
he spoke, which, together with his physical appearance, 
obtained for him the nickname of Perereca, or Father 
Pererecay a name by which ho was generally known 

— 512 — 

and which was often offensively applied to him in hostile 

He left numerous printed works ( besides those 
already mentioned) on clerical celibacy and religious 



Joao Francisco Lisboa, legitimate son of the agricul- 
turist, Joao Francisco de Mello Lisboa and D. Gertrudes 
Rita Gongalves Nina, was born in the province of Mara- 
nhaoon the 22d of May, 1812. 

He was a man of profound learning and a writer of a high 
order of merit. 

Although he early gave proof of his talent, his literary 
education was neglected and even hindered till 1829; for 
as boy on his father's plantation he was allowed the same 
liberty and freedom from study as the birds of the air 
around him, and, during his later youth, he was tied down 
to the desk and counter in a commercial house. But at the 
age of seventeen his spirit rebelled against this state of 
affairs, and burst asunder the chains that fettered his in- 
telligence. " 

VOL. I 65 

-- 514 — 

In compensation for past neglect, he applied himself 
assiduously to the study of the humanities and made rapid 

The political events of 1831 could not fail to actuate on 
his enthusiastic and generous spirit. Enlisting at once 
in the Liberal ranks, he defended in the press the noble 
ideas of his party. A journalist at the age of twenty, 
he was editor of the Brazileiro in 1832, of the Pharol 
from November of the same year to the end of 1833, of the 
Echo do Norte from May, 1834 to 1836, and finally of 
the Chronica from January, 1838, to March, 1841. 

During ten years journalism was liisrobeofNessus, which 
clung to him both amid his administrative duties as Secre- 
tary of the President of the province, Antonio Pedro da 
Costa Ferreira (afterwards Baron of Pindar6), in 1835, and 
also in his legislative career in the first legislature of the 
provincial assembly and in that of 1848. 

But what could not be efi'ected by fatigue, incessant and 
wearisome strife and the attacks of his political enemies, 
was produced by the indifi'erence and ingratitude of his 

There are in political life awakenings from cherished 
illusions, that destroy one's faith ; inexplicable contra- 
dictions which produce scepticism that dries up the heart ; 
selfish rivalries and cruel neglect that provoke just resent- 
ment and give rise to a lofty pride where only modesty 
existed before. 

Jofio Francisco Lisboa was the journalist of his party; 
he was besides an orator of merit and a man of learning. 
But in 1840, when he offered himself as a candidate to the 
General Assembly, he discovered that the ill-will of 
members of his own party would lead to his failure. 
Against this treatment his pride revolted and his heart 

— 515 — 

was filled with resentment. He did not commit suicide ; 
but he broke the pen which he no longer loved. 

Paraphrasing the conduct which the sacred orator re- 
commended to the aged warrior forgotten by his country, 
he did not die and avenge himself, but made a tomb-liko 
silence his revenge. 

Devoting himself to the practice of law, in which ha 
earned an honorable and well-deserved reputation, he 
rested eleven years from the labors of the press ; but in 
1852 he turned to them anew, not as before to defend the 
principles of his party, but to censure the abuses of all 
parties, to expose political demoralization, and also to 
write the history of his province. 

It was then that he began the publication of those 
interesting pamphlets under the title of the Journal de Timon , 
in which, in the words of liis worthy biographer, he 
painted with the pencil of Gavarni in the hands of Ju- 
venal those thoroughly correct pictures in which satire 
and ridicule show forth vice, lawlessness and vanity. 
The most conspicuous of these papers are the last two in 
which, studying the early historians of Maranhao, com- 
bining rare documents and investigating the archives of 
the past, he produced a curious historical study of the 
civil, administrative and economical affairs of his prov- 

The Jornal de Timon solidly established the reputation 
of Jo5o Francisco Lisboa as a literateur, historian and 

H. M. the Emperor decorated him with the Cross of the 
Order of Christ ; the Historical Institute admitted him to 
a membership, and his name, for a long time well-known 
in Maranhao, was repeated with praise and esteem through 
out Brazil. 

— 516 — 

In 1855 Joao Francisco Lisboa came to Rio de Janeiro, 
whence he shortly afterwards set out for Lisbon, charged 
by the government with collecting documents relating to 
the history of the country. Laborious and indefatigable, 
he executed his commission with the utmost solicitude, 
and at the same time wrote the biography of Father Vieira 
and collected valuable notes for writing a complete 
history of Maranhao, to be carried to the epoch in which 
he lived. He was still engaged in this work when he died, 
of a disease from which he had long suffered, on the 26th 
of April, 1863. 

By means of the mission with which Joao Francisco had 
been charged by the Imperial Government, the country 
obtained copies of valuable MSS. and memoirs which en- 
riched the archives of the Institute, and from the spon- 
taneous productions of his able and patriotic pen it has 
inherited profound studies, some of which, unfortunately, 
are incomplete. 

xixi'v^n o"P j^jpjrjxa 


In the 18th century, perhaps in the beginning of the 2d 
quarter or end of the 1st, Manoel da Cunha was born of 
a slave mother in the city of Rio de Janeiro and was 
himself a slave belonging, like his mother, to the ante- 
cessors of the illustrious Canon Januario da Cunha Bar- 

It is well-known what afifection sometimes existed 
between the children of slave owners and those of their 
old family servants. 

Manoel had the good fortune to be thus esteemed by his 
young masters and mistresses, who treated him kindly and, 
finding in him an aptitude for painting, sent him to study 
in Lisbon the art of Raphael and Buenaroti. 

In a few years he painted as well as his masters, and, 

-518 - 

returning to Rio de Janeiro, worked with an ardor in- 
flamed by two motives — the love of his art and the strong 
desire of obtaining his liberty. 

In a short time he had earned a part of what was neces- 
sary to purchase his freedom, and obtained the rest from 
the charitable merchant, Jos6 Dias da Cruz, so that he was 
allowed to breathe the sweet air of liberty, and smile on 
its unspeakable charm. 

After being freed, he became still more industrious. He 
became a disciple of the famous master, Joao de Souza, and 
greatly distinguished himself. 

Manoel da Cunha acquired so great a reputation as an 
artist that he was selected by the city council to paint a 
full-length portrait of the captain-general, Gomes Freire de 
Andrade, Count of Bobadella, which, by order of the king, 
was hung in the hall where the council sat, and which 
is still preserved in the building of the municipal chamber. 

Among other works of Manoel da Cunha are the fol- 
lowing : 

The picture of the descent from the cross, painted on the 
ceiling of the chapel of Nosso Senhor dos Passes, in the old 
church of the Carmo convent, afterwards Royal, and 
finally Imperial, chapel ; that of Saint Andrew Avelinus, in 
the church of Sao Sebastiao do Castello ; various por- 
traits of benefactors of the Santa Casa da Misericordia of 
Rio de Janeiro ; several paintings commemorating the 
Passion of our Savior, which it was customary to carry in 
procession from the said Santa Casa on Holy Thursday ; 
the paintings on the walls and ceiling in novitiate chapel 
of the order of Sao Francisco de Paula, representing our 
Lady of Victory and the miracles of the patriarch 
St. Francis. 

Besides, he painted many portraits which are in the pos- 

— 519 — 
session of the families for which they were done, and a 
number of fancy paintings which have been lost sight of. 
He established a school of painting for twelve pupils, a 
number which he afterwards reduced to six, sending ofif 
those who showed less aptitude for the art and more for 
mischief. Age, sickness and exhaustion put an end to his 
life in 1809. 

The birthday of the poor slave who became a noted artist 
is not known ; neither is it known where he died ; but 
Dr. Manoel Duarte Moreira de Azevedo, after laborious 
researches, discovered in the obituary registry of the Hos- 
picio Church a note relating to the funeral of Manoel da 
Cunha, under the date of April 27, 1809. 

Competent authorities who have examined the works of 
Manoel da Cunha, greatly eulogize their merit, especially 
in consideration of his humble beginning, his narraw sphere 
of action and his limited resources, without masters, with- 
out living models, without originals or copies of the great 
masters, and moreover in consideration of the circumstan- 
ces of colonial Brazil in the 18th century. 




Domingos Ribeiro dos Guimaraes Peixoto was born in 
Pernambuco on the 14th of August, 1790. He was the le- 
gitimate son of Luiz Ribeiro Peixoto dos Guimaraes, and 
D. Josepha Maria da Gonceigao Peixoto. 

He studied the humanities in his native city, and after- 
wards went through a course of medical studies in the hos- 
pitals. Coming to Rio de Janeiro, he was admitted into the 
surgical school, and entered as a boarding pupil in the 
Military Hospital. 

He had barely finished the course of amatomy and physi- 
ology when he was commissioned (without a salary) to 
VOL. I 66 

— 522 — 

teach those sciences to the pensioners, who by order of 
the prince regent, had been brought from Africa. 

On May 12, 1812, he obtained his diploma as surgeon. 
Having been appointed first military surgeon, he was in 
1817 made surgeon of the Royal Household, and in 1820, 
of the Royal Bedchamber. Five years before he had been 
appointed vaccinator. 

In 1821 he was decorated with the Cross of the Order of 
Christ. On the 4th of February, 1822, he was commissioned 
with embalming the body of D. Joao Carlos, Prince of 
Beira, and on the 11th of March was accoucheur to the 
future Empress of Brazil when she gave birth to the Prin- 
cess D. Januaria. 

The same honor fell to his lot at the birth of the Prin- 
cess D. Francisca on the 2d of August, 1824, and of the 
Prince D. Pedro, present Emperor of Brazil, on the 2d of 
Decembei', 1825. 

On the latter happy occasion the Emperor D. Pedro I, 
embraced him in the presence of his court and invited the 
Empress to do likewise. 

In 1824 he was knighted, some months afterwards he 
received the title of Councilor, and in 1825 he was deco- 
rated with the Cross of the Order of Christ. 

On September 27, 1827, Councilor Peixoto, obtaining the 
Emperor's permission and a pension of fifty milreis a month 
during the time occupied in his studies, left for France for 
the purpose of perfecting his studies in medicine. 

In Paris he attended the medical school and visited the 

Well received on all hands he won considerable reputa- 
tion and was much esteemed by the most celebrated physi- 

The government of Brazil took away his pension and his 

- 523 — 

place and salary as chief surgeon of the Empire ; but the 
Emperor D. Pedro I gave him from his own private purse 
eight hundred milreis per annum, which he regularly re- 
ceived until he had completed his studies and obtained his 

In 1831 Councilor Peixoto hastened to meet the ex-Em- 
peror D. Pedro I after his abdication and arrival in Eu- 
rope, and was embraced by his august protector, as they 
wept together on board the frigate Volage. 

Councilor Peixoto returned to his native land with a di- 
ploma of Doctor from the Paris University, and preceded by 
the brilliant reputation which he had won in Europe. 

As physician of the Imperial Bedchamber, he had in 1833 
the good fortune to save the life of the Emperor D. Pedro II 
endangered by a serious malady. Tlie regency thanked him 
for this important service, offering him a pecuniary reward 
which he refused, accepting the title of First Physician to 
the Emperor and Imperial Family. 

On the organization of medical schools in the Empire, 
Councilor Peixoto was appointed director of that of Rio de 
Janeiro, and the professorship of physiology was graced 
and honored by his services. 

In 1841 he was appointed chief officer in waiting to the 
Imperial Household. 

On the 23d of February, 1845, Councilor Peixoto, who 
had been accoucheur on the birth of the Emperor 1). Pedro II, 
now acted in the same capacity on the birth of his son, the 
august prince-imperial D. Affonso. 

It was then that he was raised to a peerage with the title 
of Baron of Iguarassu. 

He died in the city of Rio de Janeiro on the 24th of 
April, 1856, at the age of 56, though he appeared much 

-524 - 

He was a learned, enlightened and experienced practi- 
tioner, a man of a noble heart and of the strictest inte- 

His eloquent and lucid explanations in the chair of pro- 
fessor of physiology were delivered with suavity of tone, 
fluency of speech, a profusion of ideas due to a profound 
knowledge of the subject, clearness of expression and 
purity of language ; at times gently flowing like a mur- 
muring brook among beds of flowers, at times rushing 
along with the irresistible momentum of a mighty river. 

The Baron of Iguarassii left to Brazil the inheritance 
of a glorious name. 


JORGE DE mmimi mm 

When D. John III, in 1534, divided Brazil into heredi- 
tary captaincies under administrators clothed with ex- 
taordinary powers and privileges, in order to promote the 
colonization of the country, he bestowed on Duarte Coelho 
Pereira the captaincy of Pernambuco whose coast ex- 
tended from the river S. Francisco to the Iguarassu. 

Duarte Coelho belonged to the time-honored lineage of 
the Coelhos and was married to D. Brites de Albuquerque. 

He devoted himself entirely to the captaincy of which 
.he was made donee, and it was there that his two sons 
were born, Duarte Coelho de Albuquerque in 1537, and the 
subject of this sketch, Jorge de Albuquerque Coelho on 
April 29, 1539. 

In 1554 when the distinguished and meritorious first 
donee of Pernambuco breathed his last, his sons were study- 

— 526 — 
ing in Lisbon, and the captaincy, delivered into the feeble 
hands of his widow, was threatened with extinction by 
the ferocious Cahete Indians. 

But b}' order of the regent D. Catharina, the two young 
men returned to Pernambuco in 1558. 

On their arrival, the elder as hereditary donee, confided 
to his brother the command of the forces, and the latter, 
going forth to meet the savages, inflicted on them a signal 
defeat, causing considerable slaughter and pursuing them 
to the forests in which they sought refuge. 

After these deeds, Jorge de Albuquerque remained in 
Pernambuco for some years ; but on tlie 16th of May, 
15(>5, he eml)arked for Lisbon in the vessel Santo A7ito7iio, 

This proved to be a terrible voyage. In the beginning, 
however, it was very successful ; but they were attacked 
by French pirates and after a prolonged resistance obliged 
to surrender. 

The captor and his prize were sailing in sight of each 
other when a furious tempest assailed them. The Santo 
Antonio, which was old and worn-out, seemed unable to 
resist the shock. The pirates, expecting to lose her, with- 
drew the crew with which they had manned her and 
removing every valuable from on board, left the old vessel 
and the Portuguese prisoners to the mercy of the waves. 

She had lost her masts and sprung several leaks. More 
than once she seemed ready to sink, but Jorge de Albu- 
querque inspired his men with courage and kept them at 
work until the storm was over ; the vessel, however, was^ 
unmanageable and floated at the mercy of the waves. 

After a while the provisions and water gave out ; Jorge 
de Albuquerque, maintained his authority, preventing 
suicides and inspiring trust in God. 

Many of the poor wretches perished, but finally the 

— 52f7 — 

vessel struck on Carcaes shallows, near the Tagus, and 
emptied on the beach her cargo of living corpses, who 
gratefully returned thanks to God for their wonderful 

In 1578 Jorge de Albuquerque (and likewise his brother) 
accompanied King Sebastian to Africa. On the 4th of 
August the fatal battle of Alcacer-Quivir was fought. 
D. Sebastian, losing his horse and pierced by a shot from 
the enemy, was in danger of falling into the hands of the 
infidels, when Jorge de Albuquerque, wounded and covered 
^vith blood, arrived on the spot and gave his charger to 
the King. He was shortly afterwards seen to fall in the 

midst of a group of the enemy and was left on the field 

for dead. 

The battle was won by the Moors. Jorge de Albuquerque 
had not died, but was picked up and carried a prisoner to 
Fez. For two years he remained in captivity, maimed by 
his wounds and obliged to use crutches. At the end of this 
time he was ransomed at a high price and returned to 
Portugal. His brother, who had been killed, already 
slept beneath the cruel sod of a foreign land. 

On his arrival in Portugal, Jorge de Albuquerque's heart 
was saddened and oppressed by finding his country under 
the dominion of Spain. 

By his brother's death he succeeded to the captaincy of 
Pernambuco, but such was the poverty to which he had 
been reduced that he was obliged, by the lack of means, to 
remain in Portugal, where he occupied his time in writing 
several moral and political works and a history of the war s 
in Brazil during the first colonial period. 

In Lisbon there was born to him a son, Duarte de Albu- 
querque Coelho. As soon as the latter was of age, his father 

gave him his blessing and sent him to Pernambuco to 
represent him as his heir. 

In 1596 Jorge de Albuquerque was still alive, a retired 
general in the Portuguese army, covered with glory and 
scars, and distinguished also for his literary labors. 

The year of his death is unknown. But his memory 
is not forgotten, for history preserves engraved on its 
brightest pages the name of this Brazilian hero who ever 
loved and cherished the land of his birth. 

OF .A.F£lXrj 



Nothing is known in regard to the exact dates of the 
birth and death of Pero de Magalhaes de Gondavo. It 
is certain, however, that he was born in the city of 
Braga and that he flourished in the 16th century. 

It is said that he fixed his residence in Brazil, or at 
least that he made a longer stay than would be occa- 
sioned by a mere visit to the country. 

Although these points are obscure, he has left his name 
inseparably connected with that of Brazil as its first 
historian, having written a summary account of its dis- 
covery by Pedro Alvares Cabral and of the manners and 
customs of the aboriginal inhabitants, together with 
some observations on the natural history of the coun- 
try. This work has the following title : — History of the 
'province of Santa CruZy vulgarly called Brazil; written 
by Pero de Magalhdes de Gondavo and dedicated to the 
VOL. I 67 

— 530 — 
illustrious D. Leonis, first Governor of Malacca and of 
other parts of Southern India. 

Besides this historical work, Gondav*) wrote a Trea- 
tise 07% the Land of Brazil, containing a Description of 
Things existing in that Country, printed for the first time 
in Vol. IV of the Collection of Notes for the History and 
Geography of the Ultramarine Nations. 

Pero de MagalhSes de Gondavo enjoyed in his time the 
reputation of a learned literateur and Latin scholar. 

Innocencio Francisco da Silva, in his valuable Porti^uese 
Bibliographic Dictionary y mentions another work of that 
writer — Rules for teaching the Orthography of the Por- 
tuguese Language, followed by a Dialogue in defense of 
the same Language. 

His first two works, the History and the Treatise — would 
no longer, nor even in the 17th century, be prized for 
their historical value; but Gondavo wrote shortly after 
the discovery of Brazil, about the time, it would appear, 
when this name began to be substituted for that of Santa 
Cruz, which in its turn had supplanted that of the Island 
of Vera Cruz, derived from a geographical error of Pedro 
Alvares Cabral. 

To those two small works of Gondavo belong the merit 
and glory of priority. They contain such information 
as it was possible to embody in them at that time. 

Gondavo was the venerable laborer of civilization, who 
laid the first stone of the foundation of Brazilian history. 

His name remains duly registered on the 30th of April, 
the day on which, in 1500, the timber was made ready for 
the Holy Cross which Pedro Alvares Cabral erected on 
the following day at Porto Seguro. 





I Salvador Corr^a do Sk o Benevides 1 

II Marcilio Dias 5 

III Manoel Antonio Galvao 9 

IV Casemiro Jos6 Marques de Abreu 13 

V Manoel Botelho de Oliveira 19 

VI Balthazar da Silva Lisboa 21 

VII Francisco Jos6 Furtado - 25 

VIII Jos6 da Natividade Saldanha 35 

IX Jos^ Joaquim da Rocha 39 

X Joao Fernandes Vieira 47 

XI Luiz Pereira da Nobrega de Souza Coutinho 51 

XII D. Damiana da Cunha 56 

XIII Vicente Coelho de Seabra 61 

XIV D. Paulo de iMoura, afterwards friar Paulo de Santa 
Calharina 65 

XV Bartholomeu Antonio Cordovil 69 

XVI Jeronymo Francisco Coelho 71 


XVII Joaquim Augusto Ribeiro 75 

XVIII Angelo Muniz da Silva Ferraz 81 

XIX Trajano Galvao de Carvalho 85 

XX Mem de SA 89 

XXI Henrique Luiz de Niemeyer Bellegarde 95 

XXII Marlini Affonso do Souza 99 

XXill Can lido Jos6 de Araujo Vianna, marquis de Sapucahy . . 103 

XXIV Friar Jos6 de Santa Rita Durao 115 

XXV Friar Paulo da Trindade 119 

XXVI Paraguassli Catharina Alvares 121 

XXVII Jacob Andrade Vellosino 125 

XXVIII Antonio Joaquim Franco de Sk 127 

XXIX Manoel Dias— The Roman 131 

XXX Gomes Freire de Andrade 135 

XXXI Antonio Jos6 Duarte de Araujo Gondim 139 


I Friar Don Francisco de Lima 141 

II Manoel Antonio Vital de Oliveira 143 

III Joao Poreira Ramos de Azeredo Coutinho 147 

IV Francisco de Souza 151 

V Diogo Antonio Foij(5 153 

VI Pedro do Albuquerque 161 

VII D. Romualdo do Souza Coelho 165 

VIII Emiliano Faustino Lins 169 

IX Diogo Gomes Carneiro 173 

X Friar Francisco Solano 175 

XI Jerony mo de Albuquerque Maranhao 177 

XII Pedro de Alcantara Bellegarde 183 

XIII Antonio de Padua Fleury 189 

XIV Manoel Jacintho Nogueira da Gama, marquis de Baependy. 193 

XV Candido Baptista de Oliveira 203 

XVI Andr6 Pereira Temudo 209 

XVII Jose Clemenle Pereira 213 

XVIII Donna Clara Camarao 819 


XIX Joanna Angelica 223 

XX Angelo do Siqueira 227 

XXI Jos6 Pereira Rebougas 229 

XXII Antonio Francisco Dutra e Mello 233 

XXIII Martim Francisco Ribeiro do Andrada 237 

XXIV Francisco Candido da Silva Torres e Alvim, viscount of 
Jerumirira 243 

XXV Jeronymo de Albuquerque 247 

XXVI Diogo Pinheiro Camarfto 251 

XXVII Belarmino de Mattos 263 

XXVIII Jose de Sa Bittencourt Accioli 259 


I Valentim da Fonseca e Silva 265 

II Jose Corr§a da Silva 269 

III Jos6 Antonio Marinho 273 

IV Jos6 Joaquim Carneiro de Campos, noarquis of Caravellas . 279 

V Manoel Ferreira de Araujo Guimaraes 283 

VI Don Francisco de Assis Mascarenhas, marquis of S. Joao 

da Palma *289 

VII Vasco Fornandes Cesar de Menezes, afterwards count of 
Sabugosa 293 

VIII Francisco Jo86 Soares de Andrea, baron of Ca^apava .... 297 

IX Antonio Ferreira Franca 305 

X Jos6 Pires de Carvalho Albuquerque 311 

XI D. Jose Joaquim Justiniano Mascarenhas Castello Branco. 313 

XII Francisco Xavier de Santa Thereza 317 

XUI Jose Martins Pereira de Alencastre 319 

XIV Euzebio de Mattos 323 

XV Antonio da Costa 327 

XVI Martim Affonso de Souza Ararigboia 331 

XVII Friar Jo86 da Natividade— o subtil 337 

XVIII Jos6 Borges de Barros 339 

XIX Joao da Silva Machado, baron of Antonina 343 

XX Donna Rosa Maria de Siqueira « 345 


XXI Domingos Borges de Barros, viscount of Pedra Branca. . 349 

XXII Joaquim Francisco do Livramento 353 

XXIII Estella Sezefreda dos Santos 361 

XXIV Joao Chrysostomo Callado 367 

XXY Antonio Augusto de Araujo Torreao 373 

XXVI Manool Odorico Mendes. 377 

XXVII Thom6 de Souza 381 

XXVIII Antonio Carlos de Mariz e Barros 387 

XXIX Jos^ Ignacio Ribeiro de Abreu Lima 393 

XXX Jose Pedro DiasVieira 397 

XXXI Joaquim Franco de S& 401 


I Seignot Planchor 405 

II Father Antonio Nunes de Serqueira 409 

III Friar Antonio de Santa Gertrudes 411 

IV Jose Lino Coutinho 413 

y Joao Carlos de WiLlagran Cabrita 417 

VI Jose Ignacio de Abreu Lima 421 

YII Jos6 Bonifacio de Andrada e Silva 427 

J VIII Joao Raraalho 439 

IX Joao Yieira de Carvalho, marquis of Lages 443 

X Francisco Corrfia Vidigal 449 

V^ XI D. Maria de Souza 451 

XII Friar Jos6 Mariano da Conceig&o Velloso 455 

XIII Gaspar Ribeiro Pereira 459 

XIV Manoel de Moraes Navarro 461 

XV Luiz Barbalho Bczerra 465 

XVI Antonio da Cunha Brochado 471 

XVII Thomaz Gomes dos Santos 4'73 

XVIII Father Jose Mauricio Nunes Garcia 477 

XIX Domingos Vidigal de Barbosa Lage 485 

^ XX Domingos Fernandes Calabar 487 

y XXI Joaquim Jose da Silva Xavier— Tiradentes. 


XXII Pedro Alvares Cabral, the discoverer of Brazil ^ . . 497 

XXIII Jos^ Ferreira Cardoso 501 

XXIV Joao Caetano dos Santos 503 

XXV Father Luiz Gonjalves dos Santos 509 

XXVI Joao Francisco Lisboa 513 

XXVII Manoel da Cunha 517 

XXVIIl Domingos Ribeiro dos Guimaraes Peixoto, baron of 

Iguarassd 521 / 

XXIX Jorge de Albuquerque Coelho 525 V 

XXX Pero de Magalhaes de Gondavo 529 

— •^-'^NJC'^VN^^